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The author reviews research showing that repetitive thought (RT) can have constructive or unconstructive consequences. The main unconstructive consequences of RT are (a) depression, (b) anxiety, and (c) difficulties in physical health. The main constructive consequences of RT are (a) recovery from upsetting and traumatic events, (b) adaptive prepar...

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... These findings appear consistent with previous literature, in which rumination has been identified as a potential factor in developing and maintaining bodily dissatisfaction (Etu & Gray, 2010;Holm-Denoma & Hankin, 2010). Rumination is a mental process characterized by repetitive, prolonged, and recurring thoughts on their concerns and experiences (Watkins, 2008). Since bodily dissatisfaction results from an unfavourable comparison between the real body image and the ideal body image, it could be expected that body dissatisfaction triggers rumination, which maintains body dissatisfaction (Dalley et al., 2019). ...
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The present study explored young adolescent’s (female at birth) experiences with their bodies following pubertal changes. Twenty-seven participants selected from a parent-daughter workshop at school who had experienced 1 to 6 menstrual cycles were interviewed. Data were collected and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four current themes emerged from the analysis: (i) perception of body changes in puberty; (ii) intense emotions; (iii) managing body changes and secondary sexual characteristics; (iv) a new way of experiencing the body. Results support an integrative approach to the prevention of body negative image. Based on these findings, it is important to considered body image in the complexity of its emotional, cognitive and behavioural manifestations in order to promote psycho-educational programmes related to secondary sexual characteristics, consistent with the needs of today’s pubertal female at birth.
... Rumination is defined as a repetitive thought, meditating on information, essentially a ''chewing the cognitive cud", and takes on a double connotation. On the one hand, intrusive rumination can be defined as a series of intrusive thoughts that are often undesired and strongly disturbing; hence, intrusive rumination implies a negative connotation and is understood as a symptom of distress [10,11]. On the other hand, repetitive thoughts can also be voluntary and controlled, and they focus on making sense of the experience. ...
... On the other hand, repetitive thoughts can also be voluntary and controlled, and they focus on making sense of the experience. This type of rumination is defined as deliberate rumination and can be intended as a problem-solving process [10,11]. Previous studies have shown that intrusive and deliberate ruminations play different roles in influencing posttraumatic outcomes. ...
... The importance of core beliefs disruption is well known and is still supported by recent studies, e.g., [13,33,34]. As Taku and colleagues [8] have postulated, the disruption of core beliefs plays a major role in predicting the level of PTG, suggesting that "the process of reviewing and examining core beliefs is a key catalyst for the subsequent possibility of PTG" [10] (p. 16). ...
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Background: The positive transformation (i.e., posttraumatic growth, PTG) that can emerge after the struggles associated with a stressful life event has been widely investigated. However, less attention has been paid to the negative posttraumatic changes (i.e., posttraumatic depreciation, PTD) that might occur after a traumatic experience. This study aimed to investigate the role of a series of psychological factors (e.g., disruption of core beliefs, rumination, and depressive symptoms) in predicting PTG and PTD, separately considered. Methods: To reach this goal, 601 participants who experienced different types of traumatic events were recruited. They were asked to indicate sociodemographic and trauma-related information and to complete self-report measures assessing PTG/PTD, core beliefs, rumination, and depressive symptoms. Results: The results of regression analyses showed that gender, age, time since the trauma, core beliefs, deliberate/intrusive rumination, and depressive symptoms were significant predictors of PTG. Conversely, core beliefs, intrusive rumination, and depressive symptoms were found to be positively related to PTD. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings highlight the role that different psychological factors may play in the manifestation of the PTG and/or PTD dimensions. From a clinical perspective, professionals should pay attention to these factors when a person struggles in coping with a highly stressful experience.
... Three of the included studies consistently reported this positive correlation. Rumination is depicted as an emotional process characterized by unsought, repetitive, past-oriented, and negatively inclined thoughts [92,93]. Rumination was related to worry, and therefore is regarded to be a maladaptive strategy that was proven to aggravate and sustain an array of mental health issues, such as depression [94,95], and to an extent to PSU. ...
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Emotion Dysregulation (ED) and Problematic Smartphone Use (PSU) are two rising global issues requiring further understanding on how they are linked. This paper aims to summarize the evidence pertaining to this relationship. Five databases were systematically searched for published literature from inception until 29 March 2021 using appropriate search strategies. Each study was screened for eligibility based on the set criteria, assessed for its quality and its level of evidence was determined. The Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software program (CMA) was employed to run further analyses of the data. Twenty-one studies were included in the systematic review. Nine studies with extractable data for meta-analysis had high across-studies heterogeneity, hence subgroup analyses were performed that confirmed a significant moderate positive correlation between ED and PSU (pooled correlation coefficient, r = 0.416 (four studies, n = 1462) and r = 0.42 (three studies, n = 899), respectively) and a weak positive correlation between “expressive suppression” and PSU (pooled correlation coefficient, r = 0.14 (two studies, n = 608)). Meta-regression analysis showed a stronger correlation between ED and PSU (R2 = 1.0, p = 0.0006) in the younger age group. Further studies to establish and explore the mechanisms that contribute towards the positive link between ED and PSU are required to guide in the planning of targeted interventions in addressing both issues.
... According to the previous study, having higher self-concept clarity was related to having higher self-esteem (Chui and Wong, 2016) and more positive emotions (Slotter and Walsh, 2017), which accounted for clearer self-concept that might led to happiness and higher life satisfaction. However, an individual with unclear self-concept may become lonely and dispirited and further influence life satisfaction (Watkins, 2008;Bastian et al., 2012). If an individual feel sorrowful, he or she may experience the sadness and reflect on why they feel sorrowful, their life satisfaction maybe negatively influenced (Watkins, 2008;Bastian et al., 2012). ...
... However, an individual with unclear self-concept may become lonely and dispirited and further influence life satisfaction (Watkins, 2008;Bastian et al., 2012). If an individual feel sorrowful, he or she may experience the sadness and reflect on why they feel sorrowful, their life satisfaction maybe negatively influenced (Watkins, 2008;Bastian et al., 2012). Accordingly, Hypothesis 3 is proposed: self-concept clarity serves a mediating role in the relationship between parent and child or peer alienation and life satisfaction. ...
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The research on life satisfaction originated in the 1960s and has not been completely studied yet. Life satisfaction is an index related to the state and quality of individual life. With the development of society, the relevant variables affecting life satisfaction have also changed with the times. The purpose of this study is to research the relationship between parent and child or peer alienation, mental resilience, self-concept clarity and life satisfaction, finding the mechanism of action among parent-child or peer alienation, mental resilience, self-concept clarity, and life satisfaction. This cross-sectional study recruites randomly 1,347 adolescents from six middle schools in Chongqing, China, participating in a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, the Inventor of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10), the Self-concept Clarity Scale (SCCS), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). The sample consists of 62.4% female participants ( n = 841) and 37.6% male participants ( n = 506) aged from 11 to 17 years old (Mean = 14.54, SD = 1.21). We use SPSS 26 to perform the statistical analysis. The study finds that mental resilience—self-concept clarity have mediating effect on the parent or peer alienation to life satisfaction, to the effect that, parent-child or peer alienation explain life satisfaction through the chain mediating effect of mental resilience—self-concept clarity. This study explores the negative multi-use of parent-child or peer alienation on life satisfaction and provides a new perspective for the improvement of life satisfaction of adolescents.
... As a common negative emotion, boredom positively correlates with rumination [40][41][42]. Similarly, elaborated control theory may explain this relationship; that is, rumination occurs when people recognize discrepancies between desired goals and current states [43]. In addition, boredom reflects a discrepancy between the current, meaningless situation and a desired, more meaningful situation [44]. ...
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Online deviant behaviors have received increasing attention. This study examined the association between boredom proneness and online deviant behaviors as well as the mediating role of rumination and the moderating role of gender in the relationship. A sample of 1001 college students (Mage = 20.20 ± 1.52 years, 50.25% female) was recruited to complete a set of questionnaires assessing the main variables. The results show that boredom proneness was positively associated with online deviant behaviors and that rumination played a mediating role in this relationship. Moreover, gender differences were found in the relationship, which was stronger for males than females. Despite several limitations, this study deepens our understanding of the influencing mechanism of boredom proneness on online deviant behaviors, which could provide practical implications for the prevention and intervention of online deviant behaviors.
... Negative self-referential processing (NSRP) (Jones et al., 2008;Olatunji et al., 2013;Watkins, 2008) represents a transdiagnostic feature of many forms of psychopathology, including the impairing and difficult to treat "distress disorders," such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (Clark & Watson, 2006). Two forms of NSRP have received notable empirical investigation: worry, or repetitive negative thinking about the future aimed at reducing perceived future threats (Borkovec et al., 2004;Mennin & Fresco, 2013;Newman & Llera, 2011), and rumination, or repetitive negative thinking about the past aimed at reducing perceived loss (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2008). ...
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Background Negative self-referential processing (NSRP), including worry and rumination, is a hallmark feature of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Negative affect relates to NSRP, and emotion regulation skills (e.g., reappraisal and acceptance) may attenuate this relationship. This ecological momentary assessment study explored whether increased emotion regulation skills use would alter associations between daily fluctuations of negative affect and end-of-day NSRP.Methods Participants were 99 young adults (Mage = 19.94; SD = 1.81), diagnosed with GAD (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 51). They provided twice daily ratings of negative affect, reappraisal, and acceptance over 14 days, and end-of-day ratings of NSRP. Mixed linear models adjusted for covariates, including state-level worry and rumination.ResultsIndividuals with GAD reported higher levels of negative than controls, and high negative affect corresponded to greater end-of-day NSRP across all participants. Increased emotion regulation skills altered the relationship between increased negative affect and higher NSRP, though this did not differ by group. Acceptance and reappraisal differentially affected associations between negative affect and NSRP.Conclusions Findings suggest that emotion regulation skills moderate the relationship between negative affect and end-of-day NSRP, highlighting the utility of using reappraisal and acceptance in daily life. This could eventually lead to improvements in treating GAD.
... This region plays a vital role in emotional regulation during the initial stages of sensory information processing and is related to most of the cortical sensory areas [54]. BB also appears uncomfortable because constant auditory stimuli can cause despair and anxiety [55]. ...
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Binaural refers to something relating to or involving both ears. When 2 sounds of slightly different frequencies are heard simultaneously by different ears, the brain combines these 2 signals and creates a binaural beat, perceived as a new, third sound. The effects of BB stimulation on the brain are considerably similar to those experienced during meditation. The frequency-following response (FFR), the tendency of cortical potentials to tune or resonate at the frequency of an external stimulus, can be used to create BB to entrain exact brain rhythms. Therefore, it may theoretically be conceivable to entrain a clear cortical rhythm using a precise BB frequency as a consciousness management technique. BB are a novel sound wave therapy with the potential to regulate behavior, cognition, and physiological factors such as blood pressure , anger, and stress. The electroencephalographic FFR in the brain and the BB appear to be associated. Multiple studies supporting the effectiveness of BB therapy have involved small cohorts and used subjective metrics such as questionnaires. Few high-quality recent studies have supported BB therapy's success in treating anxiety. Despite this, there are contradictory data on BB therapy's clinical benefits. Although not approved as a mainstream therapy, physicians evaluate it as a semi-experimental treatment to manage some psychological issues. Additionally, individuals can practice BB therapy in the comfort of their homes, as no training is required, and this trend is growing.
... It may be understood that rather than insight, subjective awareness of emotions and thoughts might instead elicit perseverative cognition or rumination (Volkaert et al., 2019;Watkins, 2008). However, in such case, deteriorating psychological outcomes would be expected. ...
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Objectives: The present demand for child and adolescent mental health services exceeds the capacity for service provision. Greater research is required to understand the utility of accessible self-help interventions, such as mobile apps. This study sought to investigate whether use of a mental health app, underpinned by CBT, led to changes in psychological distress amongst adolescents. Mechanisms of change were examined, specifically whether changes are attributable to cognitive strategies. Design: This study utilised a multiple-baseline single-case experimental design, tracking variables across baseline and intervention phases. Surveys assessing participant experience were also administered. Methods: Five participants with moderate-to-severe levels of psychological distress engaged with a CBT-based app over five weeks. Participants were recruited from both a well-being service and the general population. Supplementary weekly calls to participants offered clarification of app content. Results: A small overall effect of the intervention of psychological distress was evident; however, outcomes were dependent on the analysis conducted. The intervention appeared to promote an increase in use of adaptive cognitive strategies but not negative thinking styles. The CBT app did not promote changes in participant well-being. Participant feedback highlighted practical challenges of utilising the app. Conclusions: The clinical benefits of app-based CBT were small, and a range of barriers to engagement were recognised. While further research is required, caution should be exercised in the interpretation of studies reporting on app effectiveness.
... Research has shown that ruminative thinking about events may be "part of the process of attempting to resolve the discrepancy between stressful events and core beliefs and assumptions" (Greenberg, 1995;Horowitz, 1985;Watkins, 2008, p. 164) and "a way to search for meaning and purpose" (Gabriel et al., 2021(Gabriel et al., , p. 1520. In short, rumination over a self-threat can be viewed as a necessary intermediary step in resolving the distress caused by the self-threat (Watkins, 2008). ...
Article
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Transactional and relational contract breach occur when organizations fail to deliver on promised personal benefits for employees and are associated with negative behaviors reciprocating such mistreatment. However, recent research suggests that ideological contract breach, a unique form of contract breach, may yield constructive behaviors because it is not organizations’ direct personal mistreatment of employees, but organizations’ abandonment of a valued cause to benefit a third party. Such an interesting prediction goes beyond the dominant social‐exchange framework, which mainly forecasts destructive responses to breach. In this research, we develop a novel self‐affirmation model to explain how ideological contract breach results in counterintuitive positive outcomes. In a hospital field study among medical professionals (N = 362) and their supervisors (N = 129), we found that ideological contract breach induces employees’ rumination about the breach, which in turn prompts them to self‐affirm core values at work. This self‐affirmation eventually spurs proactive serving behavior and self‐improvement behavior to compensate for the breached ideology. Professional identification enhances this self‐affirmation process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Persistent thoughts and actions on symptoms, causes, and outcomes of past personal experiences are called rumination (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2000). Studies report that rumination related to such critical components of psychological health as depressive symptoms, anxiety, hopelessness and pessimism (Ciesla andRoberts, 2007, Moberly andWatkins, 2008), is very much similar to psychological distress, described as mental state comprising of negative thoughts and feelings linked with depression, fear and anxiety (Restubog al., 2011). This cognitive pattern (rumination) is dependent on past happenings and consequences of frustration confronted by employees (Aldao et al., 2010, Papageorgiou andWells, 2004). ...
... Employees feel unhappy if such discrepancies persist (Watkins, 2008) and they are not considered helpful to others and their organizations (Watson and Clark, 1984). ...