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demographics for the treatment Group and control Group 

demographics for the treatment Group and control Group 

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With the rise in stress and anxiety among college students, there is a need for more comprehensive and effective counseling options for counselors in college counseling centers. This study investigated the impact of using biofeedback and brief counseling in treating stress and anxiety in an ethnically diverse college student population. Results ind...

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... and control group (see Table 1). There were also no significant differences in the BAI scores for the different treating therapists, including licensed psychologists and interns. ...

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The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism by which counselor trainees' mindfulness and psychological flexibility are positively associated with counseling self-efficacy. First, it was hypothesized that having fewer experiences of hindering self-focused attention (i.e., counselor trainees' awareness of their own anxiety and distracting...

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... Also, this study showed that acceptance of biofeedback training as an adjunct to traditional counseling can increase the effect of counseling therapy in reducing stress and anxiety among college students. 52 Although conventional counseling approaches are often effective in assisting students when used alone, the investigation has shown that counseling may be even more effective when combined with alternative treatment methods such as biofeedback. 53 Therefore, along with counseling therapy, treatment methods such as biofeedback can be used to further reduce speech anxiety. ...
... Participating in behavioral basics courses to prepare people before the counseling process begins, 54 and the duration of the intervention (neither too long nor too short) can also increase the effects of counseling in reducing students' public-speaking anxiety. 52 ...
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Background and aims: One of the barriers to effective communication between speaker and listeners is public speaking anxiety (PSA). Over recent years, PSA has become common among students as the most widespread social anxiety (SA). Virtual reality (VR) and counseling therapy help reduce PSA. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of VR therapy and counseling on students' PSA and SA. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 30 students at three levels of undergraduate, postgraduate, and PhD at Kerman University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (15 students in the intervention group and 15 in the control group). The intervention group observed four virtual classroom scenarios in a 30-min session, and the control group attended a 90-min group counseling session. Data were collected using by Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, and Igroup Presence Questionnaire. The data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Descriptive analysis (frequency and percentage, mean, standard deviation, and quartiles) and analytical tests (paired t-test and independent t-test) were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that VR and counseling did not affect SA scores and statistical differences before and after the intervention were not statistically significant. However, VR and counseling reduced PSA. The mean of IPQ/IGP (physical presence) was 63.73. The participants' SA means (93.76) were higher than the mean PSA (73.4). Conclusions: VR and counseling did not affect students' SA, but they reduced PSA. If the intervention duration in future studies are longer, the effect of VR and counseling on reducing SA is likely to become more apparent.
... Several studies have investigated the effects of biofeedback on the treatment of stress and anxiety. Results showed that participants who received biofeedback and counseling had more reductions in anxiety symptoms than those who only received counseling [16,17]. Another study on complementary alternative therapy resources suggests that yoga can be effective in helping with stress management [18]. ...
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College students encounter various types of stresses in school due to schoolwork, personal relationships, health issues, and future career concerns. Some students are susceptible to the strikes of failures and are inexperienced with or fearful of dealing with setbacks. When these negative emotions gradually accumulate without resolution, they can cause long-term negative effects on students’ physical and mental health. Some potential health problems include depression, anxiety, and disorders such as eating disorders. Universities commonly offer counseling services; however, the demand often exceeds the counseling capacities due to limited numbers of counsellors/psychologists. Thus, students may not receive immediate counseling or treatments. If students are not treated, some repercussions may lead to severe abnormal behavior and even suicide. In this study, combining immersive virtual reality (VR) technique with psychological knowledge base, we developed a VR empathy-centric counseling chatbot (VRECC) that can complementarily support troubled students when counsellors cannot provide immediate support. Through multi-turn (verbal or text) conversations with the chatbot, the system can demonstrate empathy and give therapist-like responses to the users. During the study, more than 120 students were required to complete a questionnaire and 34 subjects with an above-median stress level were randomly drawn for the VRECC experiment. We observed decreasing average stress level and psychological sensitivity scores among subjects after the experiment. Although the system did not yield improvement in life-impact scores (e.g., behavioral and physical impacts), the significant outcomes of lowering stress level and psychological sensitivity have given us a very positive outlook for continuing to integrate VR, AI sentimental natural language process, and counseling chatbot for advanced VRECC research in helping students improve their psychological well-being and life quality at schools.
... Biofeedback could be useful for several mental health issues, such as stress, anxiety, hypertension, and depression [18]. Moreover, advances in technology have allowed biofeedback to become affordable, cost-effective, and easily used by practitioners as well as users [18]. ...
... Biofeedback could be useful for several mental health issues, such as stress, anxiety, hypertension, and depression [18]. Moreover, advances in technology have allowed biofeedback to become affordable, cost-effective, and easily used by practitioners as well as users [18]. The aim of this paper was to investigate the use of biofeedback in connected mental health solutions for anxiety disorders by conducting a systematic literature review. ...
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Background: Connected mental health, which refers to the use of technology for mental health care and technology-based therapeutic solutions, has become an established field of research. Biofeedback is one of the approaches used in connected mental health solutions, which is mainly based on the analysis of physiological indicators for the assessment and management of the psychological state. Biofeedback is recommended by many therapists and has been used for conditions including depression, insomnia, and anxiety. Anxiety is associated with several physiological symptoms, including muscle tension and breathing issues, which makes the inclusion of biofeedback useful for anxiety detection and management. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify interventions using biofeedback as a part of their process for anxiety management and investigate their perceived effectiveness. Methods: A systematic literature review of publications presenting empirically evaluated biofeedback-based interventions for anxiety was conducted. The systematic literature review was based on publications retrieved from IEEE Digital Library, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus. A preliminary selection of papers was identified, examined, and filtered to include only relevant publications. Studies in the final selection were classified and analyzed to extract the modalities of use of biofeedback in the identified interventions, the types of physiological data that were collected and analyzed and the sensors used to collect them. Processes and outcomes of the empirical evaluations were also extracted. Results: After final selection, 13 publications presenting different interventions were investigated. The interventions addressed either primarily anxiety disorders or anxiety associated with health issues such as migraine, Parkinson disease, and rheumatology. Solutions combined biofeedback with other techniques including virtual reality, music therapy, games, and relaxation practices and used different sensors including cardiovascular belts, wrist sensors, or stretch sensors to collect physiological data such as heart rate, respiration indicators, and movement information. The interventions targeted different cohorts including children, students, and patients. Overall, outcomes from the empirical evaluations yielded positive results and emphasized the effectiveness of connected mental health solutions using biofeedback for anxiety; however, certain unfavorable outcomes, such as interventions not having an effect on anxiety and patients’ preferring traditional therapy, were reported in studies addressing patients with specific physical health issues. Conclusions: The use of biofeedback in connected mental health interventions for the treatment and management of anxiety allows better screening and understanding of both psychological and physiological patient information, as well as of the association between the two. The inclusion of biofeedback could improve the outcome of interventions and boost their effectiveness; however, when used with patients suffering from certain physical health issues, suitability investigations are needed.
... Designed as a prevention and intervention resource for students and/or teachers who are experiencing dysregulation, the SMART Lab's intent is for students to gain emotional regulation skills and return to class prepared for learning. When students are in the SMART Lab, they learn how their body is physiologically responding to a stressor through the use of HeartMath technology, which provides insight into measurement of the beat-to-beat changes in heart rate, called heart rate variability (HRV; Bothe et al., 2014;Ratanasiripong et al., 2012). Students were introduced to this concept and taught how to monitor their HRV scores and use regulation strategies. ...
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A school leadership team is an opportunity for school counselors to demonstrate their capacity as school leaders and implement their training in using data to identify evidence-based interventions and evaluate the effectiveness of chosen interventions. We share a case study of how we utilized a school leadership team to better meet the needs of students via the development and implementation of the Stress Management and Resiliency Training Lab (SMART Lab) as a K–12 multi-tiered system of support. Use of the evidence-based school counseling model for systematic evaluation revealed that the SMART Lab intervention contributed to improvements in students’ behavior, attendance, and grades.
... (2) Development of self-control through neurofeedback [66][67][68]. Our results have shown increased neurofeedback effectiveness if, in each individual, a most "controllable" cortical zone is selected, in which the alpha-rhythm can be most easily amplified by neurofeedback signals through visual, or other feedback channels [69]. ...
Thesis
This thesis presents a series of inter-related case studies aiming to reexamine, from modern perspectives, one of the most significant and integrative approaches to neurophysiology in the 20th century – the study of the dominant (учение о доминанте) by the physiologist acad. A.A. Ukhtomsky (1875–1942) and his scientific school. Although recognized as a critical contribution and framework for organism-centered study of physiology, knowledge of this school has remained minimal in the West, and to this day, almost entirely unexplored for its prospects of integration with respective foreign research programs in biology and neuroscience, both past and present. In recent years, and partly on the initiative of the present author, some of the first attempts have been made to overcome these limitations, and to more systematically address the legacy of Ukhtomsky's school from modern perspectives in Western science. The present thesis, growing out from these efforts, contributes further materials to such comparative and methodological investigation. It aims specifically to clarify the modern status and significance of the dominant framework as an integrative and organismic paradigm for neuroscientific research, and to show its potentially wide implications for human neuroscience in particular, as a socially and culturally (anthropologically) oriented discipline. Focused on the questions of historicity and temporal variability (process dynamics, chronogenic variation) as explanatory tools and concepts, the presented case studies touch upon theoretical problems ranging from basic homeostasis at the cellular and network levels, to problems of human labor and social neuroscience. All these applications are shown to derive from the basic physiological paradigm of the dominant, thereby demonstrating its continued integrative potential in the context of modern fundamental and applied research.
... According to this hypothesis, the interpretation of bodily sensations is closely associated with emotional processing and decision making [10,85]. These early days of interoceptive awareness research also gave rise to the idea that biofeedback training could help individuals improve their interoceptive awareness [36], and this assumption is still at the core of biofeedback research today [35,38,41,43,47,59,60,86,87]. The support for this claim, however, seems to be mostly theoretical in nature, as there is very little direct empirical evidence showing that biofeedback training systematically improves awareness of physiological states (Figure 1, path A). ...
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Biofeedback has shown to be a promising tool for the treatment of anxiety; however, several theoretical as well as practical limitations have prevented widespread adaptation until now. With current technological advances and the increasing interest in the use of self-monitoring technology to improve mental health, we argue that this is an ideal time to launch a new wave of biofeedback training. In this viewpoint paper, we reflect on the current state of biofeedback training, including the more traditional techniques and mechanisms that have been thought to explain the effectiveness of biofeedback such as the integration of operant learning and meditation techniques, and the changes in interoceptive awareness and physiology. Subsequently, we propose an integrative model that includes a set of cognitive appraisals as potential determinants of adaptive trajectories within biofeedback training such as growth mindset, self-efficacy, locus of control, and threat-challenge appraisals. Finally, we present a set of detailed guidelines based on the integration of our model with the mechanics and mechanisms offered by emerging interactive technology to encourage a new phase of research and implementation using biofeedback. There is a great deal of promise for future biofeedback interventions that harness the power of wearables and video games, and that adopt a user-centered approach to help people regulate their anxiety in a way that feels engaging, personal, and meaningful.
... (2) Development of self-control through neurofeedback [66][67][68]. Our results have shown increased neurofeedback effectiveness if, in each individual, a most "controllable" cortical zone is selected, in which the alpha-rhythm can be most easily amplified by neurofeedback signals through visual, or other feedback channels [69]. ...
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This paper analyzes the opponent dynamics of human motivational and affective processes, as conceptualized by RS Solomon, from the position of AA Ukhtomsky's neurophysiological principle of the dominant and its applications in the field of human electroencephalographic analysis. As an experimental model, we investigate the dynamics of cortical activity in students submitting university final course oral examinations in naturalistic settings, and show that successful performance in these settings depends on the presence of specific types of cortical activation patterns, involving high indices of left-hemispheric and frontal cortical dominance, whereas the lack thereof predicts poor performance on the task, and seems to be associated with difficulties in the executive regulation of cognitive (intellectual) and motivational processes in these highly demanding and stressful conditions. Based on such knowledge, improved educational and therapeutic interventions can be suggested which take into account individual variability in the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying adaptation to motivationally and intellectually challenging, stressful tasks, such as oral university exams. Some implications of this research for opponent-process theory and its closer integration into current neuroscience research on acquired motivations are discussed.
... Students with preparatory test anxiety and excessive learning could benefit from adequate interventions that would help them to improve their learning strategies (Birenbaum, 2007;Piemontesi, Heredia, Furlan, Sanchez-Rosas, & Martinez, 2012). The present study may help to assess students' preparatory anxiety and excessive learning when anxiety levels are still building and may be effectively addressed (Cukrowicz, Smith, Hohmeister, & Joiner Jr, 2009;Martin & Marsh, 2006;Reavley & Jorm, 2010), and may assist teachers and counselors in this regard (Ratanasiripong, Sverduk, Prince, & Hayashino, 2012). ...
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Test anxiety interferes with the ability to communicate knowledge during tests. Preparatory test anxiety may lead to excessive learning that reduces concentration and leads to mistakes and ineffective learning. This preliminary study developed the Preparatory Test Anxiety Questionnaire (PTAQ), tested its reliability and construct validity, and assessed whether students with preparatory test anxiety exhibit excessive learning. Additionally, it explored the relations between the subscales and the total scores of the PTAQ and the TAI. Sample included 364 undergraduate college psychology students. Results indicated that the PTAQ is comprised of the 'cognition-emotion' and 'behavior' subscales and has an adequate internal consistency and construct validity. The subscales and total score of the PTAQ were positively correlated with those of the TAI. Regression analysis showed that the Emotion-Cognition scale of the PTAQ significantly added to the explained variance, while the Behavior scale did not. Results are discussed with regard to preparatory test anxiety.
... Henriques et al. (2011) examined the effectiveness of a computer-based biofeedback system in reducing anxiety in college students in two separate studies and found a replicable result that the intervention reduced levels of anxiety. Ratanasiripong et al. (2012b) compared a group that received biofeedback training in conjunction with counselling with a group that received counselling alone, and found that, although both groups dropped from a moderate to mild anxiety level based, the first group had a significantly greater decrease in anxiety symptoms, both statistic and clinically. Lee et al. (2015) concluded that HRV biofeedback was able to reduce anxiety effectively and also it appears to be effective in reducing some cognitive dysfunction associated with anxiety through cognitive restructuring. ...
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The increasing number of mental health disorders on university students represents a growing problem with negative impact on this population. Stress and anxiety issues are two of most predominant problems in this population and most campus health services have limited resources to face them. Research has provided evidence about biofeedback effectiveness. This study aims to verify the impact of a short duration biofeedback programme on freshmen university students with high levels of anxiety. A sample of 50 first-year students, with scores above percentile of 75 on STAI Y-2 were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Biofeedback Group took a 15 min session per week, over 8 weeks. No intervention was made on Control Group. Both groups were assessed before and after the biofeedback programme, and the results of the Trait Anxiety Scale and the Inventory of Stress for College Students were compared. The Biofeedback Group presented significant decreases in anxiety and stress values. Control Group presented slight and non-significant changes in scores. These results are consistent with previous studies and reinforce the evidence of biofeedback's programmes as a valid solution to help students to manage their anxiety and stress.
... Such student's performance can be improved by enhancing their social connections and bringing in positive emotional states during their learning and training [78]. For this purpose, signals has been taken from skin to measure blood pressure, heart-rate, brain-activity and musclestension [79]. Similarly with heart-focus, heart-rate-coherency and emotional-self-regulation techniques are used to improve cognitive, learning and behaviours of students suffered from stress, anxiety and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD) [80][81][82]. ...