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Velocity and temperature distribution of tungsten carbide powder (WOKA 9010) while spraying with Met Jet II HVOF system using spray watch

Velocity and temperature distribution of tungsten carbide powder (WOKA 9010) while spraying with Met Jet II HVOF system using spray watch

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The main objective of this paper is to study the slurry erosion and corrosion behavior of WC10Co4Cr, Armcore ‘M’ Stellite 6 and 12 HVOF coatings, TiAlN PVD coating, selected steels, such as X20Cr13, 17Cr–4Ni pH steel and Ti6Al4V titanium alloy alongwith conventional hard weld deposits of Stellite 6 and 21. The slurry erosion studies were carried ou...

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Context 1
... applying HVOF coatings on test samples, the velocity and temperature distribution of WC10Co4Cr pow- der during HVOF spraying were determined by spray watch. These are given in Table 3. It can be seen from Table 3 that tungsten carbide particle velocities are in the range of 750-800 m/s and temperatures are in the range of 1750-1800 • C. ...
Context 2
... are given in Table 3. It can be seen from Table 3 that tungsten carbide particle velocities are in the range of 750-800 m/s and temperatures are in the range of 1750-1800 • C. These are the most optimum values for HVOF spraying. ...

Citations

... This procedure was used to eliminate errors during coating thickness measurement. According to trials conducted in previous investigations [88][89][90], the thickness of the coating on inserts was fixed as 2.50 μm. A micro-coat meter (Fischer coating tester) was used for measuring the coating thickness. ...
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Research investigations conducted in the past has shown that conventional petroleum based lubricants can be replaced with vegetable lubricants. Vegetable oil lubricants do not pollute the environment, as they are biodegradable. In this investigation, pongamia pinnata oil was used as lubricant, to during turning experiments. The physico chemical properties of modified pongamia pinnata oil were evaluated. Ag Nanoparticles were incorporated into the modified pongamia pinnata oil and it was subjected to tribological investigations. In this investigation, the effect of Ag nanoparticles in improving the lubricating aspects of the modified pongamia pinnata oil was studied. The aim of this investigation is to identify the effect of the nanoparticle incorporated bio- lubricant coolant on Monel K 500. In this study, using TiAlN coated triangular tungsten carbide inserts, Monel K 500 was subjected to turning under three conditions such as dry, minimum quantity lubrication and Ag nanoparticles incorporated vegetable oil lubrication. It was observed that the properties of the bio lubricant affected the turning output responses to such as cutting force, machining temperature, tool wear and surface roughness of the workpiece (Monel K 500). Machined surface was evaluated using scanning electron microscope, electron back scatter diffraction analysis and X-Ray diffraction analysis. Turning operation conducted with 2% Ag nanoparticles incorporated modified pongamia pinnata oil lubrication was better than turning conducted under dry and lubricated conditions. Industrial wastes and toxic effluents can be minimized by switching over to bio lubricants and coolants.
... Lack of coating on the offshore structures and facilities, including valves, especially on non-corrosion resistant materials carbon steel, is considered the main reason for the failure of structures, facilities, including valves in recent research [6,7]. The other current study states that the proper external coating of the valves in an offshore environment is known as the best strategy to prevent external corrosion [8,9]. Two essential types of valve coating used for the offshore environment are epoxy and thermal spray aluminum. ...
Article
Coating for corrosion protection of metallic substrates such as steel and alloys has attracted tremendous attention and interest in the offshore industry. The main reason for coating importance is to prevent external corrosion , and corrosion management is a vital issue in the oil and gas industry. Although previous studies have emphasized coating applications, failures, and surface preparation, it is worth dedicating this study to surface preparation methods, particularly for industrial valves in the offshore oil and gas industry before coating implementation to prevent coating failure. Surface preparation is one of the crucial factors concerning the performance of any coating system in terms of coating durability, perme-ability, and adhesion. The motivation for this research is to prevent coating premature failure. Coating failure has severe negative impacts, including financial loss, substrate mechanical or corrosion damage, costly rework costs, and downtime. Various surface contaminants such as mill scale, dirt, dust, rust, salt, etc., and four cleaning methods of chemical cleaning, water jet, blast cleaning, and mechanical cleaning, are included in this review. A proper sequence and selection of mentioned methods are discussed in this study to provide effective metal surface cleanliness before coating.
... In addition, this alloy shows excellent resistance to fatigue and creep, as well as to corrosion at high temperatures [16][17][18]. During the coating procedure, Stellite 6 shows the formation of many intermetallic compounds able to improve the surface resistance of coated metallic components; nevertheless, the fracture Powders 2022, 1 63 behavior at very thin levels must be well understood to apply this material for coatings and repair [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. In fact, it is demonstrated that coating voids are favored in the presence of carbides and oxides [27]. ...
Article
Stellite-6 powders were sprayed on Ni-Al bronze in order to produce coatings via high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF). The microstructural observations revealed the main mechanisms taking place for the substrate–coating adhesion. It was revealed that tungsten-rich particles are very active in improving the coating adhesion as well as the mechanical properties. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating material showed pronounced peak broadening, revealing high residual stresses related to excellent bonding to the substrate. As expected, the coating procedure led to an increase in surface hardness. The surface properties of the coatings were evaluated through cyclic three-point bending tests at different maximum loads. It was demonstrated that the main part of the fatigue life is spent in the crack initiation stage, with a short propagation stage. Obviously, this behavior decreases as the maximum cyclic stress increases. The micro-mechanisms taking place during cyclic loading were evaluated through fracture surface observations via scanning electron microscopy. View Full-Text
... Suspended sand particles in oil and gas flow cause erosion of critical components such as flow line parts, valves, and submersible multi-phase pumps. Synergetic corrosive loss to such components because of chlorides, sulphides, and other impurities in the raw oil and gas can also lead to leakage and early failures [20,21]. Cavitation erosion is related to mechanical damages, while corrosion is an electrochemical process. ...
Article
Components working under harsh environments in power generation, marine, and aerospace sectors are subjected to severe surface degradation because of wear, corrosion, and erosion by solid particles, slurry, silt, and cavitation. Carbide-based materials exhibit high resistance to degradation under such conditions because of their high hardness and chemical stability. These carbides can be effectively deposited as coatings on the components using advanced thermal spray techniques such as plasma spraying, HVOF, and HVAF. The carbide-based thermal spray coatings are majorly based on either WC or Cr3C2 or a combination of these materials. However, the composition of the carbides, the type and percentage of binders, and process parameters significantly affect the performance of these coated components. In this article, the degradation behavior and performance of the different carbide-based coatings as a function of carbide grain size and type of metallic binders, spray process parameters, and working conditions have been critically reviewed. On the other hand, the post-processing of carbide coatings is also emerging as a promising strategy to enhance the performance by modifying and refining the structure of coatings. Hence, a comprehensive summary of the post-processing techniques such as heat treatment, laser treatment, and cryogenic treatment of the carbide coatings is also provided.
... Insbesondere werden in diesem Bereich die Werkstoffe WC/CoCr und Cr 3 C 2 /NiCr als Beschichtungen verwendet. Beschichtungen aus WC/CoCr liefern einen hohen Verschleißschutz und werden unter anderem in stark erosiv beanspruchten Armaturen, wie beispielsweise in Absperrventilen in der Ölindustrie verwendet [1,2]. Beschichtungen aus Cr 3 C 2 /NiCr bieten zudem einen hohen Korrosionsschutz und finden bei der Regulierung von Wasserdampf oder Gasen Anwendung, z. ...
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de In dieser Studie wird die Entwicklung verschiedener thermisch gespritzter Beschichtungen für den Einsatz im Armaturenbau diskutiert. Basierend auf etablierten Verschleißschutzschichten der Armaturenindustrie wurden verschiedene Festschmierstoffe in diese Beschichtungen integriert, um das Verschleiß- und Reibungsverhalten bei anwendungsnahen Belastungen für Armaturen zu verbessern. Für die Anwendungen wurden Verschleißschutzschichten auf Basis von WC/CoCr und Cr3C2/NiCr entwickelt. Als Festschmierstoffe wurden nickelumhülltes Graphit und hexagonales Bornitrid untersucht. Die Verfahrensvarianten Hochgeschwindigkeitsflammspritzen mit Sauerstoff (HVOF) und das neuartige Ultrahochgeschwindigkeitsflammspritzen (UHVOF) wurden untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass durch eine passende Beschichtungszusammensetzung eine Reduktion des Verschleißes von 53 % und der Reibung von 31 % unter anwendungsnahen Belastungen möglich ist. Translation abstract en This study discusses the development of various thermally sprayed coatings for the use in the valve industry. Based on established coating systems for wear protection, different solid lubricants were integrated into these coatings in order to optimize the wear and friction behavior at application oriented loads. Wear protection coatings based on WC/CoCr and Cr3C2/NiCr were applied. As solid lubricants, nickel-encapsulated graphite and hexagonal boron nitride were investigated. The thermal spraying processes high velocity oxygen fuel flame spraying (HVOF) and the novel ultra high velocity flame spraying (UHVOF) were investigated. The results show that through an appropriate coating composition a wear reduction of 53 % and a friction reduction of 31 % are possible.
... Under Turenne test method, majority of the research carried is concerned with hydraulic industries, as five test setups were developed to evaluate material for its applications [68,76,79,85,87]. Next major research is on material used for offshore gate valve applications, two test set-ups were developed [61,73], later, each test set-ups were developed to investigate the material for sewage, sludge pump [60], and for nuclear industries application [101],, respectively. Jet Materials' erosion also depends on the type and size of erosive particles. ...
Article
Slurry erosion is a common phenomenon found in fluid handling systems and processing industries. The components used in such systems and industries experience serious surface damage due to continuous interaction with flowing fluids. Hence, the components fall short to work of its lifetime. Selection of materials for such applications is a challenge for the designers. In this article, an attempt has been made to develop a slurry jet erosion test rig to evaluate such materials. Brass is used as the candidate material to evaluate the test rig with and without erodent. The material weight loss for different impingement angles is presented. Micrographs show the traces of erosion marks. These results are presented in the article to show the operation and performance of the test rig.
... Casting, forging, machining, joining, and powder metallurgy are the dominant conventional processing techniques of Ti-6Al-4V [18,19]. Slurry erosion on conventionally processed Ti-6Al-4V has been studied by several authors under different conditions over the years [13,15,[20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. The general outcome of all studies has been poor erosive wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V, and it is recommended that hardness and yield strength should be enhanced to increase the erosion resistance. ...
... Thanks to these advantageous characteristics, Ti-6Al-4V has emerged as a powerful alloy for a wide field of applications. In addition to its wide use in surgical instruments and medical implants, it is currently used as a material for aerospace components (i.e., engine compressor blades and disks and helicopter rotor blades) [7][8][9], marine and offshore components (i.e., marine ship hulls, propellers, tubes, and shells) [1,10,11], oil and wastewater systems components (i.e., valves, pipelines, pipe fittings, and pumps) [12][13][14], hydropower plant components (i.e., turbine blades, pumps) [15][16][17], and architectural cladding and roofing [11]. These components are typically exposed to slurry erosion, where the working surfaces are continuously impacted by a stream of a slurry mixture. ...
... Materials 2020,13, 3967 ...
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Erosion and erosion-corrosion tests of as-built Ti-6Al-4V manufactured by Selective Laser Melting were investigated using slurries composed of SiO2 sand particles and either tap water (pure water) or 3.5% NaCl solution (artificial seawater). The microhardness value of selective laser melting (SLM)ed Ti-6Al-4V alloy increased as the impact angle increased. The synergistic effect of corrosion and erosion in seawater is always higher than erosion in pure water at all impact angles. The seawater environment caused the dissolution of vanadium oxide V2O5 on the surface of SLMed Ti-6Al-4V alloy due to the presence of Cl- ions in the seawater. These findings show lower microhardness values and high mass losses under the erosion-corrosion test compared to those under the erosion test at all impact angles.
... are not the only considerations in erosion wear as the large number of particle impacts is a fatigue process [20][21][22]. Coatings for erosion applications such as for gas turbine blades typically consist of carbide or nitride metal ceramics however high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings are also seen in marine applications where corrosion resistance is required too [23][24][25][26][27]. Metal nitrides are seen in use for aerospace applications; the erosion rate is seen to decrease with surface hardness for these coatings and multi-layers are seen to beneficial [21]. ...
Article
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DLC coatings have seen recent use as protective coatings for flow control devices in the oil and gas industries. Improving fatigue resistance for multi-layered DLC coatings on hardened steel is key for improving their performance in this harsh environment of highly loads repetitive contact. This has been studied directly by micro-scale repetitive impact tests at significantly higher strain rate and energy than in the nano-impact test, enabling the study of coating fatigue with spherical indenters and dry erosion testing. Nano-impact has also been used to assess the initial fatigue behaviour of the coatings. Good correlation between micro-impact results and erosion results was found. Hard multi-layered a-C:H and Si-a-C:H coatings were found to be significantly less durable under fatigue loading than a-C:H:W. The influence of the coating mechanical properties and structure on these differences is discussed. The results of this study provide further strong evidence that in highly loaded mechanical contact applications requiring a combination of load support and resistance to impact fatigue, the optimum lifetime of coated components may be achieved by designing the coating system to combine these properties rather than by solely aiming to maximise coating hardness as this may be accompanied by brittle fracture and higher wear.
... Under Turenne test method, majority of the research carried is concerned with hydraulic industries, as five test setups were developed to evaluate material for its applications [68,76,79,85,87]. Next major research is on material used for offshore gate valve applications, two test set-ups were developed [61,73], later, each test set-ups were developed to investigate the material for sewage, sludge pump [60], and for nuclear industries application [101],, respectively. Jet Materials' erosion also depends on the type and size of erosive particles. ...
Article
Full-text available
Slurry erosion as problem was identified during World War II in oil and munitions industries. Industrial components were severely damaged due to interaction with fluid and particles inclusion, resulted in huge financial losses. To evaluate the erosion, slurry erosion test set-ups were developed. In this article, slurry jet erosion test set-ups developed are reviewed and are classified based on the erosive particles induction method. Each test set-ups are named after the initial test set-up originators, namely Levy, Turenne, Hutchings, and Thapa test method, respectively. Test set-ups are further categorized into premixing and postmixing type and recirculation and non-recirculation of slurry type. For each test method, number of researchers adopted the test method and number of research articles published by the researchers are illustrated. Emphases are made on the erosion test parameters viz velocity, nozzle diameter, concentration, and erosive particles type and size. From the literature, it is observed that Turenne test method is the most popular test method, while Levy test method is the less popular method; based on adoption of test method by the researchers. For the test parameters, Thapa method is with high velocity (117.3 m/s) while Hutchings method is with low velocity (1.5 m/s) and Hutchings method is with high concentration (40 wt%) while Thapa method is with the lowest concentration (0.0015 wt%).
... The primary technique is to place the coating on substrate. A number of deposition methods are used such as the detonation-gun spray process [46], oxy fuel powder process [47,48], wire arc spraying process [47], high velocity oxy fuel process [48], physical vapor deposition [49], laser surface alloying [44], plasma and flame spray methods (thermal sprayed coatings) [50]. There are also other techniques that enhance the resistance of slurry wear, e.g. ...
Article
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Slurry erosion is a serious menace in most of the hydro machine components all around the globe. Slurry erosion is accountable for heavy economic losses. However, some counter measures are being taken to mitigate the effect of sand particles passing through hydro-machine parts and research is also underway to improve the component surface by applying different surface coatings. Laser cladding is a surface deposition process that is used to achieve very good metallurgical bonding with minimum porosity as compared to other surface coating techniques. In this research paper, an attempt has been made to compile the literature related to laser cladding technology, its applications, process parameters, coating materials and their effectiveness to bestow solutions to various types of surface degradation with special emphasis on slurry erosion problems. This paper will serve as a reference for the researchers working in the area of slurry erosion prevention.