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Background The Covid-19 pandemic is affecting the entire world population. During the first spread, most governments have implemented quarantine and strict social distancing procedures. Similar measures during recent pandemics resulted in an increase in post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression symptoms. The development of novel interventions t...

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... studies included in this review used very heterogeneous statistical approaches, a meta-analysis could not be conducted. Instead, we summarized the evidence and presented effect sizes [betas and odds ratios (OR)] with confidence intervals and indicated significant associations between PA and depression or anxiety, separately (see Table 2). In case the study just reported the unstandardized betas, we requested the standardized betas by e-mail. ...
Context 2
... are summarized and presented in Table 2. Out of ten studies reporting analyses on the association between the overall volume of PA and depression, seven studies showed that more PA is significantly associated with less depression symptoms [26,28,30,35,36,38,40], and three out of nine studies investigating the association between the overall volume of PA and anxiety symptoms showed that more PA is significantly associated with less anxiety symptoms [28,35,38]. ...
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... of Physical Activity with Depression and Anxiety During COVID-19 Table 2 Main results of multiple linear and logistic regressions analyzing the association of physical activity or exercise with symptoms of depression or anxiety in the included studies Association of Physical Activity with Depression and Anxiety During COVID-19 stress, in turn, may differentially impact individuals' level of PA. Whereas habitually active individuals might even increase their level of PA, those who had not yet integrated exercise as a part of daily life, reduce their level of PA Y yes, N no, NR not relevant ...

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... Understanding these factors is critical to informing future infectious disease mitigation policies that promote, rather than hinder physical activity [8]. This is especially important given evidence of the positive impact of physical activity on mental health during the pandemic [9], immune response to vaccination [10], COVID-19 outcomes [11], and critically, that physical inactivity will continue to be an important risk factor in future pandemics [12][13][14]. ...
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    Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic impacted individual physical activity levels. Less is known regarding how factors such as sociodemographic and built environment were associated with physical activity engagement during the pandemic. Understanding these factors is critical to informing future infectious disease mitigation policies that promote, rather than hinder physical activity. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of physical activity levels during the beginning of the pandemic (April-June 2020), including Stay-at-Home length and orders, neighborhood safety, and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Data included 517 participants who responded to an anonymous online survey. Physical activity was assessed with a modified Godin Leisure-time exercise questionnaire. We used logistic regression models to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between independent variables (e.g., demographic variables, neighborhood safety, COVID Stay-at-Home order and length of time) and physical activity levels that did not meet (i.e., < 600 metabolic equivalents of task [MET]-minutes/week) or met guidelines (i.e., ≥ 600 MET-minutes/week). We used R-Studio open-source edition to clean and code data and SAS V9.4 for analyses. Results Most participants were 18–45 years old (58%), female (79%), Hispanic (58%), and college/post-graduates (76%). Most (70%) reported meeting physical activity guidelines. In multivariate-adjusted analyses stratified by income, in the highest income bracket (≥ $70,000) pet ownership was associated with higher odds of meeting physical activity guidelines (aOR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.55), but this association did not persist for other income groups. We also found lower perceived neighborhood safety was associated with significantly lower odds of meeting physical activity guidelines (aOR = 0.15, 95% CI:0.04–0.61), but only among individuals in the lowest income bracket (< $40,000). Within this lowest income bracket, we also found that a lower level of education was associated with reduced odds of meeting physical activity guidelines. Discussion We found that perceived neighborhood safety, education and pet ownership were associated with meeting physical activity guidelines during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, but associations differed by income. These findings can inform targeted approaches to promoting physical activity during subsequent waves of COVID-19 or future pandemics.
    ... Prevention of risk factors is influenced by prenatal and/or early childhood programs that can support parents' skills by teaching them about children's behavioral patterns and social skills [42], [45]. Based on the study by Wolf et al., college student that does physical exercise (moderate to intense particularly) during the COVID-19 pandemic have lower chances of presenting depression or anxiety symptoms [46]. ...
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    Background: COVID-19 pandemic not only causes physical problems but also becomes a stressor and give problems to mental health that are commonly found in adolescence. Mental health disorders, such as anxiety and depression, can increase the risk of many physical health problems and reduce performance in work and social environment as well. Therefore, this literature review is aimed to discuss further and to broaden insight about the importance of mental health disorders and efforts to prevent mental health disorders among teenagers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Reviews: The COVID-19 pandemic has negative impacts in mental health. Depression and anxiety are the most common mental health condition in the general population that reported an increase until three times compared before the pandemic. Several studies about COVID-19 and anxiety showed that the younger population (especially young adults) tended to have more anxiety. The most distressing issue for teenagers in the pandemic is not being able to see their friends, being fear of their friends or family getting sick or dying from COVID-19. In addition, when compared to the older population, the younger population also uses social media more often that can cause anxiety due to information overload and misinformation. Summary: COVID-19 pandemic gives rise to various mental health problems among teenagers. Understanding the symptoms and prevention of mental health disorders such as health promotion and protection from specific mental illness are becoming the primary prevention of mental health problems
    ... The results of this systematic evaluation are consistent with the conclusions of the previously published systematic evaluation, which evaluates the beneficial effects of physical activity on depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic [81][82][83][84]. At the same time, the research of Liuyang et al. may have significant heterogeneity [59]. ...
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    (1) Background: Although physical activity has been widely recognized as an effective way to improve anxiety and depression, we lack a systematic summary of research on improving anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aims to systematically analyze how physical activity impacts on this situation in college students during COVID-19. (2) Methods: Both Chinese and English databases (PubMed the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang) were analyzed. All the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about physical activity intervention for this were included. We received eight eligible RCT experiments before the retrieval time (4 October 2022) in the meta-analysis. (3) Results: Physical activity benefits for college students with significant anxiety were (SMD = −0.50; 95% CI = −0.83 to −0.17; I2 = 84%; p < 0.001; Z = 2.98;) and depression (SMD = −0.62; 95% CI = −0.99 to −0.25; I2 = 80.7%; p < 0.001; Z = 3.27). Subgroup analyses showed physical activity of different intensities significantly impacted on improving college students’ depression and anxiety, but physical activity of 6 < 9 Mets intensity had a greater effect on anxiety than on depression. Interventions of eight weeks or less performed better than those of over eight weeks while interventions less than four times per week had a significant effect on improving the situation. The overall effect of a single intervention of 30 min was more effective than one of over 60 min. (4) Conclusion: Physical activities can effectively improve the situation of anxiety and depression for college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, a higher quality RCT experiment is needed to prove it.
    ... Moreover, social isolation during the pandemic had a negative effect on people's psychological wellbeing [25]. However, PA reduced the symptoms of depression and anxiety during the pandemic [26]. ...
    ... Other studies showed that social isolation during the pandemic had a negative effect on people's psychological well-being [25,35]. However, PA during the pandemic reduced the symptoms of depression and anxiety [26]. This finding is consistent with the data from our study that the psychological health improved more among people who did not exercise at all to the intensity of MVPA and those who did not exercise independently. ...
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    The aim of this study was to explore how the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, during which contact communication was severely restricted, changed psychological health indicators, such as subjective assessment of health and depression, impulsivity, stress and emotional intelligence (EI) and how that depended on age, gender, physical activity (PA), sports specificity and body mass index (BMI).We surveyed 6369 before and 2392 people during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were aged 18–74 years. Participants completed the Danish Physical Activity Questionnaire (DPAQ), the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSREIT), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 11 (BIS-11), subjective depression and health self-assessments. One-way and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed to assess the effect of independent variables on the dependent variables of MVPA (METs). Statistical analysis showed that restrictions during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic did not alter moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), except for a significant decrease in MVPA in women aged 18–25 years, or body mass index in women and men of different ages. An increase in depression and impulsivity was observed, especially an increase in unplanned or spontaneous activity. The restrictions during the first wave increased stress in women of all ages and, rather unexpectedly, improved health self-assessment in men.The study showed that the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic affected people’s subjective assessment of health, depression, stress and impulsivity in two ways: it “weakened the weak ones” and “strengthened the strong ones”.
    ... Evidence from Canada and other developed countries has shown that lockdowns throughout the pandemic have had a negative impact on PA participation as well as emotional, psychological, and social well-being [6,7]. Data from over 40,000 able-bodied individuals found that low levels of moderate to vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) during Disabilities 2022, 2 682 the pandemic were associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety [8]. To make matters worse, low levels of PA have been shown to be associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes [9]. ...
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    Background: This study examined self-reported physical activity (PA) participation, well-being, and perceived needs of Canadians with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, we assessed physical and mental health and the extent to which pre-identified needs were being met or unmet. Methods: Two iterations of the COVID-19 Disability Survey were conducted during two pandemic timeframes: June–December 2020 (iteration 1, n = 599) and December 2020–September 2021 (iteration 2, n = 528). PA participation was assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Physical and mental health were assessed with the PROMIS Global-10 questionnaire. A needs assessment was conducted on 11 needs pre-identified in partnership with community organizations. Results: Approximately 50% of respondents to both iterations reported that they did not do any moderate-vigorous intensity PA. While physical health was not different between timeframes, mental health was worse during iteration 2 than iteration 1 (p = 0.028). During both timeframes, access to recreation and leisure facilities was the greatest unmet need. Conclusion: These data highlight the low levels of PA and the perceived changes in PA, mental health, and recreational needs of Canadians with disabilities during the pandemic. The findings of the Survey were used to support policy change to remove barriers to PA participation for people with disabilities in Ontario.
    ... What is more, Marashi et al. [39] noted that during the pandemic, physically active individuals are mainly motivated by the fact that physical activity contributes to improving mental well-being and reducing anxiety. The findings of the study on benefits of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic show that encouraging people to be physically active may lead to an improvement in their mental health state [40]. ...
    ... The more active our study participants were, the fewer health disorders manifested through somatic symptoms they experienced. Wolf et al. [40] proved that individuals who performed PA regularly displayed fewer mental symptoms. More active persons had 12% to 32% lower chances of presenting symptoms of depression and 15% to 34% lower chances of displaying anxiety. ...
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    Background: COVID-19 pandemic has struck all of us suddenly and unexpectedly; it deprived the society of a sense of control over their lives on different levels. In a short period of time, it led to a number of changes in everyday life of people all over the world. In particular, these changes affected medical staff, who, all of a sudden, were burdened with new work-related responsibilities and duties. This situation may have had a detrimental effect on their mental health. Due to the unpredictability of the COVID-19 pandemic, we attempted to assess its consequences in terms of mental health and physical fitness of university students from countries in which different approaches to these issues were adopted. Methods: A total of 779 medical students (374 students from John Paul II University of Applied Sciences (ABNS) in Biala Podlaska, Poland, and 405 students from Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno (YKSUG), Belarus) took part in the survey. Three standardised psychometric tools were used in the study: The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and Stress Coping Inventory (Mini-COPE). In addition, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was applied. Results: The vast majority of students both from Poland and Belarus demonstrated high levels of physical activity. However, students from ABNS manifested significantly higher levels of physical activity compared to their counterparts from YKSUG. Students from Biala Podlaska had greater satisfaction with life during the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas their peers from Grodno exhibited higher levels of mental distress. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a significant exacerbation of mental health issues among medical students. In order to alleviate negative effects of the pandemic, it seems necessary for universities to monitor the physical and mental health state of students and to implement prevention programmes.
    ... There are still inconsistencies in the relationship between them [23]. A new review suggests that it is controversial about levels of PA that can reduce depression and anxiety, and there are many inconsistencies in the relationship between PA and them [24]. ...
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    Background: Internalizing problems is a worldwide burden that is not being abated with our current knowledge and treatment of the condition. Numerous clinical trials have supported that physical activity (PA) can reduce the internalizing problems in adolescents , but little is known about its mechanism of action. Therefore, the study objectives were to explore the potential relationship between physical activity (PA) and internalizing problems (depression and anxiety) from the perspective of body image and body mass index (BMI), and to provide an important reference for future self-esteem education and health promotion intervention. Methods: The participants in this study were 251 Chinese college students between 17 and 22 years old. Participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), the Body Image Questionnaire (BIQ), the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). A descriptive and correlational approach was used, using the PROCESS macro for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: (1) Physical activity was significantly negatively correlated with both dimensions of internalizing problems (t = -0.237, p < 0.001; t = -0.193, p < 0.01). (2) Body image had a significant moderating effect on the relationship between physical activity and anxiety among college students, but there was no moderating effect between depression and physical activity. BMI has no moderating effect on the two interrelationships. Conclusion: There is only body image that moderates the relationship between anxiety and physical activity.
    ... [69]. This recent trend is alarming because the reduction in physical activity and exercise due to constraints from the COVID-19 pandemic not only substantially contributes to the widespread inactivity-related health problems, but is also associated with the development of psy-chological problems such as stress, anxiety and depression [70,71] and is linked with an increased risk of developing a severe COVID-19 disease course [72]. Paradoxically, it has been suggested that regular exercise, including HIIT, may have a preventive role across the COVID-19 pandemic and reduce infection rates and diseases severity [73]. ...
    Article
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    Initially, we aimed to investigate the impact of a one-year worksite low-volume, high-intensity interval training (LOW-HIIT) on cardiometabolic health in 114 sedentary office workers. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, LOW-HIIT was discontinued after 6 months and participants were followed up for 6 months to analyze physical activity/exercise behavior and outcome changes during lockdown. Health examinations, including cardiopulmonary exercise testing and the assessment of cardiometabolic markers were performed baseline (T-1), after 6 months (T-2, termination of worksite LOW-HIIT) and 12 months (T-3, follow-up). Cycle ergometer LOW-HIIT (5 × 1 min at 85–95% HRmax) was performed 2×/week. For follow-up analyses, participants were classified into three groups: HIIT-group (continued home-based LOW-HIIT), EX-group (continued other home-based exercises), and NO-EX-group (discontinued LOW-HIIT/exercise). At T-2, VO2max (+1.5 mL/kg/min, p = 0.002), mean arterial blood pressure (MAB, −4 mmHg, p < 0.001), HbA1c (−0.2%, p = 0.005) and self-reported quality of life (QoL, +5 points, p < 0.001) were improved. At T-3, HIIT-group maintained VO2max and QoL and further improved MAB. EX-group maintained MAB and QoL but experienced a VO2max decrease. In NON-EX, VO2max, MAB and QoL deteriorated. We conclude that LOW-HIIT can be considered a promising option to improve cardiometabolic health in real-life conditions and to mitigate physical inactivity-related negative health impacts during lockdowns.
    ... Physically inactive patients were 118% more likely to have high levels of acute depressive symptoms (OR: 2.181, 95%CI 1.730-2.748). A recent systematic review of the general population including 42,293 individuals from 21 studies has found that people performing physical activity on a regular basis and having a stable physical activity routine during the COVID-19 pandemic have shown a lower chance of presenting with depressive symptoms with around 12-32% [30] Our study was supportive of this finding highlighting the importance of keeping moderate physical activity. COVID-19-specific conditions are very likely. ...
    Article
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    Background The large-scale changes in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme delivery in response to COVID-19 has led to diminished provision. The influence of these service changes on the depression symptoms of patients in CR programmes is unknown. Our study investigated the extent of depressive symptoms prior to and during the COVID-19 periods in patients with a previous history of depression at the start of CR. Methods Use of Registry routine practice data, National Audit of Cardiac Rehabilitation (NACR), from COVID-19 period Feb 2020 and Jan 2021, as well as pre COVID-19 period Feb 2019 and Jan 2020, was extracted. Depressive symptoms were defined according to Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score ≥ 8. Chi-square tests and independent samples t-tests were used to investigate baseline characteristics. Additionally, a binary logistic regression to examine the factors associated with high levels of depressive symptoms. Results In total 3661 patients with a history of depression were included in the analysis. Patients attending CR during COVID-19 were found to be 11% more likely to have high levels of acute depressive symptoms compared to patients attending CR prior to COVID-19. Physical inactivity, increased anxiety, a higher total number of comorbidities, increased weight, and living in the most deprived areas were statistically significant factors associated with high levels of acute depressive symptoms at the start of CR following multivariate adjustments. Conclusion Our research suggests that following a cardiac event patients with prior history of depression have high levels of acute depressive symptoms at CR baseline assessment. This finding exists in both the pre Covid-19 and Covid-19 periods in patients with a history of depression.
    ... Additional measures are needed to reduce the level of depression among students. In particular, physical activity can be beneficial, since it is shown that physical activity can reduce symptoms of depression [29,30]. ...
    Article
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    COVID-19 is associated with a range of long-lasting symptoms related to cognitive and psycho-emotional spheres. Even mild cases of the disease can lead to persistent cognitive deficits and deterioration of the psycho-emotional state. The purpose of our study was to examine the presence and frequency of psycho-emotional disorders and cognitive deficits in students who recovered from mild form of COVID-19. A total of 40 COVID-19 survivors and 25 healthy controls participated in our study. We assessed three core cognitive functions (inhibition, working memory, task-switching), reaction time and motor speed. We also assessed depression, anxiety and fatigue with self-report questionnaires. The COVID-19 group manifested increased depression and decreased inhibition in comparison with the controls. Our results show that even in young adults who have recovered from mild COVID-19, there are persisting cognitive and psycho-emotional deficits.