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e Hydrogen pipeline networks in the North Europe and the Gulf Coast of Mexico (USA) (a) North-Europe (Benelux and France) and in the Ruhr area of Germany [355]; (b) Linde hydrogen pipelines in Central Germany [355]; (c) air product hydrogen pipelines on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in US [372]; (d) Praxair hydrogen pipelines on the Gulf coast (USA) [373]. 

e Hydrogen pipeline networks in the North Europe and the Gulf Coast of Mexico (USA) (a) North-Europe (Benelux and France) and in the Ruhr area of Germany [355]; (b) Linde hydrogen pipelines in Central Germany [355]; (c) air product hydrogen pipelines on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in US [372]; (d) Praxair hydrogen pipelines on the Gulf coast (USA) [373]. 

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The current carbon-based energy system is undergoing a profound change driven by the increased concerns over the longevity and security of energy supply, as well as energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide and air pollutions. The evolutionary trend of this transition is toward a smart energy network of the future that is characterized by widespre...

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... industries. The main countries operating hydrogen pipelines are the Benelux countries, France (northern area), Germany (Ruhr and Leipzig areas), UK (Teesside), US (Gulf of Mexico, Tex- aseLouisiana, California, Alberta). Other smaller systems exist in Italy, Sweden, Singapore, South Africa, Brazil, Thailand, Korea, and Indonesia etc. [355,357]. Fig. 9 shows the hydrogen pipeline networks in the Gulf of Mexico of US and the North Europe in which the network of Benelux-France has a total length of 946 km (187 km in the Netherlands, 613 km in Belgium, and 164 km in France) [355]. Mostly, these hydrogen pipelines are operated at the pressures of <100 bar. It is known that the size of a ...

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