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Aim: The aim of the study was to determine whether positive psychological interventions (PPIs) in a primary health care setting would improve physical and mental health over time. Background: Most treatments for depression focus on reducing symptoms rather than on creating positive states of mental health. Empirical studies to verify the efficac...

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... the general US population, 20% are considered at risk for depression. Figure 1 shows the change in the percentage of participants at risk from baseline to follow-up. The power of the study was β = 0.94, assuming a medium effect size. ...

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... It is known that positive mood, life satisfaction, and happiness have an important role in preventing the development of mental disorders. It is also stated that these concepts both positively affect each other and are closely related to spiritual healing (Demirci et al., 2017;Lambert D'raven et al., 2015). Individuals with high levels of happiness are more likely to be more optimistic, more resistant to adverse environmental conditions, and more likely to develop effective coping skills to manage the stressful situation (Afshari et al., 2018;Tejada-Gallardo et al., 2020). ...
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This study aimed to determine the effects of the events during the COVID-19 epidemic on adolescents' levels of intolerance of uncertainty, internet addiction, happiness, and life satisfaction. Structural Equation Modeling was used in the analysis of the data. Adolescents' internet use increased during the epidemic process. It was found that COVID-19 events increased intolerance of uncertainty, and negatively affected internet addiction and happiness (p < 0.001). In this process, internet addiction and happiness is a mediator (p < 0.001). It is recommended to monitor adolescents' internet use during the COVID-19 process and to provide information about COVID-19.
... Campaign/year/author/organisation Theory The Student Compass (Räsänen et al., 2016) Theories of learning, SCTa Gratitude Group Program (Wong et al., 2017) Positive psychology (no specific theory mentioned) Happiness 101 (Lambert D'raven et al., 2015) Positive psychology (no specific theory mentioned) HEYMAN (Ashton et al., 2017) SCT Internet-based mindfulness training program (Mak et al., 2015) Health behavioral theory An electronic wellness program to improve diet and exercise in college students (Schweitzer et al.., 2016) HBM; TRA; SCT; SLT; TTMb RCT of a smartphone-based mindfulness Intervention to enhance well-being (Howells et al., 2016) Positive Activity Model by Lyubomirsky and Layous (2013) The well-being game (Keeman et al., 2017) The broaden and build theory and mindfulness theory ...
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... Scholars and experts are asking for new health interventions to support individuals' mental well-being [10]. Existing well-being interventions generally target health behaviors, including nutrition, physical activity, deep breathing exercises, relaxation exercises, mindfulness, meditation, gratitude practices (e.g., letter writing, journaling, three good things) and goal setting [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. In a previous review of 13 health interventions, eight claimed that their intervention was informed by theory; however, only four interventions specified the use of theory-based behavior-change methods, and only one intervention specified exactly how such behavior-change methods were mapped to the theory listed. ...
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... Seligman [48] also provided empirical evidence to highlight the conceptual difference between life satisfaction and happiness. Some researchers further explored the differences between life satisfaction and happiness through the effects from other factors such as positive mental health [49][50][51]. ...
... Empirical research typically indicates the antagonistic relation between life satisfaction and negative mental feelings [75,76]. In this regard, this research lends support to the call for a more focused approach to life satisfaction and happiness with a clear understanding of the effects of positive mental health [49][50][51]. ...
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... Likewise, clinicians and health researchers have investigated the role of savoring in treating autism (Cai et al., 2018) and anxiety disorders (Eisner et al., 2009); preventing depression (Ford et al., 2016); reducing pain (D'Raven et al., 2015); helping people cope with stress (Samios et al., 2020), cancer (Hou et al., 2017), and acquired physical disability (Dunn and Brody, 2008); repairing the negative effects of state dysphoric rumination (Stone et al., 2020); reducing the link between marijuana use and marijuana problems (Luba et al., 2020) and reducing pain and opioid misuse risk (Garland, 2021). Research with older adults has also investigated the role of savoring in promoting resilience (Smith and Hollinger-Smith, 2015) and positive attitudes toward aging (Bryant et al., 2021), improving physical health (Geiger et al., 2017), buffering the deleterious effects of illness on subjective well-being (Smith and Bryant, 2016), and lowering cardiovascular reactivity and boosting agency (Borelli et al., 2020). ...
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As research on savoring has increased dramatically since publication of the book Savoring: A New Model of Positive Experience ( Bryant and Veroff, 2007 ), savoring has gradually become a core concept in positive psychology. I begin by reviewing the evolution of this concept, the development of instruments for assessing savoring ability and savoring strategies, and the wide range of applications of savoring in the psychosocial and health sciences. I then consider important directions for future theory and research. To advance our understanding of how naturalistic savoring unfolds over time, future work should integrate the perceptual judgments involved in not only the later stages of attending to and regulating positive experience (where past research has concentrated), but also the initial stages of searching for and noticing positive stimuli. Whereas most research has investigated reactive savoring, which occurs spontaneously in response to positive events or feelings, future work is also needed on proactive savoring, which begins with the deliberate act of seeking out or creating positive stimuli. To advance the measurement of savoring-related constructs, I recommend future work move beyond retrospective self-report methods toward the assessment of savoring as it occurs in real-time. The development of new methods of measuring meta-awareness and the regulation of attentional focus are crucial to advancing our understanding of savoring processes. I review recent research on the neurobiological correlates of savoring and suggest future directions in which to expand such work. I highlight the need for research aimed at unraveling the developmental processes through which savoring skills and deficits evolve and the role that savoring impairments play in the etiology and maintenance of psychopathology. Research is also needed to learn more about what enhances savoring, and to disentangle how people regulate the intensity versus duration of positive emotions. Finally, I encourage future researchers to integrate the study of anticipation, savoring the moment, and reminiscence within individuals across time.
... 26 Además, se reporta que las enfermedades médicas crónicas aumentan la probabilidad de ideación suicida y el bienestar lo atenúa. 27 Al evaluar el marco teórico utilizado en los estudios destaca aquellos que lo abordan desde el concepto de felicidad hacen referencia al florecimiento, 32 intervenciones de psicología positiva, 32 componente de satisfacción por la vida, 26 sinónimo de satisfacción con la vida, 24 marco amplio de bienestar de varios conceptos positivos, 25 como bienestar subjetivo. 24,27,36 Aquellos que abordan inicialmente desde el bienestar subjetivo, no se refieren a felicidad 30,35 o refieren que es un sinónimo. ...
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Objetivo: Revisar evidencia disponible sobre mediciones, asociaciones e intervenciones basadas en bienestar subjetivo en atención primaria en salud. Método: Se realizó una revisión narrativa con una estrategia de búsqueda amplia para abarcar diferentes definiciones, escalas e intervenciones de bienestar subjetivo o felicidad en atención primaria hasta noviembre de 2017. Resultados: La revisión arrojó 105 estudios luego de remover los duplicados, de los cuales 14 eran elegibles para análisis. Se encontraron mayormente estudios transversales con autoreporte, y 3 estudios clínicos. Se describe en estudios clínicos un programa orientado a bienestar y dos intervenciones de consejería y promoción del ejercicio. Conclusiones: A partir de estos resultados no se pueden realizar recomendaciones clínicas, lo que nos lleva a plantear la necesidad de su medición, evaluación de intervenciones y educación al personal. Objective: To review the available evidence on measurements, associations and interventions based on subjective well-being in primary health care. Method: A narrative review was carried out with a broad search strategy to cover different definitions, scales and interventions of subjective well-being or happiness in primary care until November 2017. Results:The literature search resulted in 105 studies after removing duplicates, 14 of which were eligible for analysis. We found mostly cross-sectional studies with self-report, and 3 clinical studies. A well-being oriented program and two counseling and promotion of physical exercise interventions are described in clinical studies. Conclusions: From these results, clinical recommendations cannot be made, which leads us to raise the need for their measurement, evaluation of interventions and staff education.
... The Student Compass [66] Journaling, relaxation exercises After a 7-week intervention, participants showed significantly higher gains in well-being, life satisfaction, and mindfulness skills. In addition, iACT participants' self-reported stress and symptoms of depression were significantly reduced Gratitude Group Program [67] Gratitude journaling After a 5-week intervention, participants showed a significant and clinically meaningful decrease in psychological distress and increase in state gratitude, satisfaction with life, and meaning in life Happiness 101 [68] Mindfulness, gratitude, goal setting After a 6-week intervention, scores improved from baseline to 6-month follow-up for health, vitality, mental health, and the effects of mental and physical health on daily activities. Improvements in mental and physical health and functioning were shown over a 6-month period HEYMAN [29] Nutrition, physical activity After a 3-month intervention, significant effects were found for daily improving vegetable servings; energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods; weight; BMI; fat mass; waist circumference; and cholesterol ...
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In recent years, the relevance of eHealth interventions has become increasingly evident. However, a sequential procedural application to cocreating eHealth interventions is currently lacking. This paper demonstrates the implementation of a participatory design (PD) process to inform the design of an eHealth intervention aiming to enhance well-being. PD sessions were conducted with 57 people across four sessions. Within PD sessions participants experienced prototype activities, provided feedback and designed program interventions. A 5-week eHealth well-being intervention focusing on lifestyle, habits, physical activity, and meditation was proposed. The program is suggested to be delivered through online workshops and online community interaction. A five-step PD process emerged; namely, (1) collecting best practices, (2) participatory discovery, (3) initial proof-of-concept, (4) participatory prototyping, and (5) pilot intervention proof-of-concept finalisation. Health professionals, behaviour change practitioners and program planners can adopt this process to ensure end-user cocreation using the five-step process. The five-step PD process may help to create user-friendly programs.
... Most studies on BPS have, however, been conducted among nonclinical populations. A few studies suggest that BPS used in combination with other PPIs may also be helpful among clinical populations including outpatients and primary care patients experiencing mild to moderate depressive symptoms (Lambert D'raven et al., 2015;Pietrowsky and Mikutta, 2012), inpatients with suicidal ideation (Huffman et al., 2014) and patients with chronic health conditions including cardiac disease, diabetes and pain-related illnesses (Gibson et al., 2021;Huffman et al., 2011;Molinari et al., 2018;Müller et al., 2016;Peters et al., 2017). Among the latter studies, all but one were offered remotely primarily through the internet using a minimally monitored model of delivery, i.e., a term coined by Robichaud et al. (2020) to refer to a model with no clinician contact in which procedures such as a screening process and supportive emails are used to promote patient engagement. ...
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Examination of people's narratives after significant life changes revealed that engaging in current and future goal reconstruction was associated with higher levels of well-being while a failure to disengage from “what might have been” was associated with lower levels of well-being. This work led to the development of a life goal writing intervention that has received empirical support with most studies conducted among nonclinical populations. This study aims to assess the feasibility of a brief and minimally monitored internet-delivered writing therapy developed to facilitate life goal reconstruction among adults diagnosed with various chronic health conditions. Sixteen adults showing mild to moderate levels of anxiety or depression were recruited and a single group pretest/post-test design used. The 5-week program is comprised of psychoeducation, five weekly 30-min writing sessions, automated emails and symptom monitoring. Feasibility outcome measures included attrition, treatment adherence, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness. Primary outcome measures were The Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7). Attrition was low (12%) and adherence high (93%). All but one study completer reported they would recommend the program. Mixed effects models revealed a significant and large reduction from pre-treatment to post-treatment on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 and remission rates of 67% and 64% respectively. These findings suggest that it would be feasible to proceed to a larger trial. The brief duration of the intervention combined to a minimally monitored delivery may lend itself to implementation in routine clinical care milieus such as hospital settings.
... De los artículos revisados, 8 son estudios transversales(25-31), 4 son estudios clínicos (32)(33)(34)(35), una revisión crítica de bibliografía sobre bienestar entorno a su fundamento(36) y la experiencia en la implementación de un programa (37). En la tabla 1 se describe el tipo de estudio, país y población. ...
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RESUMEN: Introducción: La felicidad o bienestar subjetivo presenta beneficios en la morbimortalidad tanto de la población sana como aquella que padece una enfermedad. Al ser la atención primaria en salud un eje central en el cuidado es necesario conocer la evidencia disponible sobre mediciones, asociaciones e intervenciones a este nivel. Método: Se realizó una revisión narrativa con una estrategia de búsqueda amplia para abarcar diferentes definiciones, escalas e intervenciones de bienestar subjetivo o felicidad en atención primaria hasta noviembre de 2017. Resultados: La revisión arrojó 105 estudios luego de remover los duplicados, de los cuales 14 eran elegibles para análisis. Se encontraron mayormente estudios transversales con autoreporte, y 3 estudios clínicos. Se describe en estudios clínicos un programa orientado a bienestar y dos intervenciones de consejería y promoción del ejercicio. Conclusión: De estos resultados no se pueden realizar recomendaciones clínicas, lo que nos lleva a plantear la necesidad de su medición, evaluación de intervenciones y educación al personal
... The nature or branding of an intervention, for example, was reported to reduce the felt sense of stigma. The 'Happiness programme' [51] is an example of how simple labelling could destigmatise an intervention. Studies of face-to-face individual CB therapies found that people experienced a sense of stigma from engaging in therapy whereas those receiving remote individual CB therapy appeared to feel that their privacy was enhanced and stigma therefore reduced. ...
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Background: Globally, national guidelines for depression have prioritised evidence from randomised controlled trials and quantitative meta-analyses, omitting qualitative research concerning patient experience of treatments. A review of patient experience research can provide a comprehensive overview of this important form of evidence and thus enable the voices and subjectivities of those affected by depression to have an impact on the treatments and services they are offered. This review aims to seek a comprehensive understanding of patient experiences of psychological therapies for depression using a systematic and rigorous approach to review and synthesis of qualitative research. Method: PsychINFO, PsychARTICLES, MEDLINE, and CINAHL were searched for published articles using a qualitative approach to examine experiences of psychological therapies for depression. All types of psychological therapy were included irrespective of model or modes of delivery (e.g. remote or in person; group or individual). Each article was assessed following guidance provided by the Critical Appraisal Skill Programme tool. Articles were entered in full into NVIVO and themes were extracted and synthesized following inductive thematic analysis. Results: Thirty-seven studies, representing 671 patients were included. Three main themes are described; the role of therapy features and setting; therapy processes and how they impact on outcomes; and therapy outcomes (benefits and limitations). Subthemes are described within these themes and include discussion of what works and what's unhelpful; issues integrating therapy with real life; patient preferences and individual difference; challenges of undertaking therapy; influence of the therapist; benefits of therapy; limits of therapy and what happens when therapy ends. Conclusions: Findings point to the importance of common factors in psychotherapies; highlight the need to assess negative outcomes; and indicate the need for patients to be more involved in discussions and decisions about therapy, including tailoring therapy to individual needs and taking social and cultural contexts into account.