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When running indoors on a treadmill, the lack of air resistance results in a lower energy cost compared with running outdoors at the same velocity. A slight incline of the treadmill gradient can be used to increase the energy cost in compensation. The aim of this study was to determine the treadmill gradient that most accurately reflects the energy...

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... The speed for the submaximal protocol was selected at a pre-defined level and increased by 1 km·h −1 every 4 min, with 3 min of running at a constant speed [46,47] followed by a 1 min break for capilliarized fingertip blood sample collection. The gradient was maintained at 1% [48] with rating of perceived exertion (RPE; 0−10 scale) and HR assessed in the final 30 s of each running stage. For the . ...
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There is current scientific interest in naturally sourced phenolic compounds and their potential benefits to health, as well as the effective role polyphenols may provide in an exercise setting. This study investigated the chronic effects of supplementation with a biodynamic and organic olive fruit water phytocomplex (OliPhenolia® [OliP]), rich in hydroxytyrosol (HT), on submaximal and exhaustive exercise performance and respiratory markers of recovery. Twenty-nine recreationally active participants (42 ± 2 yrs; 71.1 ± 2.1 kg; 1.76 ± 0.02 m) consumed 2 × 28 mL∙d−1 of OliP or a taste- and appearance-matched placebo (PL) over 16 consecutive days. Participants completed a demanding, aerobic exercise protocol at ~75% maximal oxygen uptake (V˙ O2max) for 65 min 24 h before sub- and maximal performance exercise tests prior to and following the 16-day consumption period. OliP reduced the time constant (τ) (p = 0.005) at the onset of exercise, running economy (p = 0.015) at lactate threshold 1 (LT1), as well as the rating of perceived exertion (p = 0.003) at lactate turnpoint (LT2). Additionally, OliP led to modest improvements in acute recovery based upon a shorter time to achieve 50% of the end of exercise V˙ O2 value (p = 0.02). Whilst OliP increased time to exhaustion (+4.1 ± 1.8%), this was not significantly different to PL (p > 0.05). Phenolic compounds present in OliP, including HT and related metabolites, may provide benefits for aerobic exercise and acute recovery in recreationally active individuals. Further research is needed to determine whether dose-response or adjunct use of OliP alongside longer-term training programs can further modulate exercise-associated adaptations in recreationally active individuals, or indeed support athletic performance. Keywords: polyphenols; OliPhenolia®; hydroxytyrosol; exercise; oxygen uptake kinetics; lactate threshold; running economy
... On their last visit (Fridays), the participants performed a 5000-m time trial on a 400-m outdoor track. Testing in the laboratory was performed on a motorised treadmill (saturn 300/100, h/p/cosmos sports & medical GmbH, Nussdorf-Traunstein, Germany) with a constant gradient of 1 % [26]. According to the guidelines of the manufacturer, the participants wore a safety belt, which was connected to the automatic security brake system of the treadmill. ...
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Endurance running performance can be predicted by maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), the fractional utilisation of oxygen uptake (%V̇O2max) and running economy at lactate threshold (REOBLA). This study aims to assess maximal lactate accumulation rate (ċLamax) in terms of improving running performance prediction in trained athletes. Forty-four competitive female and male runners/triathletes performed an incremental step test, a 100-m sprint test and a ramp test to determine their metabolic profile. Stepwise linear regression was used to predict 5000-m time trial performance. Split times were recorded every 200-m to examine the ‘finishing kick’. Females had a slower t5k and a lower V̇O2max, ċLamax, ‘finishing kick’ and REOBLA. Augmenting Joyner’s model by means of ċLamax explained an additional 4.4% of variance in performance. When performing the same analysis exclusively for males, ċLamax was not included. ċLamax significantly correlated with %V̇O2max (r = -0.439, p = 0.003) and the ‘finishing kick’ (r = 0.389, p = 0.010). ċLamax allows for significant (yet minor) improvements in 5000-m performance prediction in a mixed-sex group. This margin of improvement might differ in middle-distance events. Due to the relationship to the ‘finishing kick’, ċLamax might be related to individual pacing strategies, which should be assessed in future research.
... Cycling and running are the traditional and most practiced en durance exercise modalities. In cycling, the external load is com monly monitored by the power generated [in watts (W)] [8], while in running, the variable used to determine the external load is speed/velocity [9,10]. For both cycling and running, the internal load can be monitored through a variety of methods, including ox ygen uptake (VO 2 ), blood lactate (BLa), heart rate (HR), HR varia bility, perception of effort (RPE), biochemical evaluations (hormo nal and immunological), sleep quality, cognitive load, training im pulse, among others [6,11,12]. ...
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Endurance training results in diverse adaptations that lead to increased performance and health benefits. A commonly measured training response is the analysis of oxygen uptake kinetics, representing the demand of a determined load (speed/work) on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic systems, providing useful information for the prescription of constant load or interval-type aerobic exercise. There is evidence that during high-intensity aerobic exercise some interventions prescribe brief interval times (<1-min), which may lead to a dissociation between the load prescribed and the oxygen uptake demanded, potentially affecting training outcomes. Therefore, this review explored the time to achieve a close association between the speed/work prescribed and the oxygen uptake demanded after the onset of high-intensity aerobic exercise. The evidence assessed revealed that at least 80% of the oxygen uptake amplitude is reached when phase II of oxygen uptake kinetics is completed (1-2 minutes after the onset of exercise, depending on the training status). We propose that the minimum work-time during high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions should be at least 1 minute for athletes and 2 minutes for non-athletes. This suggestion could be used by coaches, physical trainers, clinicians, and sports or health scientists for the prescription of high-intensity aerobic interval training
... However, the subjects had access to the buttons on the treadmill that are used to increase or decrease the speed. The treadmill was held constant at a 1% grade, which results in a similar level of energy expenditure compared to outdoor running on level ground when speed is held constant [43]. Prior to exercise, the subject was fitted with the HR monitor and then sat quietly for 2 min so that resting HR could be acquired. ...
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Purpose To compare session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE) and affective responses (sAR) with segmented session responses, which involve separate ratings for the first and second halves of exercise, for self-paced treadmill exercise. Methods Thirty recreationally active participants (15 men, 15 women; 20.3 ± 1.6 year) attended 2 treadmill exercise sessions. Session 1 involved a VO2max test. RPE (OMNI Scale) and AR (Feeling Scale) were rated at the end of each stage. Session 2 involved 20 min at self-paced intensity. Adjustment of speed was allowed at 5-min increments. RPE and AR were rated at the end of each 5-min. 20-min post-exercise, Session and Segmented Session RPE and AR were rated in random order. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used to compare acute exercise with Session and Segmented Session values. Results Both sRPE (4.6 ± 1.5) and mean Segmented—sRPE (4.1 ± 1.5) were similar to mean acute RPE (4.4 ± 1.4) although mean Segmented—sRPE was significantly less than sRPE (p = 0.002). In addition, both sAR (2.8 ± 1.6) and mean Segmented—sAR (2.8 ± 1.4) were similar to mean acute AR (2.8 ± 1.5). Conclusion Session and Segmented Session RPE/AR provided estimates of the global exertional or affective responses to self-paced treadmill exercise that represented the average of acute exercise responses. These post-exercise ratings may provide additional information regarding the perceptual and affective memory of different segments of the previous exercise and may be useful for tracking exercise programs.
... Blood lactic acid is one of the biochemical markers commonly used to monitor exercise fatigue (Theofilidis et al., 2018). Secondly, among physiological markers, several studies have used heart rate as a fatigue evaluation marker (Jones and Doust, 1996;Goh et al., 2011;Mizuno et al., 2017a). In addition, RPE, as one of the psychological markers, is a good marker for monitoring the level of fatigue during prolonged exercise (Hausswirth et al., ...
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Background: Knee injury is common in half-marathon runners, however, the effect of compression running pants on fatigue and knee proprioception remains unclear. Objectives: The study aims to investigate whether wearing compression running pants (CRP) and treadmill running stages affect knee proprioception and fatigue-related physiological responses during half-marathon running. Methods: Eighteen half-marathon runners completed two self-paced 21 km treadmill running trials, once wearing CRP and once wearing loose running shorts (LRS). For each 21 km run, RPE, heart rate, blood lactic acid, and knee flexion proprioception were assessed before starting, and after each 7 km stage. Results: Data analysis revealed no difference between CRP and LRS conditions in heart rate, RPE, or blood lactic acid. Repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant garment condition main effect whereby wearing CRP was associated with higher knee proprioceptive acuity ( p = 0.006). Polynomial trend analysis showed a significant linear downwards trend in proprioceptive acuity across the four measurement occasions ( p = 0.048). Stage analysis showed that wearing CRP was associated with better knee proprioception at running distances of 14 km ( p = 0.007, 95%CI = -0.054, -0.010) and 21 km ( p = 0.016, 95%CI = -0.051, -0.006). Conclusion: Compression running pants provide an overall positive effect on knee proprioception, particularly after 14 km and 21km, which may reduce the probability of knee injury. CRP had no significant effect on physiological measures in half-marathon running.
... En el segundo, tercer y cuarto día, los participantes realizaron tres pruebas de carrera en diferentes superficies: cinta de correr motorizada (h/p/cosmos pulsar® 3p, h/p/cosmos sports & medical gmbh. Nußdorf, Alemania) con 1 % de inclinación para replicar el coste energético de la carrera al aire libre (Jones & Doust, 1996), cinta curva no motorizada (Bodytone ZRO-T, Bodytone International Sport S.L., Molina del Segura, España) y sobre suelo. De manera similar, los corredores realizaron un calentamiento de 8 minutos, que también les permitió familiarizarse con la superficie (Arnold et al., 2019), seguido de una prueba de 30 minutos al 80 % de la VAM individual. ...
... For the incremental submaximal test, the participant completed an eight-stage exercise test on a motorized treadmill (Woodway ELG70, Cranlea & Co, Birmingham, UK) with the gradient set at 1% incline [26], a starting speed of 8 km·h −1 with increments of 0.75 km·h −1 , and each stage lasting 4 min. During the final 90 s of each stage, expired air was collected in Douglas bags for analysis. ...
... The treadmill was set to 1% gradient [26] and 10.5 km·h −1 for the 2 h run, completing a half marathon distance in speed for 2 h at an intensity of 58% . VO 2max. ...
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Physical training for ultra-endurance running provides physiological adaptations for exercise-induced substrate oxidation. We examined the effects of New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on running-induced metabolic and physiological responses in a male amateur ultra-endurance runner (age: 40 years, body mass: 65.9 kg, BMI: 23.1 kg·m−2, body fat: 14.7%, V˙O2max: 55.3 mL·kg−1·min−1, resting heart rate: 45 beats·min−1, running history: 6 years, marathons: 20, ultra-marathons: 28, weekly training distance: ~80 km, weekly running time: ~9 h). Indirect calorimetry was used and heart rate recorded at 15 min intervals during 120 min of treadmill running (speed: 10.5 km·h−1, 58% V˙O2max) in an environmental chamber (temperature: ~26 °C, relative humidity: ~70%) at baseline and following 7 days intake of NZBC extract (210 mg of anthocyanins·day−1) with constant monitoring of core temperature. The male runner had unlimited access to water and consumed a 100-kcal energy gel at 40- and 80 min during the 120 min run. There were no differences (mean of 8, 15 min measurements) for minute ventilation, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production and core temperature. With NZBC extract, the respiratory exchange ratio was 0.02 units lower, carbohydrate oxidation was 11% lower and fat oxidation was 23% higher (control: 0.39 ± 0.08, NZBC extract: 0.48 ± 0.12 g·min−1, p < 0.01). Intake of the energy gel did not abolish the enhanced fat oxidation by NZBC extract. Seven days’ intake of New Zealand blackcurrant extract altered exercise-induced substrate oxidation in a male amateur ultra-endurance runner covering a half-marathon distance in 2 h. More studies are required to address whether intake of New Zealand blackcurrant extract provides a nutritional ergogenic effect for ultra-endurance athletes to enhance exercise performance.
... The participants ran indoor on a motorised treadmill (NordicTrack T8.5S, NordicTrack, Utah, USA) in their usual running footwear at a 1% incline with a fan to mimic outdoor running [17] (Fig 1). During running, VO was measured using video analysis and four wearable devices designed to measure VO during running: INCUS NOVA (INUCS Performance Ltd., Loughborough, UK), Garmin HRM (Garmin Ltd., Southampton, UK), Garmin RDP (Garmin Ltd., Southampton, UK), and Stryd Footpod (Stryd, Colorado, US). ...
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Wearable devices are a popular training tool to measure biomechanical performance indicators during running, including vertical oscillation (VO). VO is a contributing factor in running economy and injury risk, therefore VO feedback can have a positive impact on running performance. The validity and reliability of the VO measurements from wearable devices is crucial for them to be an effective training tool. The aims of this study were to test the validity and reliability of VO measurements from wearable devices against video analysis of a single trunk marker. Four wearable devices were compared: the INCUS NOVA, Garmin Heart Rate Monitor-Pro (HRM), Garmin Running Dynamics Pod (RDP), and Stryd Running Power Meter Footpod (Footpod). Fifteen participants completed treadmill running at five different self-selected speeds for one minute at each speed. Each speed interval was completed twice. VO was recorded simultaneously by video and the wearables devices. There was significant effect of measurement method on VO (p < 0.001), with the NOVA and Footpod underestimating VO compared to video analysis, while the HRM and RDP overestimated. Although there were significant differences in the average VO values, all devices were significantly correlated with the video analysis (R > = 0.51, p < 0.001). Significant agreement between repeated VO measurements for all devices, revealed the devices to be reliable (ICC > = 0.948, p < 0.001). There was also significant agreement for VO measurements between each device and the video analysis (ICC > = 0.731, p < = 0.001), therefore validating the devices for VO measurement during running. These results demonstrate that wearable devices are valid and reliable tools to detect changes in VO during running. However, VO measurements varied significantly between the different wearables tested and this should be considered when comparing VO values between devices.
... Traditionally, running performance capabilities including . VO 2max assessment are performed in level conditions with existing or adjusted tests as "VamEval" or the "Université de Montréal track" tests [20], or with a minor slope gradient (1-2%) when performed in treadmill conditions [21]. Classic tests cannot be performed in a slopes condition without adjusting the speed protocol to ensure physiological exhaustion [22] and lead to maximal oxygen consumption instead of peak values [23,24]. ...
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Trail running (TR) is performed in a natural environment, including various ranges of slopes where maximal oxygen consumption is a major contributor to performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the validity of tests performed in uphill conditions named the “IncremenTrail” (IncT), based on the incremental ascending speed (AS) to evaluate trail runners’ cardiorespiratory parameters. IncT protocol included a constant gradient slope set at 25% during the whole test; the starting speed was 500 m·h−1 (25% slope and 2.06 km·h−1) and increased by 100 m·h−1 every minute (0.41 km·h−1). Twenty trail runner specialists performed the IncT and a supramaximal exercise bout to exhaustion with intensity set at 105% of maximal AS (Tlim). Oxygen consumption, breathing frequency, ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate were continuously recorded during the exercises. The blood lactate concentration and rate of perceived exertion were collected at the end of the exercises. During the IncT test, 16 athletes (80%) reached a plateau of maximal oxygen uptake (65.5 ± 7.6 mL·kg−1·min−1), 19 athletes (95%) reached RER values over 1.10 (1.12 ± 0.02) and all the athletes achieved blood lactate concentration over 8.0 mmol·L−1 (17.1 ± 3.5 mmol·L−1) and a maximal heart rate ≥90% of the theoretical maximum (185 ± 11 bpm). Maximal values were not significantly different between IncT and Tlim. In addition, ventilatory thresholds could be determined for all runners with an associated AS. IncT provided a suitable protocol to evaluate trail runners’ cardiorespiratory limitations and allowed us to obtain specific intensities based on the ascending speed useful for training purposes in specific conditions.
... Diverse studies have reported results of the comparison between the HR responses attained during running overground and on level-grade treadmill (Brookes et al., 1971;Ceci & Hassmén, 1991;Chu et al., 2010;Di Michele et al., 2009;Jones & Doust, 1996;Köklü et al., 2020;Kunduracioglu et al., 2007;Maksud et al., 1971;McMurray et al., 1988;Miller et al., 2019;White et al., 1998;Yngve et al., 2003). Athletes and non-athletes have been evaluated, and constant and progressive incremental protocols have been proposed. ...
... Among other findings, they reported higher HR values for track in both test sessions at the three levels of exercise (p < 0.001). On the other hand, in an attempt to establish the treadmill gradient that better reflects the energy cost of outdoor running, Jones and Doust (1996) found no significant differences when comparing the HR measurements collected in motorized treadmill tests at 0% (flat) and 1% grades with the ones obtained in a level road test. A series of six running speeds were considered, and the subjects under study were nine trained male runners (24.9±5.2 years); the range of speeds was from 2.92 to 5.00 m·s −1 (10.5 to 18.0 km·h −1 ), which was almost identical to the one proposed in the present study. ...
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Heart rate is a conventional indicator of exercise intensity. Diverse studies have reported results of the comparison between the heart rate responses attained during running overground and on a treadmill; non-unanimous conclusions have emerged. The intention of this study was to compare the exercise intensity through heart rate between progressive running tests performed on track and level-grade treadmills. The heart rate responses of twelve highly trained male athletes were analyzed (Age = 24.3±2.7 years). The running protocol had initial and final speeds of 11 km·h−1 and 18 km·h−1, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 200 m. Two tests were performed: on an outdoor 400 m track, and a level-grade motorized treadmill under laboratory conditions. An innovative data analysis approach was proposed, by using a linear mixed-effects model, with the Test and Speed stage and their interaction as fixed factors, and the Subject as a random factor; a suitable correlation structure was also specified. The statistical significance level was set at p < 0.05. The difference between tests was not significant (F = 0.06, p = 0.81). The interaction effect between the Test and Speed stage was also not significant (F = 1.32, p = 0.19). Exercise intensity as measured by heart rate showed similar mean responses in track and level-grade treadmill running across a wide range of speeds in well-trained athletes.