FIGURE 9 - uploaded by Carballido Jose
Content may be subject to copyright.
cf. Zapalasaurus . MOZ-Pv 1244, left tibia in A , lateral; B , distal; C , proximal; D , medial; and E , posterior views; MOZ-Pv 1245, left fibula in F , lateral; G , anterior; H , medial; I , distal; and J , proximal views. Abbreviations : ap , anterior process; cc , cnemial crest; lt , lateral tuberosity; pp , posterior process. Scale bar equals 7 cm. 

cf. Zapalasaurus . MOZ-Pv 1244, left tibia in A , lateral; B , distal; C , proximal; D , medial; and E , posterior views; MOZ-Pv 1245, left fibula in F , lateral; G , anterior; H , medial; I , distal; and J , proximal views. Abbreviations : ap , anterior process; cc , cnemial crest; lt , lateral tuberosity; pp , posterior process. Scale bar equals 7 cm. 

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
For the first time an association of adult and juvenile rebbachisaurid sauropods is described. The material comes from the Early Cretaceous locality of Agrio del Medio (Neuquén, Argentina). The three specimens apparently formed a single group, and their death seems to have been almost simultaneous. The two juvenile specimens are represented by axia...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... left tibia is preserved (MOZ-Pv 1244; Fig. 9A-E). The tibia is robust (robustness index sensu Wilson and Upchurch [2003] = 0.36) and lateromedially compressed, which gives it a laminar appearance, although this could be exaggerated by the diagenetic compression of the fossil, especially in its proximal part ( Fig. 9E; Table 2). In its proportions it is similar to the holo- type of ...
Context 2
... left tibia is preserved (MOZ-Pv 1244; Fig. 9A-E). The tibia is robust (robustness index sensu Wilson and Upchurch [2003] = 0.36) and lateromedially compressed, which gives it a laminar appearance, although this could be exaggerated by the diagenetic compression of the fossil, especially in its proximal part ( Fig. 9E; Table 2). In its proportions it is similar to the holo- type of Zapalasaurus bonapartei, which is also short (though Sal- gado et al. [2006: fig. 8C] reconstructed the tibia of Zapalasaurus with an angular cnemial crest, like that of the diplodocoids Ap- atosaurus and ...
Context 3
... internal or medial surface of MOZ-Pv 1244 is slightly con- cave in its proximal part, flat in its middle part, and at its distal end it is flat anteriorly and convex posteriorly (Fig. ...
Context 4
... left fibula preserved (MOZ-Pv 1245; Fig. 9F-J) is strongly lateromedially compressed. MOZ-Pv 1245 is hardly any longer than the tibia and is more gracile (Table 2). Its ends are slightly anteroposteriorly expanded, especially the proximal end, which is more expanded than in Apatosaurus (Gilmore, 1936: fig. 24). On the lateral surface the lateral tuberosity or trochanter is ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
In the province of Chubut in Patagonia, Argentina, Nothofagus pumilio forests (locally known as lenga), are managed through selective cuts, which imply the opening of canopy gaps. This management scheme is carried out without taking into consideration the changes of sapling requirements through either a cutting cycle or the precipitation gradient i...

Citations

... Transitional Aptian-Albian deposits in both Brazil [164] and Argentina [165][166][167] are dominated by rebbachisaurids, although fragmentary remains belonging to titanosauriforms are also present in the Brazilian deposits [168], and the non-titanosaurian somphospondylan Chubutisaurus is present in Argentina [169][170][171]. Albian-aged deposits in Argentina show some variation. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Upper Cretaceous Winton Formation of Queensland, Australia, has produced several partial sauropod skeletons, but cranial remains—including teeth—remain rare. Herein, we present the first description of sauropod teeth from this formation, based on specimens from three separate sites. An isolated tooth and a dentary fragment from the Diamantinasaurus matildae type locality are considered to be referable to that titanosaurian taxon. A single tooth from the D. matildae referred specimen site is similarly regarded as being part of that individual. Seventeen teeth from a new site that are morphologically uniform, and similar to the teeth from the two Diamantinasaurus sites, are assigned to Diamantinasauria. All sauropod teeth recovered from the Winton Formation to date are compressed-cone-chisel-shaped, have low slenderness index values (2.00–2.88), are lingually curved at their apices, mesiodistally convex on their lingual surfaces, and lack prominent carinae and denticles. They are markedly different from the chisel-like teeth of derived titanosaurs, more closely resembling the teeth of early branching members of the titanosauriform radiation. This provides further support for a ‘basal’ titanosaurian position for Diamantinasauria. Scanning electron microscope microwear analysis of the wear facets of several teeth reveals more scratches than pits, implying that diamantinasaurians were mid-height (1–10 m) feeders. With a view to assessing the spatio-temporal distribution of sauropod tooth morphotypes before and after deposition of the Winton Formation, we provide a comprehensive continent-by-continent review of the early titanosauriform global record (Early to early Late Cretaceous). This indicates that throughout the Early–early Late Cretaceous, sauropod faunas transitioned from being quite diverse at higher phylogenetic levels and encompassing a range of tooth morphologies at the start of the Berriasian, to faunas comprising solely titanosaurs with limited dental variability by the end-Turonian. Furthermore, this review highlights the different ways in which this transition unfolded on each continent, including the earliest records of titanosaurs with narrow-crowned teeth on each continent.
... The last South American rebbachisaurids to be erected are Lavocatisaurus agrioensis Canudo et al. 2018, founded on at least three specimens (two juveniles and one adult) from the Lower Cretaceous of the Neuquén Province (Aptian-Albian), previously described by Salgado et al. (2012) In this chapter, we offer a summary of the main anatomical characteristics of rebbachisaurids, a systematic list of the recognized taxa for South America, and a historical review of the main phylogenetic and paleobiogeographic analyzes performed on the group. ...
... The general proportions of this element resemble those of Zapalasaurus bonapartei (Salgado et al. 2006: Fig. 8C). As in other rebbachisaurids, the proximal articulation of the tibia of L. agrioensis is anteroposteriorly expanded, and oval instead of subcircular as in more derived diplodocoids, although Salgado et al. (2012) do not reject that this can be due to the early ontogenetic condition of the specimen. The anteroposterior expansion of the proximal articulation of the tibia reaches 30% of the total length of the bone in L. agrioensis. ...
Chapter
With 17 species formally identified throughout the world, Rebbachisauridae is, at present, the best-represented group of South American diplodocoids, and it has a temporal record ranging from the Barremian up to the Turonian. Defined as all diplodocoids more closely related to Rebbachisaurus garasbae than to Diplodocus carnegii, these sauropods are characterized by postcranial synapomorphies (e.g., absence of the hyposphenal ridge on anterior caudal vertebrae; presence of spinodiapophyseal lamina in caudal vertebrae). Although relatively complete skulls are known in only a few genera (Limaysaurus, Lavocatisaurus, and Nigersaurus), the whole cranial evidence indicates that they were highly specialized with respect to other diplodocoids (for instance Diplodocidae). South America counts ten genera of Rebbachisauridae, most of them from the Argentine Patagonia. They embrace a rather diverse group of basally branching forms (Amazonsaurus, Zapalasaurus, Comahuesaurus, and Lavocatisaurus), derived forms (as the limaysaurines Limaysaurus and Cathartesaura and the rebbachisaurines Katepensaurus and Itapeuasaurus), together with forms of uncertain phylogenetic filiation (Rayososaurus). Rebbachisaurids were important in South America toward the end of the Early Cretaceous, integrating, at that time, the sauropod faunas together with macronarians (Titanosauriformes) and other diplodocoids (Dicraeosauridae). They persisted up to at least the Turonian, being the last diplodocoids in becoming extinct globally.
... This is supported by the similar deformation features identified in the individual tracks of each trackmaker, which indicate similar substrate conditionsparticularly with respect to water content-at the time of track formation. This implies that at least some sauropods in the Winton Formation might have been gregarious, a behaviour implied by several sauropod body fossil deposits (Myers & Fiorillo, 2009;Salgado et al., 2012) and many sauropod trackways around the world (Barnes & Lockley, 1994;Castanera et al., 2011;García-Ortiz & Pérez-Lorente, 2014;Lockley et al., 2002;Lockley et al., 2012;Myers & Fiorillo, 2009;Ostrom, 1972), including several trackways from the Broome Sandstone of Western Australia (Thulborn, 2012). As noted above, the two main trackways (AODF 904.S1 and AODF 904.S2) were not made simultaneously (as they appear to cross over), but little time evidently separated their formation based on their similar quality of preservation. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Upper Cretaceous 'upper' Winton Formation of Queensland, Australia is world famous for hosting Dinosaur Stampede National Monument at Lark Quarry Conservation Park, a somewhat controversial tracksite that preserves thousands of tridactyl dinosaur tracks attributed to ornithopods and theropods. Herein, we describe the Snake Creek Tracksite, a new vertebrate ichnoassemblage from the 'upper' Winton Formation, originally situated on Karoola Station but now relocated to the Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum of Natural History. This site preserves the first sauropod tracks reported from eastern Australia, a small number of theropod and ornithopod tracks, the first fossilised crocodyliform and ?turtle tracks reported from Australia, and possible lungfish and actinopterygian feeding traces. The sauropod trackways are wide-gauge, with manus tracks bearing an ungual impression on digit I, and anteriorly tapered pes tracks with straight or concave forward posterior margins. These tracks support the hypothesis that at least one sauropod taxon from the 'upper' Winton Formation retained a pollex claw (previously hypothesised for Diamantinasaurus matildae based on body fossils). Many of the crocodyliform trackways indicate underwater walking. The Snake Creek Tracksite reconciles the sauropod-, crocodyliform-, turtle-, and lungfish-dominated body fossil record of the 'upper' Winton Formation with its heretofore ornithopod-and theropod-dominated ichnofossil record.
... The interpretation proposed here is consistent with the recent biogeographical analyses of Kubo (2020), who used a phylogenetic network approach and a dinosaurian supertree to demonstrate that Cretaceous Australian dinosaur faunas have their closest links to South America, within a larger Gondwanan set of biotic affinities. It will be important to test these ideas further via discoveries of more complete specimens of key taxa, such as Sarmientosaurus, combined with the 2005; Apesteguía, 2007;Carballido et al., 2010Carballido et al., , 2012Haluza et al., 2012;Paulina Carabajal et al., 2016;Canudo et al., 2018). Some of the geologically youngest rebbachisaurids in South America (Ibiricu et al., 2013(Ibiricu et al., , 2015 are the highest-latitude (palaeolatitude of ~52°S) representatives of the clade (Ibiricu et al., 2012), but their remains have never been recovered from southern Patagonia. ...
... Based on the distribution of their earliest occurrences, rebbachisaurids are likely to have dispersed into Africa from Europe (via the 'Apulian route'), then from north-west Africa into northeast South America before or during the Barremian (Lindoso et al., 2019;Pereira et al., 2020). During the mid-Cretaceous, rebbachisaurids proliferated in northern Africa (Sereno et al., 1999(Sereno et al., , 2007Fanti et al., 2013Fanti et al., , 2014Fanti et al., , 2015Mannion & Barrett, 2013;Wilson & Allain, 2015), north-east South America (Carvalho et al., 2003;Medeiros & Schultz, 2004;Castro et al., 2007;Lindoso et al., 2019;Pereira et al., 2020) and Patagonia (Calvo & Salgado, 1995;Bonaparte, 1996;Calvo, 1999;Salgado et al., 2004Salgado et al., , 2006Salgado et al., , 2012 ...
Article
The titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur Diamantinasaurus matildae is represented by two individuals from the Cenomanian-lower Turonian 'upper' Winton Formation of central Queensland, northeastern Australia. The type specimen has been described in detail, whereas the referred specimen, which includes several elements not present in the type series (partial skull, atlas, axis and postaxial cervical vertebrae), has only been described briefly. Herein, we provide a comprehensive description of this referred specimen, including a thorough assessment of the external and internal anatomy of the braincase, and identify several new autapomorphies of D. matildae. Via an expanded data matrix consisting of 125 taxa scored for 552 characters, we recover a close, well-supported relationship between Diamantinasaurus and its contemporary, Savannasaurus elliottorum. Unlike previous iterations of this data matrix, under a parsimony framework we consistently recover Diamantinasaurus and Savannasaurus as early-diverging members of Titanosauria using both equal weighting and extended implied weighting, with the overall topology largely consistent between analyses. We erect a new clade, named Diamantinasauria herein, that also includes the contemporaneous Sarmientosaurus musacchioi from southern Argentina, which shares several cranial features with the referred Diamantinasaurus specimen. Thus, Diamantinasauria is represented in the mid-Cretaceous of both South America and Australia, supporting the hypothesis that some titanosaurians, in addition to megaraptoran theropods and possibly some ornithopods, were able to disperse between these two continents via Antarctica. Conversely, there is no evidence for rebbachisaurids in Australia, which might indicate that they were unable to expand into high latitudes before their extinction in the Cenomanian-Turonian. Likewise, there is no evidence for titanosaurs with procoelous caudal vertebrae in the mid-Cretaceous Australian record, despite scarce but compelling evidence for their presence in both Antarctica and New Zealand during the Campanian-Maastrichtian. These later titanosaurs presumably dispersed into these landmasses from South America before the Campanian (~85 Mya), when seafloor spreading between Zealandia and Australia commenced. Although Australian mid-Cretaceous dinosaur faunas appear to be cosmopolitan at higher taxonomic levels, closer affinities with South America at finer scales are becoming better supported for sauropods, theropods and ornithopods.
... The specimen was found in 2012 as part of a project that aims to explore the 'mid' Cretaceous outcrops of the Neuqu en basin. These works have mainly been centered on the Rayoso Formation (Carballido et al., 2010;Salgado et al., 2012;Canudo et al., 2013Canudo et al., , 2017Canudo et al., , 2018 and the Candeleros Formation, with the present paper being the first contribution related to new findings from the latter unit. The new specimen includes articulated anterior-middle caudal vertebrae plus isolated posterior caudals, pelvis and other appendicular elements. ...
Article
One of the most fascinating research topics in the field of sauropod dinosaurs is the evolution of gigantism. In the particular case of Titanosauria, the record of multi-ton species (those exceeding 40 tons) comes mainly from Patagonia. The record of super-sized titanosaur sauropods has traditionally been extremely fragmentary, although recent discoveries of more complete taxa have revealed significant anatomical information previously unavailable due to preservation biases. In this contribution we present a giant titanosaur sauropod from the Candeleros Formation (Cenomanian, circa 98 Ma) of Neuquén Province, composed of an articulated sequence of 20 most anterior plus 4 posterior caudal vertebrae and several appendicular bones. This specimen clearly proves the presence of a second taxon from Candeleros Formation, in addition to Andesaurus, and is here considered one of the largest sauropods ever found, probably exceeding Patagotitan in size. While anatomical analysis does not currently allow us to regard it as a new species, the morphological disparity and the lack of equivalent elements with respect to coeval taxa also prevent us from assigning this new material to already known genera. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis places this new specimen at the base of the clade leading to Lognkosauria, in a polytomy with Bonitasaura. The specimen here reported strongly suggests the co-existence of the largest and middle-sized titanosaurs with small-sized rebbachisaurids at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous in Neuquén Province, indicating putative niche partitioning. This set of extremely large taxa from Patagonia has contributed to a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of titanosaurs, revealing the existence of a previously unknown lineage and shedding new light on body mass evolution.
... The rebbachisaurid bones studied in this paper were recovered near the locality of Agrio del Medio, a small town in the central part of the province of Neuquén (Patagonia, Argentina; Fig. 1). In geological terms, Salgado et al. (2012) situated the fossils in the Rayoso Formation, one of the Lower Cretaceous units that outcrop in the Neuquén Basin (Leanza 2003). The four members of this formation can be clearly identified in the area around Agrio del Medio; from the oldest to youngest these are the Rincón, Quili Malal, Pichi Neuquén, and Cañadón de la Zorra members. ...
... nov. is represented by almost all the anatomical elements, with the exception of the neural arches of the dorsal vertebrae (there is only one dorsal centrum, corresponding to one of the paratypes). Salgado et al. (2012) described in detail the bones of the juvenile specimens such as the radius, fibula, ulna, metacarpals, etc.; that description will not be repeated in the present work. Rather, we shall briefly describe the bones of the holotype, and any bones of the paratypes not described in the work cited above. ...
... The holotype presented the cervical vertebrae and the first twenty vertebrae of the caudal series, articulated and arched, all of these together with the rest of the material scattered over an area of some 8 m 2 (map of site in Salgado et al. 2012). The paratypic material was differentiated on the basis of its size, as well as by the fact that the neural arch of the only dorsal vertebra preserved was unfused, unlike in the adult specimen. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rebbachisaurids are a group of basal diplodocimorph sauropods that diversified in Gondwana at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the beginning of the Late Cretaceous. It is a group of great palaeobiogeographical interest, for it clearly illustrates various processes of dispersal throughout Gondwana and to Laurasia prior to the breakup of Africa and South America. However, the relationships within the group are still under discussion owing to the scarcity of cranial material that would help clarify them. In the present paper we describe the new rebbachisaurid Lavocatisaurus agrioensis gen. et sp. nov. from the Aptian-Albian (Lower Cretaceous) of Neuquén (Argentina). Remains have been recovered belonging to an adult specimen (holotype) and two immature specimens (paratypes). Taken together, almost all the bones of the taxon are represented, including most of the cranium. Lavocatisaurus agrioensis gen. et sp. nov. is the first rebbachisaurid from Argentina with an almost complete cranium, making it possible to recognize differences with respect to other rebbachisaurids, such as the highly derived Nigersaurus. Among its most notable characters are the presences of a large preantorbital fenestra and maxillary teeth that are significantly larger than those of the dentary. Our phylogenetic study places Lavocatisaurus amongst basal rebbachisaurids, as the sister lineage to Khebbashia (the clade formed by Limaysaurinae + Rebbachisaurinae). This position, which is somewhat more derived than that previously suggested for Comahuesaurus and Zapalasaurus (the Argentinean rebbachisaurids closest in geographical and geological terms), reaffirms the presence of different basal rebbachisaurid lineages in the Early Cretaceous of Patagonia.
... (Pereda-Suberbiola et al., 2011;Salgado et al., 2012;Otero et al., 2012).The first hemal arch of the series, MDS-OTII,27 Caudal vertebrae of Europatitan eastwoodi n. gen. n. sp. ...
Article
Full-text available
The sauropod of El Oterillo II is a specimen that was excavated from the Castrillo de la Reina Formation (Burgos, Spain), late Barremian–early Aptian, in the 2000s but initially remained undescribed. A tooth and elements of the axial skeleton, and the scapular and pelvic girdle, represent it. It is one of the most complete titanosauriform sauropods from the Early Cretaceous of Europe and presents an opportunity to deepen our understanding of the radiation of this clade in the Early Cretaceous and study the paleobiogeographical relationships of Iberia with Gondwana and with other parts of Laurasia. The late Barremian–early Aptian is the time interval in the Cretaceous with the greatest diversity of sauropod taxa described in Iberia: two titanosauriforms, Tastavinsaurus and Europatitan; and a rebbachisaurid, Demandasaurus. The new sauropod Europatitan eastwoodi n. gen. n. sp. presents a series of autapomorphic characters in the presacral vertebrae and scapula that distinguish it from the other sauropods of the Early Cretaceous of Iberia. Our phylogenetic study locates Europatitan as the basalmost member of the Somphospondyli, clearly differentiated from other clades such as Brachiosauridae and Titanosauria, and distantly related to the contemporaneous Tastavinsaurus. Europatitan could be a representative of a Eurogondwanan fauna like Demandasaurus, the other sauropod described from the Castrillo de la Reina Formation. The presence of a sauropod fauna with marked Gondwananan affinities in the Aptian of Iberia reinforces the idea of faunal exchanges between this continental masses during the Early Cretaceous. Further specimens and more detailed analysis are needed to elucidate if this Aptian fauna is caused by the presence of previously unnoticed Aptian land bridges, or it represents a relict fauna from an earlier dispersal event.
... (Pereda-Suberbiola et al., 2011;Salgado et al., 2012;Otero et al., 2012).The first hemal arch of the series, MDS-OTII,27 Caudal vertebrae of Europatitan eastwoodi n. gen. n. sp. ...
Article
Full-text available
The sauropod of El Oterillo II is a specimen that was excavated from the Castrillo de la Reina Formation (Burgos, Spain), late Barremian–early Aptian, in the 2000s but initially remained undescribed. A tooth and elements of the axial skeleton, and the scapular and pelvic girdle, represent it. It is one of the most complete titanosauriform sauropods from the Early Cretaceous of Europe and presents an opportunity to deepen our understanding of the radiation of this clade in the Early Cretaceous and study the paleobiogeographical relationships of Iberia with Gondwana and with other parts of Laurasia. The late Barremian–early Aptian is the time interval in the Cretaceous with the greatest diversity of sauropod taxa described in Iberia: two titanosauriforms, Tastavinsaurus and Europatitan; and a rebbachisaurid, Demandasaurus. The new sauropod Europatitan eastwoodi n. gen. n. sp. presents a series of autapomorphic characters in the presacral vertebrae and scapula that distinguish it from the other sauropods of the Early Cretaceous of Iberia. Our phylogenetic study locates Europatitan as the basalmost member of the Somphospondyli, clearly differentiated from other clades such as Brachiosauridae and Titanosauria, and distantly related to the contemporaneous Tastavinsaurus. Europatitan could be a representative of a Eurogondwanan fauna like Demandasaurus, the other sauropod described from the Castrillo de la Reina Formation. The presence of a sauropod fauna with marked Gondwananan affinities in the Aptian of Iberia reinforces the idea of faunal exchanges between this continental masses during the Early Cretaceous. Further specimens and more detailed analysis are needed to elucidate if this Aptian fauna is caused by the presence of previously unnoticed Aptian land bridges, or it represents a relict fauna from an earlier dispersal event.
... During growth the vertebral pneumaticity of sauropod individual becomes better developed due to the expansion of either the cervical or abdominal air sac diverticulae ( Wedel, 2003b;Salgado et al., 2006); a change hypothesized to reduce the weight of the skeleton and/or increase oxygen consumption in response to the elevated metabolic demands brought about by large body size. Finally, some workers have argued that sauropods show signs of gregarious behavior ( Salgado et al., 2012). With respect to titanosaurs, it has been suggested that if this behavior was not present, females at least would have aggregated periodically during the ovipositional season ( Chiappe et al., 2005;García et al., 2015). ...
Article
We describe a juvenile specimen of a titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur consisting of two dorsal and three caudal vertebral centra, an ilium fragment, and an ischium unearthed in 1991 from Site Km 153.5 of highway BR-050 in the Serra da Galga region, municipality of Uberaba, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The outcrop at the site is assigned to the Serra da Galga Member of the Marília Formation (Bauru Basin: Bauru Group; Upper Cretaceous: Maastrichtian). Although the material is very incomplete, features such as strongly procoelous caudal centra suggest an affinity with the titanosaurian clade Lithostrotia. The extensive vertebral pneumaticity with deep pleurocoels and well-developed camerae supports the hypothesis that, in titanosaurs, the air sac system was already present and fully developed even at early ontogenetic stages.
... Geologically, the fossils under study are from the Rayoso Fm. (Neuquén Basin). This unit form is a sequence of interstratified clastic levels (sandstones and clays) and evaporitic levels (gypsums and fine layers of carbonates), sporadically presenting isolated crystals of rock salt (Salgado et al., 2012). These materials were deposited in a continental environment under arid conditions. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Martín Jiménez M, Sánchez-Chillón B, Escaso F, Mocho P, Narváez I, Ortega F, Pérez-García A. 2016. Systematic study of the historical material of Upper Cretaceous reptiles from the Tremp Basin (Catalonia, Spain) housed at the MNCN. p. 93-94. In: Torcida Fernández-Baldor F, Canudo JI, Huerta P, Pereda X (eds.), Abstract book of the VII International Symposium about Dinosaurs Palaeontology and their Environment.