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Although the use of video may appear appealing to many coaches, little is known as to the effectiveness of this approach to training and match preparation. Often the assumption is made that if the players see what they are doing right or wrong, this will reinforce good or appropriate behaviour, also that the more information the players have the be...

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... Opta Sports™ and StatsPer-form™). Alongside the collection of metrics, PA also utilises video footage to further support the quantitative data as well as providing coaches and athletes with visual feedback to change behaviours and further develop understanding and awareness [3,4]. With increased multimodal technology, there has been an abrupt concomitant rise in available PA for coaches to influence their practices, selections, and tactics [2,5,6]. ...
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Professional coaches commonly rely on performance analysis and metrics to help make decisions regarding their practices, selection and tactics. However, few studies to date have explored coaches’ perspectives of performance analysts successful integration into the high-performance environment. The aim of this study was to investigate coaches’ philosophies surrounding performance analysis and how they perceived analysts could support and implement these approaches into coaching practices and match preparation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five professional elite level Rugby Union coaches to investigate their perceptions of performance analysis, and the contribution of performance analysts to the high-performance environment. Results revealed three main dimensions, including the role, purpose, and desired attributes of a performance analyst. Firstly, the role of the analyst was described in terms of being an information specialist , who collects, filters, and delivers information to stakeholders, and a generalist , who helps coaches utilise technology. Secondly, the purpose of the analyst was described in terms of providing both accountability and support for coaches and players. Finally, the attributes needed of an analyst included the ability to form a close relationship with coaches, communicate complex information in meaningful ways, and who was proactive, innovative, and creative when tasked with delivering information. The findings highlighted the crucial roles, purposes, and attributes of a performance analyst within high-performance Rugby Union identified by coaches and the importance of the coach-analyst relationship to support these dimensions.
... The key use of performance analysis-based debriefing in team sports is evident (Francis & Jones, 2014;Groom & Cushion, 2004;Groom et al., 2010;McArdle et al., 2010;Wright et al., 2016), however, there appears a lack of research surrounding individual sports, such as boxing. Albeit more limited, research within the feedback and debriefing domains for individual sports include Martin et al. (2018) and Nicholls et al. (2018);(2019). ...
... Such ease of use was identified by Mooney et al. (2016) as the most important user requirement of any tools incorporated within coaching. Groom and Cushion (2004) suggested that video facilitates recall, develops understanding, encourages self-reflection, provides the opportunity to reflect at a future time without emotions, and aims to improve athlete confidence (Francis & Jones, 2014 made similar inferences). The literature surrounding the duration of debriefing sessions appears to have progressed from 30-40 minutes sessions (Groom & Cushion, 2005) towards a much more condensed implementation of sessions lasting < 20 minutes in more recent research (Nicholls et al., 2018;Wright et al., 2013). ...
... As a result, it is important for the coach to focus the athlete's attention on the most important aspect from their performance within debriefing whilst limiting any potential negative impacts. Debriefing has psychological benefits that aid the athlete, namely, confidence and self-belief development, provide an understanding, reinforce correct performance, and provide a view often reserved for coaches (Groom & Cushion, 2004). The idea that confidence is positively impacted through this process was apparent throughout the interviews, for example, Coach 2: Its good and important for their psychological welfare and it can build that confidence which I keep coming back to, that confidence, that self -belief of completing the task at hand and as it is a solo sport, a quite aggressive, all on the line kind of sport the self-confidence needs to be sky high going into any of these events. ...
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The use of debriefing by 6 elite coaches (9-16 years' experience coaching professional boxers) and 6 professional boxers (minimum 3 professional bouts) was explored via interviews (25-40 minutes). Boxers represented the featherweight, welterweight, and heavyweight divisions. Interview questions were framed around, 1) the use of video and data analysis, 2) coach-athlete interaction, and 3) learning and development. The importance of data, video, and the effective integration of performance analysis to facilitate comprehensive feedback to maximise learning opportunities was identified. The coach-athlete relationship, and engagement of the athlete within the debriefing process emerged as an aspect needing continual micro-management to ensure ongoing effectiveness. The development of an "open and honest" relationship and a "safe space" to air thoughts and opinions was greatly encouraged. The length of debriefing session did not appear to impact overall engagement. The use of video debriefing to facilitate a coach's ability to develop the athletes mentally, in addition to their physical boxing capabilities, was a key and standout aspect that should be appropriately considered. The findings add to the limited investigation within boxing, providing insight into the debriefing processes within professional boxing by those on both sides, i.e. the coach and the athlete. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Therefore, a follow-up CPD educational workshop was conducted within the same club (see in Experiment B) in an attempt to modify the practice activities used by coaches to include active decision making. To explore the efficacy of different educational CPD methods, we adopted a video-based feedback-based methodology instead of the paper booklet used in Experiment A because it has been shown within an educational context to change coaches' nonverbal behaviours (Meeûs, Serpa, & De Cuyper, 2010), and soccer coaches and players have had positive experiences from engaging with video-based feedback when working on professional development and coaching practice (Groom & Cushion, 2004;Raya-Castellano, Reeves, Littlewood, & McRobert, 2020). ...
Article
We examined whether practice activities adopted by professional youth soccer coaches are modulated through the implementation of and engagement with cocreative evidence-based programs. Across two experiments, we used systematic observation to identify the practice activities of seven coaches across 134 sessions. In Experiment A, drill-based and games-based activities were recorded and quantified. To encourage behaviour change across the study, the systematic observation data were compared with skill acquisition literature to provide coaches with quantitative feedback and recommendations during workshops. Postworkshop systematic observation data indicated that practice activities used by coaches changed in accordance with the evidenced-based information (increase in games-based activities) delivered within the workshop. Interview data indicated that coaches typically stated that the workshop was a key reason for behaviour change. In a follow-up Experiment B, feedback and recommendations were delivered using an interactive video-based workshop. The systematic observation data indicated that coaches increased the use of soccer activities that contained active decision making with coaches citing the workshop as a key reason for behaviour change. These findings indicate that coaching practice activities can be supported and shaped through the implementation of cocreated workshops wherein coaches collaborate with sport scientists and researchers to bridge the gap between science and application.
... Time is needed for the development of research tools, validating new technologies, or new training methods. Conversely, analysts need to work faster to aid decision-making (Coutts, 2016), have a holistic view of performance determinants (Groom & Cushion, 2004;Williams & Kendall, 2007) and advise where athletes can improve. The main goal of a swimming researcher is to gather evidence-based knowledge, whereas an analyst is to deliver evidence-based recommendations to swimmers. ...
Article
Swimming analysts aid coaches and athletes in the decision-making by providing evidence-based recommendations. The aim of this narrative review was to report the best practices of swimming analysts that have been supporting high-performance athletes. It also aims to share how swimming analysts can translate applied research into practice. The role of the swimming analyst, as part of a holistic team supporting high-performance athletes, has been expanding and is needed to be distinguished from the job scope of a swimming researcher. As testing can be time-consuming, analysts must decide what to test and when to conduct the evaluation sessions. Swimming analysts engage in the modelling and forecast of the performance, that in short- and mid-term can help set races target-times, and in the long-term provide insights on talent and career development. Races can be analysed by manual, semi-automatic or fully automatic video analysis with single or multi-cameras set-ups. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of the swim strokes, start, turns, and finish are also part of the analyst job scope and associated with race performance goals. Land-based training is another task that can be assigned to analysts and aims to enhance the performance, prevent musculoskeletal injuries and monitor its risk factors.
... It is also transmitted to athletes (Wright et al., 2016). Currently, because it is vital to involve players in the pursuit of sports performance (Bampouras et al., 2012;Middlemas et al., 2018), high-level sports teams typically incorporate meetings into their training schedules in order to present information to their players (Groom and Cushion, 2004;Mesquita et al., 2005). ...
... Other analyses offer information on the strengths and weaknesses of rivals (Sarmento et al., 2015). This for the preparation of future matches is very useful (Groom and Cushion, 2004;Kraak et al., 2018). ...
... In addition, these reports took into account other types of information including the possible player changes during the course of the game, the characteristics of the coach, the characteristics of the court, the public, etc. (see Table 2). Because understanding the weaknesses and strengths of an opponent can help guide a team's strategic plan (Groom and Cushion, 2004), the above information was collected to help the study team prepare for future encounters with their opponents. ...
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The aim of the research was to know the perception of high-level volleyball players of the changes produced (in relation to the previous season) in the efficiency of the training process, after a match analysis intervention program based on the Constraint-led Approach (CLA). The sample consisted of 11 players from a women's volleyball team. The protocol of the intervention program consisted of providing objective, contextualised and systematic information to the coach (adapted to his needs) that would allow understanding the different real game contexts. We used semi-structured interviews to assess players' perceptions. The athletes perceived changes in training, both in their preparation and development, specifically in greater involvement and organisation in preparing the training; in an increase in the specificity and suitability of training tasks according to individual needs; in the representativeness of the restrictions of the game; in a more tactical approach; in the variability of task and in the accountability to achieve the objective proposed. In addition, in the preparation and development for competition, the players detected more game planning; a deeper analysis of the opponents; an objective selection of the most relevant data, an increase in the depth of match analysis and the inclusion of the weekly meeting with the use of video compared to the previous season. These results expose the benefits of coaches incorporate programmes to obtain objective information about the game in their training process.
... Performance analysis has evolved from statistical data collected by hand on paper to computer systems, where statistical information has been now linked to video (Groom & Cushion, 2004;Hughes & Franks, 2005). While, for some coaches, this evolution could be seen as a threat (Butterworth et al., 2012), for others, it is well accepted within the overall coaching process. ...
... Performance analysis can provide objective feedback, develop knowledge about the opponents and also about their game performance (Almeida et al., 2019;Butterworth et al., 2012). At the same time, it enables to develop their players in areas such as technical and tactical knowledge, critical thinking, decision-making and confidence (Groom & Cushion, 2004). Thus, coaches can use performance analysis data to provide information to their players through adaptation of training exercises, video analysis and also team meetings (Sarmento et al., 2015. ...
... Has it been highlighted by the available literature in performance analysis, the video would be a tool which would facilitate the analyses of the opponent/own team (Groom & Cushion, 2004;Hughes & Franks, 2004;Liebermann & Franks, 2004;McGarry, 2009). Because of the congested calendar, head coaches are not always able to carry out live observations of their opponents, despite enabling the analysis of environmental factors, which are not always perceptible on video. ...
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The study explored the perception of rink-hockey head coaches in relation to the use of performance analysis as a tool to assist training and match preparation, observation and interventions. Seven experienced First Division Portuguese rink-hockey head coaches were included in the study. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and the data were analysed through inductive and deductive content analyses. Several themes emerged from the interviews including “preparation/observation” and “intervention”. Rink-hockey head coaches prefer to analyse the opponents themselves to plan training, as well as to assist with tactical preparation and implement within-match strategies. They considered video analysis an important tool to analyse opponents’ strengths and weaknesses, with particular focus on the opponent’s goalkeeper. Seek to identify qualities and deficiencies in the opponents’ team and individual players. Focus the analysis of opponents’ teams on the five moments of the game. Training intervention involves the adaption of training exercises, whereby information is communicated during meetings. These data have implications both from a performance and a training practice perspective. Future research should focus on players and goalkeepers’ perspectives.
... Consequently, the use of frontal 2D imagery in 360 dynamic environments where the quality of task-relevant knowledge is imperative for accurate and quick decisionmaking should be challenged (Ferrer, Kitahara & Kameda, 2017). Coaches should seek to gain a better understanding of how players are learning by reviewing performance, and alternative approaches to coach-player feedback should be explored (Court, 2004;Groom & Cushion, 2004;Groom, Cushion & Nelson, 2011). ...
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Virtual reality (VR) technology has the potential to become the next performance measure in coaching by enhancing players' perceptual ability. This paper aims to analyze elite coaches' and performance analysts' perceptions of barriers to and opportunities for the adaptation of VR technology in football coaching. Following a pilot study, interviews were conducted with six elite coaches and performance analysts. Perceptions of the key barriers to VR's widespread adoption were the following: lack of conclusive evidence, practicality, quality of software, and cognitive overload. VR needs to overcome these barriers to be successfully integrated into contemporary coaching. Key opportunities included virtual models of play, for example, a virtual environment created by VR technology that exposes players to situations experienced in real environments. In addition, VR may be used to enhance player development by facilitating an environment in which players can develop their visual exploratory behavior and can acquire task-relevant information, resulting in faster decision making. Opportunities regarding player rehabilitation and solving isolated incidents were also identified. The authors conclude that VR technology has a developing role in coaching and has the potential to become a valuable supplement to current coaching methods for those actively seeking competitive advantage through technological advancement.
... Peter highlighted the selection of clips reinforcing players´ behaviours as a strategy to encourage certain actions: Although player self-esteem can be enhanced through positive verbalisations (Smith et al., 1978), not all the information must support player performance. Kieran suggested a positive balance with some negative clips communicated constructively to facilitate player improvement: Research proposes a ratio (1:1) with negative sequences followed by positive examples and negative clips reduced when a team or individuals lack confidence due to recent poor performances (Groom & Cushion, 2004;Reeves & Roberts, 2013). Krueger (2002) and Goudas et al. (2000) asserted that positive feedback reinforces positive behaviours and increases perceptions of task competency, whereas, negative feedback can challenge improvement and students´ knowledge to a greater extent. ...
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Despite the growing qualitative research examining the complexities underlying the delivery of video-feedback, no study has yet explored coaches’ actual behaviours within this environment. Thus, this study aimed to explore junior coaches´ behaviours and their underlying rationales during team-based video-feedback. Twenty-two in-season sessions delivered by four junior-elite coaches were filmed and analysed. Following previous studies and advised by a panel of experts, the tool employed was adapted from the Coach Analysis and Intervention System and the Arizona State University Observation Instrument, to represent the study context. Subsequently, semi-structured stimulated recall interviews were conducted to elucidate coaches´ thinking, understanding, and rationalising of their behaviours. Data indicated a prescriptive approach to coaching within the video-feedback environment. Feedback was the most employed behaviour of all coaches, followed by silence, player participation, convergent, and divergent questioning. One coach had player participation as their second most utilised behaviour. Findings demonstrated varied levels of understanding for each coach and evidenced three different types of cognitive dissonance or epistemological gap between coaches´ behaviours and understanding. Therefore, future coach development programmes, specific to video-based feedback, would need to consider each individual coach baseline behaviour and cognitions before intervening.
... Currently, there are few research studies which seek to explore the efficacy of particular practices and technologies within performance analysis environments. Whilst some studies (e.g., Butterworth et al., 2012;Groom & Cushion, 2004;Wright et al., 2012) have sought to discover general perceptions of coaches, players and analysts as to the use of performance analysis, few if any studies have examined specific technologies. Subsequently, there is little justification for the sometimes-considerable expenditure associated with such tools for making a marked improvement in feedback mechanisms. ...
... Vrbik and Vrbik (2018) have suggested that video demonstration has an enhanced outcome when compared to other methods of learning, citing the positive benefits and subsequent impact on the learning processes of motor tasks as well as aiding retention. In sport, video feedback is a hugely popular method, with several research studies citing the effectiveness of such sessions to aid skill execution and the development of game understanding (Boyer, Miltenberger, Batsche & Fogel, 2009;Groom & Cushion, 2004). With the aforementioned proliferation of technology, athletes now demand information in easily digestible and interactive methods. ...
... Telestration could be a vital tool in meeting these demands as well as combating some of the learning difficulties associated with these generations (Gibson, 2016;Monaco & Martin, 2007;Radcliffe, 2018). Knowing this, and that performance analysis is an integral part of the coaching process in modern football (Groom & Cushion, 2004;Hughes, 2007;Laird & Waters, 2008;Mackenzie & Cushion, 2013;Reeves & Roberts, 2013), it appears suitable for elite football to explore the use of telestration to aid learning in more detail. ...
Article
The proliferation of technology allowing performance analysis practices to become more efficient and effective has grown rapidly in recent years. One such tool that has become widespread amongst elite football clubs is the use of telestration software which allow annotations to be drawn over video footage to illustrate key tactical, technical, physiological or psychological facets in an interactive manner. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use and application of telestration tools in elite football. A descriptive research approach was employed, using detailed questionnaires to gain the views and perceptions of elite analysts, coaches and players. Findings confirm the widespread use of telestration tools in elite football with 93% of respondents stating that it is “essential-very important” to their practice. In particular, telestration is found to play an integral role in oppositional analysis, especially when introducing key tactical information in pre-match meetings. Numerous barriers associated with the use of telestration were also uncovered in this novel, contemporary research which may help set the foundations for further research into telestration tools in sports not limited to football.
... The effectiveness of applied performance analysis has been documented in football and rugby. Within these areas, studies have demonstrated the use of a performance analyst and coach combination, using video analysis techniques aided athlete recall, encouraged self-critique, expedited unemotional reflection on their performance and improved player confidence as well as changing athlete behaviour (Francis and Jones, 2014;Groom and Cushion, 2004). Performance analysis should therefore be considered a fundamental tool to facilitate athlete learning and development, and competitive success. ...
... This is complicated further by the reliance on self-analysis required as many equestrian partnerships train in relative isolation compared to equivalent partnerships in human sport. Parallels could be drawn with this complexity to the dynamics which exists in team sports in the human field, where performance analysis techniques have proved successful (Francis and Jones, 2014;Groom and Cushion, 2004). Scope therefore exists to apply performance analysis techniques across equestrian sport to gather objective data that will add to the developing evidence base to enable riders, trainers and coaches to make informed decisions when implementing training regimes and competition tactics to enhance equine performance and welfare. ...
Article
Performance analysis (PA) involves the systematic observation and analysis of factors identified to enhance performance to improve athlete decision-making in a specific sport. PA is commonplace in human sports, yet despite potential advantages, its application remains limited in equestrianism. This study aimed to evaluate if factors anecdotally associated with performance in elite showjumping influenced competitive success. 250 combinations attempting 3,052 jumping-efforts across 2 nd round European Fédération Equestre Internationale Nations Cup 2017 competition were analysed. Types of fault (e.g. pole down, refusal, etc.) were recorded as well as characteristics of the jump (e.g. jump type, approach angle). Combinations jumped clear at the majority of attempts (93.6; n=2,857) with faults only occurring at 6.4% of jumps (n=195). The most common faults were knock-downs (5.5%), time penalties (0.8%), faults at water jumps (0.3%) and refusal (0.2%). Faults were distributed across all fence types, however, were more common at upright fences (49%) and within combination fences (41%). A linear relationship was found between jumping-effort number and number of fences knocked-down (r=0.7; P<0.001). There were 2.8 times more knock-downs for the second half of the course (efforts 9-15) compared with jumping-efforts 1-7 (P<0.05). Faults were 4 times more likely at jumping-efforts 3, 4, 5 and 8 in the first half of the course (P<0.03) which increased to being 9 times more likely in the 2 nd half of the courses (jumping-efforts 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14; P<0.006). A straight approach to a jumping-effort reduced the chance of faults by 48% (P<0.0001) compared to a non-straight approach. These preliminary results suggest faults are not randomly distributed in elite showjumping and that patterns exist within fault accumulation demonstrating that the application of PA techniques in equestrian sport could lead to a performance advantage.