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different Placental products used as medicine and cosmetics 

different Placental products used as medicine and cosmetics 

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The healing properties of placental extract are well established in various skin conditions, including chronic wounds, pressure ulcers and burns. However, its biochemical composition and mechanisms of action are still largely unknown.

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... It is also reported that the extract pro- motes fibrogenesis (development or proliferation of fibres or fibrous tissue), neoangiogenesis and epithe- lialisation. 22 Use of placental products A wide variety of placental products manufactured in different countries are available (Table 1). A good number are used for therapeutic purposes and the rest mainly as skin creams and lotions. ...

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... In addition, this strategy often includes harsh physical procedures and toxic ingredients, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or Triton-X 100, to reduce the DNA from the tissue effectively, and by that, the extracted ECM often contains only fragmented proteins. 9,10,50,[72][73][74] For instance, toxic ionic detergents such as SDS are reported to be effective to remove cytoplasmic and nuclear cellular membranes from tissues. 9,19,21,25,28,29 However, SDS tends to denature ECM proteins. ...
... In addition, this strategy often includes harsh physical procedures and toxic ingredients, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or Triton-X 100, to reduce the DNA from the tissue effectively, and by that, the extracted ECM often contains only fragmented proteins. 9,10,50,[72][73][74] For instance, toxic ionic detergents such as SDS are reported to be effective to remove cytoplasmic and nuclear cellular membranes from tissues. 9,19,21,25,28,29 However, SDS tends to denature ECM proteins. ...
Article
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Background: The natural extracellular matrix (ECM) provides the optimal environment for cells. Many enzymatic or non-enzymatic based strategies to extract ECM proteins from tissues were published over the last years. However, every single isolation strategy reported so far is associated with specific bottlenecks. Experiment: In this study, frequently used strategies to isolate extracellular matrix (ECM) from human placenta or adipose tissue using Tris-, serum, or pepsin-based buffers were compared. The resulting ECM proteins were biochemically characterized by analysis of cellular remnants using HOECHST DNA staining, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content by dimethylemethylene blue (DMMB), visualization of protein bands using SDS PAGE analysis combined with amino acid quantification and assessment of the pro-angiogenic profile using an angiogenesis array. Results: Tris-NaCl extracted ECM proteins showed a high heterogenic degree of extracted proteins, bioactive growth factors and GAGS, but no collagen-I. Active serum extracted ECM showed significant lower DNA remnants when compared to the Tris-NaCl isolation strategy. Pepsin-extracted ECM was rich in collagen-I and low amounts of remaining bioactive growth factors. This strategy was most effective to reduce DNA amounts when compared to the other isolation strategies. Pepsin-extracted ECM from both tissues easily gelled at 37°C, whereas the other extracted ECM strategies did not gel at 37°C (Tris-NaCl: liquid; serum: sponge). Conclusions: All relevant characteristics (DNA residues, ECM diversity and bioactivity, shape) of the extracted ECM proteins highly depend on its isolation strategy and could still be optimized.
... 5,53 Therefore, therapeutic stimulation of new blood vessel formation (neovascularization) is a key objective of research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in vivo vasculogenesis and angiogenesis studies, [43][44][45][46] and already integrated in routine clinical use. 47,48 Placenta tissue is also reported to have very good antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiscarring properties. 51 Many human placenta ECM-extracted substrates such as Placentrex®(M/s Albert David, India), 47 Laenec® (Japan Bioproducts Industry, Japan) or Melsmon Cell Revitalization Extract® (Melsmon Pharmaceuticals, Japan), 70,71 which are mainly extracted by use of heat and pressure, have been successfully used for decades as a topical or injectable agent in clinical approaches related to wound healing, 53,67,[73][74][75] burn injuries, post-surgical dressings and bedsores, 47,75 but their potential for neovascularization in tissue engineering is at least to our knowledge unknown. ...
... 47,48 Placenta tissue is also reported to have very good antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiscarring properties. 51 Many human placenta ECM-extracted substrates such as Placentrex®(M/s Albert David, India), 47 Laenec® (Japan Bioproducts Industry, Japan) or Melsmon Cell Revitalization Extract® (Melsmon Pharmaceuticals, Japan), 70,71 which are mainly extracted by use of heat and pressure, have been successfully used for decades as a topical or injectable agent in clinical approaches related to wound healing, 53,67,[73][74][75] burn injuries, post-surgical dressings and bedsores, 47,75 but their potential for neovascularization in tissue engineering is at least to our knowledge unknown. Probably, because Placentrex® for instance contains only fragments of fibronectin and some smaller peptides, glycosaminoglycans, lipids and polynecluotides, but it is not highlighted to contain any active proangiogenic factors that might have survived the heat-extraction. ...
... 47,48 Placenta tissue is also reported to have very good antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiscarring properties. 51 Many human placenta ECM-extracted substrates such as Placentrex®(M/s Albert David, India), 47 Laenec® (Japan Bioproducts Industry, Japan) or Melsmon Cell Revitalization Extract® (Melsmon Pharmaceuticals, Japan), 70,71 which are mainly extracted by use of heat and pressure, have been successfully used for decades as a topical or injectable agent in clinical approaches related to wound healing, 53,67,[73][74][75] burn injuries, post-surgical dressings and bedsores, 47,75 but their potential for neovascularization in tissue engineering is at least to our knowledge unknown. Probably, because Placentrex® for instance contains only fragments of fibronectin and some smaller peptides, glycosaminoglycans, lipids and polynecluotides, but it is not highlighted to contain any active proangiogenic factors that might have survived the heat-extraction. ...
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... 5,53 Therefore, therapeutic stimulation of new blood vessel formation (neovascularization) is a key objective of research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in vivo vasculogenesis and angiogenesis studies, [43][44][45][46] and already integrated in routine clinical use. 47,48 Placenta tissue is also reported to have very good antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiscarring properties. 51 Many human placenta ECM-extracted substrates such as Placentrex®(M/s Albert David, India), 47 Laenec® (Japan Bioproducts Industry, Japan) or Melsmon Cell Revitalization Extract® (Melsmon Pharmaceuticals, Japan), 70,71 which are mainly extracted by use of heat and pressure, have been successfully used for decades as a topical or injectable agent in clinical approaches related to wound healing, 53,67,[73][74][75] burn injuries, post-surgical dressings and bedsores, 47,75 but their potential for neovascularization in tissue engineering is at least to our knowledge unknown. ...
... 47,48 Placenta tissue is also reported to have very good antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiscarring properties. 51 Many human placenta ECM-extracted substrates such as Placentrex®(M/s Albert David, India), 47 Laenec® (Japan Bioproducts Industry, Japan) or Melsmon Cell Revitalization Extract® (Melsmon Pharmaceuticals, Japan), 70,71 which are mainly extracted by use of heat and pressure, have been successfully used for decades as a topical or injectable agent in clinical approaches related to wound healing, 53,67,[73][74][75] burn injuries, post-surgical dressings and bedsores, 47,75 but their potential for neovascularization in tissue engineering is at least to our knowledge unknown. Probably, because Placentrex® for instance contains only fragments of fibronectin and some smaller peptides, glycosaminoglycans, lipids and polynecluotides, but it is not highlighted to contain any active proangiogenic factors that might have survived the heat-extraction. ...
... 47,48 Placenta tissue is also reported to have very good antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiscarring properties. 51 Many human placenta ECM-extracted substrates such as Placentrex®(M/s Albert David, India), 47 Laenec® (Japan Bioproducts Industry, Japan) or Melsmon Cell Revitalization Extract® (Melsmon Pharmaceuticals, Japan), 70,71 which are mainly extracted by use of heat and pressure, have been successfully used for decades as a topical or injectable agent in clinical approaches related to wound healing, 53,67,[73][74][75] burn injuries, post-surgical dressings and bedsores, 47,75 but their potential for neovascularization in tissue engineering is at least to our knowledge unknown. Probably, because Placentrex® for instance contains only fragments of fibronectin and some smaller peptides, glycosaminoglycans, lipids and polynecluotides, but it is not highlighted to contain any active proangiogenic factors that might have survived the heat-extraction. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is critical unmet need for new vascularized tissues to support or replace injured tissues and organs. Various synthetic and natural materials were already established for use of 2D and 3D in vitro neovascularization assays, however, they still cannot mimic the complex functions of the sum of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in native, intact tissue. Currently, this issue is only addressed by artificial products like MatrigelTM, which comprises of a complex mixture of ECM proteins, extracted from animal tumor tissue. Despite its outstanding bioactivity, the isolation from tumor tissue hinders its translation into clinical applications. Since non-human ECM proteins may cause immune reactions, as are frequently observed in clinical trials, human ECM proteins represent the best option when aiming for clinical applications, Experiment: Here, we describe an effective method of isolating a human placenta substrate (hpS) that induces the spontaneous formation of an interconnected network of green fluorescence labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (gfpHUVEC) in vitro. The substrate was biochemically characterized by using a combination of bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA), DNA and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content assays, sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and Western blot, angiogenesis arrays, chromatographic thrombin detection, HPLC-based amino acid quantification analysis and assessment of antimicrobial properties. Results: 2D in vitro cell culture experiments have been performed to determine the vasculogenic potential of hpS, which demonstrated that cell networks developed on hpS show a significantly higher degree of complexity (number of tubules/junctions; total/mean tube length) when compared to MatrigelTM. As 3D cell culture techniques represent a more accurate representation of the in vivo condition, the substrate was 3D solidified using various natural polymers. 3D in vitro vasculogenesis assays have been performed by seeding gfpHUVEC in a hpS-fibrinogen clot. Conclusions: Concluding, hpS provides a potent human-material-based alternative to xenogenic-material-based biomaterials for vascularization strategies in tissue engineering.
... Human placenta extract has utilized and widely used in clinical and cosmetic fields, and it possesses marked antioxidant activity [12]. Aqueous human placenta extract contains bioactive therapeutic molecules such as peptides, polypeptide, and DNA fragment, polydeoxyribonucleotides, proteins, vitamins, growth factors and hormones [13]. Placenta is a scientifically proven potent wound healer and skin problem [14] [15]. ...
... Exogenous ochronosis is caused by prolonged exposure to topical hydroquinone. The side effect as con-sequence use of hydroquinone is challenging to treat [4] , growth factors and hormones [6] [7] [8]. It plays an important role in prevention, alleviation, and cure of the diseases [9]. ...
... Under the initiative of the Japanese government, the development of "advanced nutrients" began in the 1940s in Japan. A group of obstetrics and gynecologists at Kyoto University School of Medicine have developed oral nutrients and injections from the human placenta that are still considered as pharmaceuticals [1][2][3][4]. Additionally, the placenta of some animals, including pigs, sheep, and horses, have been used as health foods and cosmetic ingredients in Japan and in other countries [5][6][7][8][9]. ...
... Placenta has been known to serve as a depot of many biologically active components with significant healing attributes [6]. In many countries, placental extract is commercially available for medicinal use [7,8]. Studies have revealed the clinical efficacy of an aqueous extract of human placenta in the management of wounds including chronic non-healing wounds [9]. ...
Article
Management of infectious wounds, particularly chronic wounds and burn injuries, is a matter of global concern. Worldwide estimates reveal that, billions of dollars are being spent annually for the management of such chronic ailments. Evidently, bacterial biofilms pose a greater problem in the effective management of infection in chronic wounds, since most of the currently available antibiotics are unable to act on the microorganisms residing inside the protected environment of the biofilms. Accordingly, in the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the anti-biofilm properties of human placental extract (PLX) and also other virulence factors that are mediated via the quorum sensing (QS) signalling system. PLX is well known for its anti inflammatory action and it has been shown earlier some anti microbial and enzymatic activity also. PLX was found to produce significant inhibition of biofilm formation and also decreased the levels of pyoverdin and pyocyanin. The microscopic analysis (both light microscopy and atomic force microscopy) of biofilms was also used for substantiating the findings from spectrophotometric (crystal violet estimation) and fluorescence analysis (resazurin uptake). PLX pre-treatment decreased the hydrophobicity of gram-positive and gram negative cells, indicating the effect of placental extract on adherence property of planktonic cell, serving as an indicator for its antibiofilm effect on microorganisms. The reduced extracellular DNA (eDNA) content in biofilm matrix following treatment with PLX also indicates the effectiveness of placenta extract on bacterial adherence, which in turn serves as evidence substantiating the antibiofilm effects of the PLX. Furthermore, PLX was also found to be significantly effective in the in vitro wound biofilm model. Thus the present study, the first of its kind with PLX, establishes the therapeutic benefit of the same particularly in infected wounds, opening up newer avenue for further exploration.
... NADPH, fibronectin type III-like peptide that stabilizes trypsin activity and an ubiquitin-like protein which exhibits collagenase activity have been detected in the extract. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial activity against common disease causing microorganisms, which together with induction of NO by mouse peritoneal macrophages together with enhancement of their adhesion property [105][106][107][108][109][110][111]. These findings collectively support wound healing potency of the extract. ...
Chapter
Proteases play a pivotal role in wound management. They are present in acute and chronic wound in different proportions. Balance between protease and their inhibitors are crucial for healing of wound because irregularity can lead to excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and deposition leading to impaired healing. Recent advancements in wound care established several means to control the level of proteases, such as MMP modulators including protease-modulating dressing, signaling molecules, peptides, and microRNA. Besides wound healing, proteases also play a significant role in immunity. They activate immune cells by proteolysis. Function of proteases in the areas of wound healing and immunity can be targeted as an alternative therapeutic approach for treatment.
... Nowadays HP is considered as a source of cells with stem cell potential and could be able to applicate the tissue injuries [23]. Although a number of clinical studies about the beneficial effects of placenta extracts has been reported [24][25][26][27], the vast majority of the functional studies of the placental extracts was focused on it's wound healing potential in the tissue repairing process [28][29][30][31]. Placenta extract was reported to increase the expression of bFGF and TGF-β1, two key factors involved in wound healing in the rat wound skin [14]. ...
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Background: Hominis Placenta (HP) known as a restorative medicine in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), has been widely applied in the clinics of Korea and China as an anti-aging agent to enhance the regeneration of tissue. This study was conducted to investigate whether topical treatment of HP promotes hair regrowth in the animal model. Methods: The dorsal hairs of 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were depilated to synchronize hair follicles to the anagen phase. HP was applied topically once a day for 15 days. Hair growth was evaluated visually and microscopically. The incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) in dorsal skin tissue was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure the mRNA expression of FGF-7. Results: HP exhibited potent hair growth-promoting activity in C57BL/6 mice. Gross examination indicated that HP markedly increased hair regrowth as well as hair density and diameter. Histologic analysis showed that HP treatment enhanced the anagen induction of hair follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that BrdU incorporation and the expressions of PCNA were increased by treatment of HP. HP treatment significantly increased the expression of FGF-7, which plays pivotal roles to maintain anagen phase both protein and mRNA levels. Conclusions: Taken together, our results indicate that HP has a potent hair growth-promoting activity; therefore, it may be a good candidate for the treatment of alopecia.