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differed across the five conditions: F(4, 678)=2.73, p=.03. Planned contrasts testing 

differed across the five conditions: F(4, 678)=2.73, p=.03. Planned contrasts testing 

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This experiment investigates the effects of a seven-day kindness activities intervention on changes in subjective happiness. The study was designed to test whether performing different types of kindness activities had differential effects on happiness. Our recent systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychological effects of kindness (Curry, e...

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... Our findings further show that the academics extended their coping beyond mere social interaction, by providing kindness and support to others. This can be explained by research showing that being kind and helpful to others helps to improve the wellbeing of the kind person [47][48][49]. This is irrespective of whether the recipient of the kindness is a stranger or friend/family member [48]. ...
... Kindness can be further discussed in relation to altruism. Altruistic behavior, often motivated by empathic feelings, is a selfless act to help and support others often at some cost to oneself, such as time or effort [49]. These types of coping methods are generally used in times of crisis, illness, and loss [50]. ...
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... In particular, prior research indicate that a tendency to act according to moral standards and ethical behaviors is associated with lower risks of incident cognitive impairment not dementia, depression and unfavorable healthrelated behaviors as well as lower limitations in mobility and less difficulty in instrumental activities of daily living among middle-aged and older adults [30][31][32]. Additionally, other studies on related constructs have also shown that prosocial behaviors such as generosity or kindness, providing emotional and economical support to others, and performing acts of altruistic behaviors may favorably affect health and increase the well-being of the giver [33][34][35][36]. Consequently, in this study, we test the hypothesis that the adherence to moral standards and ethical behaviors is favorably associated with higher subsequent purpose in life, and this prospective association holds even after adjusting for a wide range of potential confounders (i.e., sociodemographic and psychological factors, health behaviors, and prior health conditions). ...
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... Prosocial acts have been shown to boost a number of mental states including life satisfaction, wellbeing, and psychological flourishing. These effects can last for several weeks or even months following the end of an intervention [10][11][12][13][14][15]. Evidence indicates that prosocial behaviors produce positive emotions and happiness even when performed at a distance, making them ideally suited to the current crisis [16][17][18]. ...
... Another feature of prosociality effects on well-being is their longevity. Studies examining the longevity of prosocial interventions have shown that positive effects on various outcomes can last anywhere from several weeks to several months [10][11][12][13][14][15]. Our study is consistent with this work. ...
... Third, future work should seek to replicate our results in a variety of populations. Past work has found emotionally beneficial effects of prosocial behavior in samples of students, community members, online respondents, clinical samples, corporate workers, and children [10,[13][14][15]22,26,64]. However, some populations (students, online respondents) and some outcomes (happiness, positive affect) have been more thoroughly studied than others. ...
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... Participants randomized to perform acts of kindness for others (e.g., writing a note to a coworker) demonstrated greater increases in well-being than those assigned to write factual details about their day. Similar studies reported increases in life satisfaction (Buchanan & Bardi, 2010), happiness (Alden & Trew, 2013;Otake et al., 2006;Rowland & Curry, 2019), social connection (Layous et al., 2012), and reduced inflammatory potential of immune cells (Nelson-Coffey et al., 2017) among individuals randomized to perform acts of kindness for others. ...
... These self-focused activities are recognized as important contributors to health and well-being (e.g., Fancourt & Steptoe, 2018;Lee et al., 2012;Luyster et al., 2012). However, intervention studies designed to elicit acts of self-kindness have yielded mixed results, with one showing no effects on well-being (Nelson et al., 2016) and two reporting beneficial effects on happiness (O'Connell et al., 2016;Rowland & Curry, 2019). Mindfulness meditation utilizes a different approach to improve well-being, through the enhancement of internal, or dispositional, self-kindness (Hölzel et al., 2011;Neff & Dahm, 2015). ...
... We found no evidence that engaging in self-focused kind acts had beneficial (or harmful) effects in breast cancer survivors. This finding is consistent with a previous intervention study that found null effects (Nelson et al., 2016), and contrary to two others that found beneficial effects (O'Connell et al., 2016;Rowland & Curry, 2019), all conducted among healthy adults. Notably, the two studies reporting beneficial effects were conducted over the course of one week (O'Connell et al., 2016;Rowland & Curry, 2019), suggesting that acts of self-kindness may offer benefits in the short term. ...
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... These approaches offer an overarching view of the links among the evolution of cooperative interdependence, proximate psychological motivations to bond and belong, and relational affect and wellbeing. Recent controlled psychological and behavioral studies have explored how behavior and emotions vary across different types of interdependent situations (e.g., happiness or anger, depending on whether the situation is characterized by high or low conflict) (Gerpott et al., 2018), how social bonds are sustained through interdependent activity, or "social grooming" (e.g., Tarr et al., 2015Tarr et al., , 2018Tunçgenç & Cohen, 2016), and how social-particularly group-identities and interpersonal kindness interventions can be leveraged to improve health and wellbeing outcomes (Haslam et al., 2019;Rowland & Curry, 2019). These studies have revealed positive health and wellbeing effects of having strong social identities, perceiving/ receiving social support, and giving social support, such as in performing kindness activities. ...
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... Lasting happiness is associated more with selflessness rather than self-centeredness (Dambrun and Ricard 2011). Disinterested kindness to others provides profound satisfaction (Seligman 2002); kindness activities boost happiness (Dunn et al. 2008;Aknin et al. 2012, Rowland andCurry 2018). All these wise observations and research results are very important for individuals and societies in terms of promoting a good life. ...
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The (net) happiness (or welfare) of an individual is the excess of her positive affective feelings over negative ones. This subjective definition of happiness is more consistent with common usage and analytically more useful. Over the past century or so, both psychology and economics has gone through the anti-subjectivism revolution (behaviorism in psychology and ordinalism in economics) but has come back to largely accept subjectivism (cognitive psychology and recent interest of economists on happiness issues).
... This relationship might be conceptualized as a feedback loop (as depicted in Fig. 7) to help explain participants' motivation to continue engaging in DAKs post-intervention. Further, the improved wellbeing (i.e., improved stress management, mood, wellbeing, and self-esteem) reported by participants is not uncommon in kindness research Raposa et al., 2016;Rowland & Curry, 2019). Morelli and colleagues (2015) also hypothesized that positive empathy might be negatively correlated with social anxiety. ...
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The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of deliberate acts of kindness (DAKs) plus access to a stress management booklet (intervention), compared to the booklet alone (control) on the stress-related outcomes of resilience, social interaction anxiety, affect, and mood of undergraduate and graduate students. Participants’ study-related experiences were also explored, as were the types of DAKs. This repeated-measures, randomized controlled trial included 112 students (80 undergraduate and 32 graduate) with 56 in each condition. Four previously validated scales were implemented at baseline, immediate post-intervention, and 3-months post-intervention. A linear mixed effects model was utilized with group and time entered as fixed effects. Content analysis of open-ended question responses and DAKs logs was conducted. The KISS of Kindness II had a statistically significant interaction effect on the intervention group participants’ resilience (p = 0.0099), social anxiety (p = 0.0016), and negative affect (p = 0.0033), but had no significant impact on their positive affect or mood. Intervention participants described improvements in mental wellbeing. DAKs were plentiful (1,542 DAKs, 26 types), and show promise for university-based mental health interventions.
... Aknin et al. (2015) found that both adults and children were more likely to feel happy when making donations than when receiving donations in a separate study of children and adults in a small town in Vanuatu. Rowland and Curry (2018) statistically analyzed the survey data of 692 participants, showing that the number of personal charitable activities was positively related to subjective happiness. ...
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