FIGURE 1 - uploaded by Mutasem El-Fadel
Content may be subject to copyright.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
This article presents an assessment of indoor air quality at a bus terminal. For this purpose, field surveys were conducted, and air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of selected indoor air quality indicators. Mathematical modeling was performed to simulate bus emission rates, occupational exposure, and ventilation requirements t...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... depending on operations and activities that occur within a specific environment. (1) These air pollutants have been associated with various health-related illnesses with significant socio-economic impacts resulting in the development of IAQ occupational standards ( Table I). (2 , 3) Using such standards, IAQ has been the subject of numerous investigations in the past few decades focusing primarily on: (1) measuring indoor air pollutant concentrations; (4) (2) defining indoor pollutant sinks and sources; (5) (3) relating outdoor levels to indoor concentrations; (6 − 8) or (4) conducting risk assessment of individual exposure. (9) This study presents an IAQ assessment at the main bus terminal facility in Beirut City. For this purpose, field surveys and observations were conducted to characterize the terminal and bus fleet conditions. Carbon monoxide (CO) and total suspended particulate (TSP) matter were used as IAQ indicators and air samples were collected and analyzed for their level in the air. The selection of CO and TSP (TSP designates atmospheric particulate smaller than 40 μ m in diameter) as IAQ indicators was mainly based on their correlation with diesel emissions in addition to their attributed health problems. (While CO exerts its health effects after binding with hemoglobin in the capillaries of the lungs, TSP deposit in the upper or lower respiratory tract depending on the particle size). Mathematical models were then applied to simulate bus emission rates, occupational exposure, and pollutant concentration profiles for various ventilation rates. A sensitivity analysis is presented to evaluate uncertainties associated with temperature effect on emission rates. IAQ control measures at the terminal are also addressed and study limitations are discussed. A flow chart of the overall assessment methodology is depicted in Figure 1. The terminal is located along a side street leading into a main Public concern over indoor air quality (IAQ) has increased arterial road that constitutes the northern entrance to the Beirut dramatically in recent years as hundreds of pollutants from var- central business district. The general area is mixed residential ious indoor and outdoor sources have been identified in indoor and commercial with little to no industrial activities, which The terminal is located along a side street leading into a main arterial road that constitutes the northern entrance to the Beirut central business district. The general area is mixed residential and commercial with little to no industrial activities, ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
The chemical complexity of emissions from bitumen applications is a challenge in the assessment of exposure. Personal sampling of vapours and aerosols of bitumen was organized in 320 bitumen-exposed workers and 69 non-exposed construction workers during 2001-2008. Area sampling was conducted at 44 construction sites. Area and personal sampling of v...
Article
Full-text available
Nanomaterials present new challenges to understanding, predicting, and managing potential health risks in occupational environments. In this study, we characterize the key physical processes related to formation and growth of nanoparticles. The main focus is on various occupational environments, as these are known to be major environments with nano...
Article
Full-text available
Several samplers (IOM, CIP 10-I v1, ACCU-CAP, and Button) were evaluated at various wood industry companies using the CALTOOL system. The results obtained show that compared to the CALTOOL mouth, which can be considered to be representative of the exposure of a person placed at the same location under the same experimental conditions, the concentra...
Article
Full-text available
Assessment of inhalable dust exposure requires reliable sampling methods in order to measure airborne inhalable particles' concentrations. Many inhalable aerosol samplers can be used but their performances widely vary and remain unknown in some cases. The sampling performance of inhalable samplers is strongly dependent on particle size and ambient...

Citations

... children) to protect their exposure from emissions infiltrating into the buses during idling. The law enforces the bus drivers to put off their engines while waiting at the traffic intersections, during loading and unloading at the school or elsewhere [38]. Unlike ambient air quality standards in India which have been first proposed in 1988 and further upgraded in 2009, no indoor air quality standard protocols or guidelines for IAQ monitoring in different indoor environments (i.e. ...
Article
Study of indoor air quality (IAQ) has received attention of the researchers and policy makers over the last several years due to its affiliation with the adverse health effects and occupants’ discomfort. This article focuses on the importance and need of IAQ studies in Indian rural and urban indoor environments. A number of questions in this context are posed and addressed, together with identifying the allied research gaps and missing links in the existing literature. Also discussed are the technical challenges to carry out the IAQ studies in India, and the initiatives and future road map required to overcome them.
... 48 Because people spend a significant amount of time indoors, studies were conducted to assess population exposure to pollutants in various types of micro-environments. In this context, elevated levels of traffic-related pollutants have been observed inside and near commuting micro-environments, such as automobiles, buses, bicycles, trains, ferries, trams, airplanes, sidewalks, parking garages, and lots, 13,14,19,28,29,55,61,67,74 with private passenger cars having one of the highest levels as a result of the low body position and low intake point of the ventilation system leading to a close contact with the exhaust of other vehicles. The poor air quality inside vehicles explains the complaints of nauseas and motion sickness after prolonged commuting trips. ...
Article
Full-text available
Vehicle-induced emissions constitute a major source of air pollutants, particularly in urban areas, where heavy traffic is common occurrence. Contaminated air can flow into enclosed micro-environments, including vehicle compartments. Among various exhaust emissions, carbon monoxide (CO) was the first indicator examined in passenger compartments. This paper presents a critical review of worldwide research work conducted to characterize CO exposure inside vehicles. Measurement methodologies for field testing are presented alongside impacts of various factors on in-vehicle CO exposure, including outdoor CO levels, roadway type, ventilation mode, weather conditions, and vehicle characteristics. Results of in-vehicle CO exposure measurements in various cities are compared. Modeling efforts to characterize in-vehicle CO exposure and relate it to potential explanatory factors are also discussed. Based on the review findings, limitations and future needs are defined.
Article
Full-text available
This study describes a spatio-temporal characterization of concentrations of BTEX in ambient air of four hot spots (bus terminals) in the megacity of Tehran. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate cancer risk and non-cancer risk owing to BTEX exposure in three age groups (< 6, 6 to<21 and 21 to<81 years). The average toluene to benzene ratios for the four intercity bus terminals were 2.63 (summer) and 2.88 (winter). Furthermore, the mean xylenes to benzene and ethylbenzene to benzene ratios in the two seasons for all stations ranged from 3.33 to 4.40 (summer) and 2.13–2.80 (winter), respectively. There was insignificant difference in BTEX levels between working and non-working days owing to the lack of change in vehicular traffic during the full week. Factors promoting BTEX formation in the study region were fuel evaporation, gas stations, diesel bus emissions, and a lack of hydroxyl radicals (%OH) for reacting with the target compounds. Calculations suggested that cancer risk for benzene and ethylbenzene in three age groups at the four bus terminals exceeded values recommended by U. S. EPA. In addition, the hazard quotient for BTEX in both seasons for different age groups ranged between 1.23×10−5 and 3.58×10−1, values of which were lower than reference levels. Carcinogenic emissions such as with benzene and ethylbenzene discharged by bus terminals impact the growing population in the study region, which requires additional action to reduce health effects.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Bus terminal represent a significant air pollution problem. The use of diesel engines by public transport vehicles results in several air pollutants inside the bus termini. The major source of poor air quality includes industrial activities and traffic pollution that might have great deterioration impact upon the public health and surrounding environment. The main pollutant resulting from bus exhaust emissions are, by mass, carbon dioxide (CO2), Sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbons (HC), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and BETEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and the three isomers of xylene). Bus fleets represent a significant part of inner city traffic. The present study aimed to assess air quality of bus terminal stations in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study was conducted at different bus terminal stations in Eastern Province. The location was chosen randomly. Air quality monitors were used for analyzing VOCs, CO, CO2, NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations. BETEX and PM fractions were measured by applying infrared spectroscopy techniques and dust collection calibrated devices respectively. Results: Data of indoor and outdoor air pollution revealed that levels of NO2, SO2, CO, VOCs, PM10, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1.0 are higher than the permissible exposure limits and Saudi air quality guidelines in bus stations terminal in Dammam, Alhassa and Hafr Albatin bus stations garage, parking and waiting area in morning and noon time respectively. Conclusions: Ambient concentrations of gaseous and particulate air pollutants are above international guidelines at the different bus terminal sites in eastern provinces and these represent environmental and health risk for public and surrounding environment.
Chapter
Current air pollution management and air quality control are primarily focused on outdoor and atmospheric issues. In major cities today with large numbers of shopping malls, offices and public administration centers which act as public spaces, contaminated indoor air could be public health hazards. In Singapore, diagnosing the causes of “sick building syndrome” is as important as treating outdoor pollution as its workforce is increasingly service-oriented and many of whom spend a substantial amount of time working in air-conditioned premises. It is known that indoor air quality (IAQ) can be easily and adversely affected by gas pollutants which are internally generated or infiltrated from external sources. One important and practical example is carbon monoxide (CO) which can be emitted at high concentration levels in an urban structure by burning of tobacco and incense, and by incomplete combustion from gas stoves and fuel engines used in renovation work. In this research, the decay rates of CO concentration (ppm) in air were measured accurately using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the 2,050–2,230 cm–1 wavenumber region. High levels of CO were obtained from sidestream environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). From the modeling of the decay curves of CO concentration with time, the air exchange rates in air change per hour (ACH) were derived for six different ventilation rates. They were found to be from 2.53 to 8.63 ACH. The ventilation rates for CO contained in a chamber were varied using different window areas. Half-lives of the CO decays at six different air exchange rates were also determined and found to decrease from 16.4 to 4.8 min as the air exchange rate increases. The implications of air exchange rate on the decay of indoor CO in ETS were discussed with reference to IAQ in air-conditioned buildings in Singapore, and to IAQ in general urban settings.
Chapter
Introduction CO Exposure and Dosimetry Mechanisms of CO Toxicity Populations at Risk of Health Effects Due to CO Exposure Regulatory Background Health Effects of CO Summary and Conclusions Acknowledgments References
Article
In-vehicle carbon monoxide (CO) concentration profiles were monitored in a passenger vehicle driven along a heavily traveled route of a commercial/residential area of Beirut, Lebanon, under several ventilation modes. Trips were conducted during morning rush hours in spring and summer time. Concomitant monitoring of car-exterior CO level, ambient CO level and wind speed was also undertaken. The highest mean CO exposure was experienced for the “windows closed, vents closed” and “windows closed, AC on recirculation” ventilation settings, with mean CO levels of 37.4 and 30.8 ppm, respectively, exceeding the 1-h air quality guidelines. The exposure was less significant for other ventilation modes with respective mean values of . Mean car-exterior CO levels were lower than the 1-h air quality guidelines, but exceeded the 8-h CO exposure guidelines. Ambient CO levels were low and non-representative of the personal exposure of individuals neither inside nor in the vicinity of road vehicles. In-vehicle CO levels revealed moderate to good correlations to out-vehicle CO levels for ventilation modes allowing for outdoor air intake, and no correlation to ambient CO levels and wind speed. Infiltration as a result of indoor–outdoor air exchange and intrusion from engine combustion/exhaust infiltration constituted the main sources of observed in-vehicle CO levels.