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Article
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Although the sport of triathlon provides an opportunity to research the effect of multi-disciplinary exercise on health across the lifespan, much remains to be done. The literature has failed to consistently or adequately report subject age group, sex, ability level, and/or event-distance specialization. The demands of training and racing are relat...

Citations

... They were mainly localised to the lower limbs, the vast majority being minor injuries such as abrasions, contusions, ankle sprain, muscle strain, muscle cramps and plantar fasciitis. These results agree with those obtained among competitive triathletes (Williams et al., 1998;Korkia et al., 1994;Vleck, 2010;Vleck et al., 2014;Vleck and Hoeden, 2020). ...
Article
Triathlon’s popularity is rapidly increasing, and epidemiological data relating to its related medical conditions is crucial to the development of proper medical plans and safety guidelines for it. This study examined the data from the medical reports collected during three consecutive editions of Ironman Italy, from 2017 to 2019. Out of 10,653 race-starters, 3.3% required medical attention sustaining 472 medical conditions. A significantly higher injury risk was found for females versus males (χ2 = 9.78, p = 0.02) and in long-distance (IR: 4.09/1,000hours) rather than in Olympic/middle distance races (IR: 1.75/1,000hours). Most (68.4%) conditions (including muscular exhaustion, hypothermia, and dehydration) were systemic, whilst only 10.2% were acute traumatic injuries. Of a total of 357 triathletes requiring medical assistance, 8.1% were a candidate for hospitalisation. The equipment and personnel that are required for the medical assistance in future triathlon events were estimated based on Maurer’s algorithm, and ten practical recommendations for triathlon medical support were formulated.
... Namely, a better type of coach should mean better individualization of the training process, and this is important as each athlete can respond to the same training stimuli in different ways (Bouchard, Rankinen & Timmons, 2011). Similar results are demonstrated in the study Vleck, Millet, and Alves (2014), where non-elite athletes who compete in the "age groups", were less likely to be coached than elite athletes. Additionally, the same study showed that this is most noticeable in a group of non-elite athletes with less experience. ...
... Additionally, the same study showed that this is most noticeable in a group of non-elite athletes with less experience. A significant correlation between the type of coach and running experience wasn't observed in our study, so it isn't compatible with the result of the study Vleck, Millet, and Alves (2014). Maybe the reason could be the sample that included only triathletes, comparing to our study where we had 71,54% of long-distance runners. ...
Conference Paper
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It is generally known that muscle strength depends on morphological dimensions. However, it is not completely defined which morphological dimensions have the largest contribution during single-joint and multi-joint movements. The aim of this study was to examine the predictor role of different morphological characteristics: body height - TV, body mass - TM, body composition (total muscle mass - SMM and regional muscle mass of arms - RSMM and leg - NSMM) and muscle cross-section area (PP) on maximum strength level (one-repetition maximum - 1RM). The sample consisted of 15 subjects (8 men and 7 women, age: 23.8 ± 1.4 years), who do not practice weight training. The 1RM test (kg) included two exercises: preacher curl (BP) and parallel squat (PC). Ultrasound diagnostics assessed the cross-section of the biceps brachii (mm) and quadriceps femoris (mm²) muscles, while SMM (kg), RSMM (kg) and NSMM (kg) were determined by the bioelectrical impedance method. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) between 1RM of both exercises and all morphological variables (r = 0.512-0.939). However, when backward regression analysis was applied, the best model singled out the variable PP biceps brachii as the most significant predictor of strength for precher curl exercise (R² = 0.882, p <0.01), and variables NSMM, TM and TV for parallel squat (R² = 0.838, p <0.01). These findings shows that muscle strength during flexion in the elbow joint is largely determined by the dimensions of the biceps brachii muscle. On the other hand, various morphological factors determine 1RM when performing squats, which indicates the complexity of the exercise. Keywords – muscle strength, ultrasound, bioimpedance, preacher curl, parallel squat
... Training loads can be monitored with different methods that are related to changes in performance, health and fatigue [3,15,24]. The session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) is accepted as a valid measure of training load. ...
... Monitoring fatigue levels throughout a training program, however, can be a challenging task. Even though many physiological measures have been investigated, most show little validity or practical application [3,15]. In this context, subjective measures (such as questionnaire-based surveys of mood and perceived stress,) have proven as or more effective than objective measures (such as blood markers and heart rate responses) [15,23,25,26]. ...
... Amateur triathletes make up the majority of participants [1]. Success in the sport requires that triathletes possess above average aerobic power and muscular endurance, along with well-developed anaerobic capacities for surges in pace and for the final moments of the race [2][3][4]. To be able to prepare for the demands of the sport while mastering the three disciplines, and depending on race distance [2,[5][6][7][8], age-group triathletes have been reported to train between 8 and 16 h per week. ...
Article
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Little is known about how recreational triathletes prepare for an Olympic distance event. The aim of this study was to identify the training characteristics of recreational-level triathletes within the competition period and assess how their preparation for a triathlon influences their health and their levels of fatigue. During the 6 weeks prior to, and the 2 weeks after, an Olympic distance triathlon, nine recreational athletes (five males, four females) completed a daily training log. Participants answered the Daily Analysis of Life Demands Questionnaire (DALDA), the Training Distress Scale (TDS) and the Alberta Swim Fatigue and Health Questionnaire weekly. The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q) was completed at the beginning of the study, on the day before the competition, and at the end of week 8. Training loads were calculated using session-based rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). The data from every week of training was compared to week 1 to determine how athletes’ training and health changed throughout the study. No changes in training loads, duration or training intensity distribution were seen in the weeks leading up to the competition. Training duration was significantly reduced in week 6 (p = 0.041, d = 1.58, 95% CI = 6.9, 421.9), while the number of sessions was reduced in week 6 (Z = 2.32, p = 0.02, ES = 0.88) and week 7 (Z = 2.31, p = 0.02, ES = 0.87). Training was characterized by large weekly variations in training loads and a high training intensity. No significant changes were seen in the DALDA, TDS or REST-Q questionnaire scores throughout the 8 weeks. Despite large spikes in training load and a high overall training intensity, these recreational-level triathletes were able to maintain their health in the 6 weeks of training prior to an Olympic distance triathlon.
... Namely, a better type of coach should mean better individualization of the training process, and this is important as each athlete can respond to the same training stimuli in different ways (Bouchard, Rankinen & Timmons, 2011). Similar results are demonstrated in the study Vleck, Millet, and Alves (2014), where non-elite athletes who compete in the "age groups", were less likely to be coached than elite athletes. Additionally, the same study showed that this is most noticeable in a group of non-elite athletes with less experience. ...
... Additionally, the same study showed that this is most noticeable in a group of non-elite athletes with less experience. A significant correlation between the type of coach and running experience wasn't observed in our study, so it isn't compatible with the result of the study Vleck, Millet, and Alves (2014). Maybe the reason could be the sample that included only triathletes, comparing to our study where we had 71,54% of long-distance runners. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
NODO test je dobro konstruisan test za učenike prvog razreda oba pola i savetuje se učenje ove veštine u nižim razredima osnovne s kole. Cilj uc enja ove ves tine ne mora biti sam sebi svrha, vec stvaranje solidne osnove za učenje osnovnih preskoka (kao što su raznoška ili zgrčka) u višim razredima osnovne škole. Iako u početku učenici nisu imali prethodno iskustvo u izvođenju ves tine, nakon uvodnog c asa mogli su da izvrs e opste kretanje ves tine. Kroz eksperimentalni proces, oc ekivano su se povec ali nivoi performansi veštine, ali isti, iako su utvrđeni kao značajni, nisu bili vrlo vidljivi kroz školske ocene koje bi učenici dobili za izvođenje veštine. Numeric ki vec e vrednosti ves tine, utvrđene kod uc enika u obe tac ke merenja, verovatno se mogu pripisati nižim nivoima straha i verovatno višim nivoima FMS veština (koje doprinose boljim performansama ove gimnastičke veštine). Isto se može primetiti i kroz radno iskustvo sa ovom populacijom. Međutim, isto ostaje da se utvrdi i naučno dokaže u daljim studijama. U zakljucku je moguc e primetiti da vreme eksperimentalnog tretmana (tri meseca) nije bilo dovoljno da pruži očiglednije-vidljivije poboljšanje performansi. Iako je klasifikovana kao jednostavna gimnastička veština i zaista je samo mali segment „prave“ veštine preskoka, očigledno je da učenicima prvog razreda to nije tako jednostavno i da im treba više vremena i frekvencija za poboljšanje performanse.
... Namely, a better type of coach should mean better individualization of the training process, and this is important as each athlete can respond to the same training stimuli in different ways (Bouchard, Rankinen & Timmons, 2011). Similar results are demonstrated in the study Vleck, Millet, and Alves (2014), where non-elite athletes who compete in the "age groups", were less likely to be coached than elite athletes. Additionally, the same study showed that this is most noticeable in a group of non-elite athletes with less experience. ...
... Additionally, the same study showed that this is most noticeable in a group of non-elite athletes with less experience. A significant correlation between the type of coach and running experience wasn't observed in our study, so it isn't compatible with the result of the study Vleck, Millet, and Alves (2014). Maybe the reason could be the sample that included only triathletes, comparing to our study where we had 71,54% of long-distance runners. ...
Presentation
Introduction Up to 50% of regular runners report having more than one injury each year. The same has been reported in triathletes as well. Most Running-Related Injuries (RRI) are due to overuse. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between running experience, performance in half-marathon, and frequencies of RRI in runners and triathletes. Method An anonymous online survey was created (Google Forms) for collecting data by closed-ended answers, in Serbian and Italian languages. The survey contained 74 questions that referred to personal data, sports experience, and RRI in the last year. The criteria for selecting subjects were: male athletes (age: 25-54 years) who have completed at least one half-marathon and/or half-ironman in the past two years and have been training for one in the last year. Descriptive statistics, Spearman's rho correlation coefficient and Chi-square test were used („Excel 2016“ and „IBM SPSS 20“). Results and discussion Of the total number of participants (n = 123), 51 (41,46%) had at least one RRI in the last year. There was no significant difference between the frequency of RRI in runners and triathletes (χ2 = 5,028, p = 0,540). A significant weak negative correlation was observed between frequencies of RRI and performance (rho = -0,185, p = 0,040), and running experience (rho = -0,215, p = 0,017). In addition, a significant strong positive correlation was observed between performance and running experience (rho = 0,388, p = 0,000). Similar results were found in other studies that have examined similar topics (Kemler, et al., 2018; Videbæka, et al., 2015). These results can be useful in practice because they indicate that beginners need longer to adapt to a training process aimed at preparing for a half-marathon distance. Conclusion Runners with longer running experience had a better result in the half-marathon race and a lower frequency of RRI. No significant correlation was observed between the frequency of RRI in runners and triathletes.
... Namely, a better type of coach should mean better individualization of the training process, and this is important as each athlete can respond to the same training stimuli in different ways (Bouchard, Rankinen & Timmons, 2011). Similar results are demonstrated in the study Vleck, Millet, and Alves (2014), where non-elite athletes who compete in the "age groups", were less likely to be coached than elite athletes. Additionally, the same study showed that this is most noticeable in a group of non-elite athletes with less experience. ...
... Additionally, the same study showed that this is most noticeable in a group of non-elite athletes with less experience. A significant correlation between the type of coach and running experience wasn't observed in our study, so it isn't compatible with the result of the study Vleck, Millet, and Alves (2014). Maybe the reason could be the sample that included only triathletes, comparing to our study where we had 71,54% of long-distance runners. ...
... To improve the physiological and morphological factors that determine performance in endurance races, athletes will often increase their training volume, especially training duration, among other training strategies, such as intensity [6]. Elite triathletes tend to train more than 20 h/week [12], whereas amateur triathletes train about 13 h/week [13]. This training load of amateur triathletes is half the time of professional triathletes, but more than the training volume of amateur marathon runners of 5 h/week [13]. ...
... The results of this study indicate that the volume of training of amateur athletes is high and is similar to the volume performed by professional athletes. It was observed that 33% of men and 32% of women trained more than 20 h per week, which is similar to the elite weekly training hours [12]. The performance in each sub-discipline of the triathlon (swimming, cycling or running) was also not significantly different among those who spent different quantities of hours in the weekly training of the respective discipline. ...
Article
Purpose To investigate the association between training volume, sleep time, signs and symptoms of excessive training (overtraining), and previous triathlon experience with overall and split race times in the Ironman distance triathlon. Methods Ninety-nine triathletes (19 women and 80 men) answered an online survey containing questions about anthropometric characteristics (body mass and height), weekly training volume (hours per day and days per week), previous experience in Ironman distance triathlon race, and signs and symptoms of excessive training. Data of race times of all participants were collected by a single race (the Ironman Brazil 2019 – Florianópolis). All surveys were collected between 28 and 30 days before the race. The athlete was instructed to answer the questions according to what was happening in the week before completing the survey. Results : Total race time did not differ among those who trained up to 14 hours per week (11:28:46±01:54:30 h:min:sec), between 15 and 20 hours per week (11:37:31±01:20:26 h:min:sec) or more than 20 hours per week (11:30:18±01:31:28 h:min:sec) (p=0.922). Total race time of the triathletes who presented (12:42:22±01:49:36 h:min:sec) or no (11:23:06±01:29:02 h:min:sec) unintentional body mass loss (p=0.006), feeling (12:46:17±02:03:13 h:min:sec) or no (11:24:09±01:28:07 h:min:sec) of decreased performance (p=0.009) or feeling (12:08:58±01:47:12 h:min:sec) or no (11:16:34±01:24:53 h:min:sec) loss of energy (p=0.011) in the week prior to the race were significantly different. Triathletes who had a previous experience in Ironman races achieved a better performance (11:15:21±01:32:04 h:min:sec) than those without previous experience (12:06:38±01:32:10 h:min:sec) (p=0.010). Conclusion In summary, high volumes of training (more than 20 hours per week), when performed forty days before a race, may not have a positive impact on performance compared to lower volumes of training (up to 14 hours per week). However, athletes who had a previous experience in Ironman race presented better results in swimming splits and overall race time. Moreover, the presence of overtraining symptoms, such as unintentional loss of weight, sensation of fatigue and/or performance decrease impact negatively triathlon performance.
... It is known that combining three sports for training sessions adds a training load to the athletes' life that could influence their behavioral (e.g., confidence, stress, mood) and psychological characteristics. However, the psychological characteristics (e.g., motivation, emotion, passion) of amateur triathletes have not been described or defined in previous studies (31,45). ...
... 144 anxiety-tension subscale was at its highest point after the 4 th month of training. Other studies have shown similar results over triathletes using the POMS scale (32,45). One study found significant differences between their baseline and 6 th month for the anxiety somatic (symptoms like muscle tension, headaches) subscale, using the competitive scale anxiety inventory, and the fatigue subscale of the POMS (32). ...
Article
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Preparation for an endurance event among amateur athletes requires a major commitment on their part. Knowing amateur athletes' psychological characteristics during a training period should be a priority for coaches and athletes. The aim of our longitudinal study was to characterize the psychological profile of amateur athletes over a training period of six months prior to and after a long-distance triathlon. Thirty-two amateur athletes (13 females; 19 males; 1.5±1.3 years of experience) were recruited for this observational study. All participants (39±9.9 years old; weighs 73±12.9 kg; measure 172±10.2 cm) underwent a physical fitness assessment pre-and post 6-months of training, a monthly psychological questionnaire battery assessing mood, positive and negative affect, passion and motivation and, for some participants (n=5), an interview post event. Positive emotions increased until the sixth month, from 38.1±22.0 to 54.3±7.2 (Z=3.49, p<0.001, r=0.80). Participants were more harmonious (29.0±3.0) than obsessive (13.0±1.0) with their triathlon's passion (Z=4.91, p<0.001, r=0.85). Participants felt a high level of intrinsic motivation (15.9±1.76) and a low level of external motivation (4.9±1.08) about their triathlon training (p<0.05). The vigor score is the only sub scale that significantly changed from the 1st to the 6th month of training, and ranged between 21.4±10.6 and 28.1±4.1 (Z=2.0, p=0.046, r=0.46). This longitudinal observational study is the first to have explored athletes' psychological and emotional parameters over a training period of six months prior to a long-distance triathlon event and one month after. Thus, specific interventions and mental training can be structured around these important milestones.
... They did not reveal any positive correlation between the performed tests. Increased CK-MB activity does not reflect myocardial disorders (LA GERCHE et al. 2004;VLECK et al. 2014). A study by LOTT and STANG (1980) on swimmers in a training cycle showed only minimal amounts of CK-MB, insufficient to qualify the event as myocardial damage. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to assess how the influence of intense physical effort changes themorphological, rheological, and biochemical blood indicators in triathletes. The study groupcomprised 10 triathletes aged 30-45 years, members of the Active Side of Life Association (Kraków,Poland). Venous blood was collected from the study participants twice, before and after theDiablakBeskid Extreme Triathlon 2016 (the Carpathians, Poland), and once from the control group foranalysis of the selected blood indicators. Statistically significant changes were observed in the studygroup before and after the triathlon in morphological blood indicators, in the elongation index at theshear stress of 0.30 and 0.58 Pa, in levels of electrolytes, creatinine (mmol/l), serum proteinparameters, and high-sensitivity troponin (ng/l). No such differences were reported for the remainingparameters. In turn, when comparing the study group before the triathlon with the control group,statistically significant differences were recorded in MCHC (g/dl), in the elongation index at the shearstress of 0.30 and 0.58 Pa, and Cl–(mmol/l) levels. No such differences were reported for the remainingparameters. Blood haematological and biochemical indicators in individuals that participate intriathlons characterize the actual range and direction of effort-related changes well and allow for thediagnosis of transient adaptive effects. Rheological parameters, involving the evaluation oferythrocyte deformability and aggregation, are useful for monitoring the particularly undesirable,short- and long-term effects of practicing extreme sports such as triathlons
... Even if many variations of the sport exist, triathlon, in its most popular form, involves swimming, cycling, and running in immediate succession over various distances [2]. Triathlon thereby provides a great opportunity to investigate the effects of multidisciplinary exercises on health, and to this aim, much remains to be done [3]. Long competitions require great power endurance possibly leading to heat stress and dehydration [4,5], muscle injury [6], oxidative stress [7,8], inflammation [9,10], immunologic alterations [11,12], and cardiac remodeling [13]. ...
... Although up to now the demands of training and competition in an ultra-endurance race are not well described, it has been suggested that triathletes do "extreme amounts of exercises" [3]. Therefore, triathlon Ironman® distance competition can be considered suitable to be studied as a very interesting model of an extreme physiological situation able to promote the deleterious actions of ROS. ...
Article
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The response to strenuous exercise was investigated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidative damage, thiol redox status, and inflammation assessments in 32 enrolled triathlon athletes (41.9±7.9 yrs) during Ironman® (IR), or half Ironman® (HIR) competition. In biological samples, inflammatory cytokines, aminothiols (glutathione (GSH), homocysteine (Hcy), cysteine (Cys), and cysteinylglycine (CysGly)), creatinine and neopterin, oxidative stress (OxS) biomarkers (protein carbonyl (PC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)), and ROS were assessed. Thirteen HIR and fourteen IR athletes finished the race. Postrace, ROS (HIR +20%; IR +28%; p