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Variant of the Illusion of Sex. The face on the left appears male, while the face on the right appears female. Both images were produced by making slight alterations to the same original image. The eyes and lips were lightened to produce the left image, and darkened to produce the right image. The rest of the face was unaltered, and hence equally dark in both images. That decreasing or increasing facial contrast is sufficient to make a face appear male or female indicates that facial contrast plays a role in the perception of facial gender.

Variant of the Illusion of Sex. The face on the left appears male, while the face on the right appears female. Both images were produced by making slight alterations to the same original image. The eyes and lips were lightened to produce the left image, and darkened to produce the right image. The rest of the face was unaltered, and hence equally dark in both images. That decreasing or increasing facial contrast is sufficient to make a face appear male or female indicates that facial contrast plays a role in the perception of facial gender.

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This study demonstrates the existence of a sex difference in facial contrast. By measuring carefully controlled photographic images, female faces were shown to have greater luminance contrast between the eyes, lips, and the surrounding skin than did male faces. This sex difference in facial contrast was found to influence the perception of facial g...

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... test this possibility, we can create a pair of faces in which facial contrast is manipulated by darkening or lightening the eyes and lips but keeping the rest of the face unchanged. These faces appear in figure 4. Again, the face on the left with decreased contrast appears male and the face on the right with increased contrast appears female. ...

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... Children's books are a significant source of social information, signaling to children who is important enough to be in the books and what those people can do [56]. Many children's books not only reflect an underrepresentation of women and girls, as described above, but also contain gender stereotyping [22,24,46,51,57]. The people who read picture books with children are themselves a significant source of social information that children may use to inform their gender schemas [7]. ...
... Merriam-Webster Dictionary [37] added the singular sense of they to the relevant dictionary entry in September of 2019, recognizing it as the pronoun often used by nonbinary people. However, research has shown that adults experience a processing cost when they is paired with a singular antecedent [46]. This is especially true when the referent of the pronoun is a specific individual whose gender seems to be known, even though it may not be known to the participant [19]. ...
... To my knowledge, there is currently no information on when children develop an understanding of, or how they interpret, singular versus plural they. For adults the mismatch between a singular referent and the use of they seems to be resolved rapidly [46], but that may not be the case for children who have less experience with the use of singular they. It seems likely that children would interpret the unknown they as being plural, since it is always combined with a plural verb even when used in the singular sense. ...
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... Task with face images. Grayscale face images (9 female and 1 male unique faces) were selected from the MIT Face Database (27,101), cropped to a circle at a visual dimension of 300 × 300, and presented on a gray background. Five-hundred trials (450 female and 50 male face trials) were included in the run, with each unique face image appearing 50 times in a random sequence. ...
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Cognition and attention arise from the adaptive coordination of neural systems in response to external and internal demands. The low-dimensional latent subspace that underlies large-scale neural dynamics and the relationships of these dynamics to cognitive and attentional states, however, are unknown. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging as human participants performed attention tasks, watched comedy sitcom episodes and an educational documentary, and rested. Whole-brain dynamics traversed a common set of latent states that spanned canonical gradients of functional brain organization, with global synchrony among functional networks modulating state transitions. Neural state dynamics were synchronized across people during engaging movie watching and aligned to narrative event structures. Neural state dynamics reflected attention fluctuations such that different states indicated engaged attention in task and naturalistic contexts whereas a common state indicated attention lapses in both contexts. Together, these results demonstrate that traversals along large-scale gradients of human brain organization reflect cognitive and attentional dynamics.
... Makeup is believed to increase attractiveness through its effects on visual features, such as skin homogeneity [7] and facial contrast [8]. Makeup has been found to increase skin evenness, using both perceptual and physical measures [7], and skin homogeneity has been found to increase attractiveness [9]. ...
... Makeup has been found to increase skin evenness, using both perceptual and physical measures [7], and skin homogeneity has been found to increase attractiveness [9]. Makeup has also been found to increase facial contrast (i.e., the difference in coloration between facial features and the surrounding skin) in female faces, which also makes faces appear more attractive [8]. ...
... Previous studies have found that skin homogeneity increases perceptions of attractiveness in male facial skin [20]. Previous research has also found that lower facial contrast makes faces appear more masculine [8]. Additionally, bone structure in men (e.g., facial width-to-height ratio) affects perceptions of attractiveness [21]. ...
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Makeup is commonly attributed with increasing attractiveness in female faces, but this effect has not been investigated in male faces. We therefore sought to examine whether the positive effect of makeup on attractiveness can be extended to male faces. Twenty men were photographed facing forward, under constant camera and lighting conditions, with neutral expressions, and closed mouths. Each man was photographed twice: once without any cosmetics applied and another time with subtle cosmetics applied by a professional makeup artist. Two hundred participants then rated those 40 images on attractiveness. The male faces were rated as higher in attractiveness when presented wearing makeup, compared to when presented not wearing makeup. This was true for both male and female raters, and whether analyzing the data using a by-participant or a by-face analysis. These results provide the first empirical evidence that makeup increases attractiveness in male faces. Following work on female faces, future research should examine the effect of makeup on several other traits in male faces. The market for male cosmetics products is growing and evolving and this study serves as an initial step in understanding the effect of makeup on the perceptions of male faces.
... Adult human faces are sexually dimorphic with respect to shape, texture, and colouration. Accordingly, behavioural tests reveal observers' capacity to judge sex on the basis of face properties including overall shape (Bruce et al., 1993;Nestor & Tarr, 2008), contrast (Russell, 2009;Russell et al., 2017), and pigmentation (Bruce & Langton, 1994;Nestor & Tarr, 2008), and from patterns of facial motion (Berry, 1991). Disrupting holistic processing or configural information interferes with sex judgments, suggesting a contribution of whole-face representations (Baudouin & Humphreys, 2006;De Gutis et al., 2012;Zhao & Hayward, 2010). ...
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... for cleaning, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance" [2]. Today, several types of makeup products are used, sometimes to enhance facial contrasts to increase femininity and at other times to camouflage perceived skin deficits [3][4][5]. Facial painting has become increasingly fashionable and common among people, resulting in the growth of multi-billion-dollar cosmetic industries [1]. Many people purchase cosmetic products because they believe that the products modify their appearance [5]. ...
... This finding may reflect the influence of makeup on sexual dimorphism in the human face. Several studies have shown that makeup exaggerates the luminance and color contrasts, which are inherently, on average, higher in women's faces than in men's faces [3,4]. Consistent with this idea, participants classified faces as female faster when presented with makeup than when presented without makeup, suggesting that makeup helped them identify the faces as female. ...
... The discrepancy in the RT results can be explained by the relationship between the effects of makeup on facial appearance and the task demands. Makeup reduces facial distinctiveness by obscuring skin roughness and blotches [8][9]15], and makes faces look more feminine by increasing facial luminance and color contrast [3,4]. In Experiment 1, the participant had to judge whether a face presented on the screen was her own face with or without makeup. ...
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... For the current analysis, we instead used facial contrast: the contrast of the lips, eyebrows and eyes against the skin immediately surrounding these features. 25,39 Facial contrast is determined separately for these three facial features: for the current analysis we used the mean average of those individual contrasts. Note that while others report facial contrast as a Michelson contrast, here we use Weber contrast as is required to determine RVP. ...
... It was conducted using the facial contrasts of models representing Caucasian and South African faces, both being young females. This range, therefore, excluded skin tones identified as type I of the Fitzpatrick Scale, 40 labelled as 'ivory', and excluded variations in facial contrast between individuals such as that of gender (females tend to have higher facial contrast than males 39 ). However, resulting differences in RVP are expected to be small compared with those found when comparing Caucasian (type II) with South African (type VI). ...
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... The sex differences in sclera redness and yellowness are a novel finding. The sex differences in sclera redness (Cohen's d = 0.49) and sclera yellowness (Cohen's d = 0.48) observed here are similar in size to other known physical sex differences, including facial contrast (Cohen's d = 0.55 and d = 0.60, Russell, 2009) and 2D:4D digit ratio (Cohen's d = 0.38 for the left hand and d = 0.46 for the right hand, Hönekopp & Watson, 2010). However, the sex differences in sclera color are substantially smaller than the age differences, as reported above. ...
... While female skin is lighter than male skin, the luminance of the eyes and lips is largely similar between the sexes. This results in the luminance contrast between the facial skin and the facial features-termed 'facial contrast'-being larger in female faces (Jones et al., 2015;Russell, 2009). A sex difference in contrast around the eyebrows is in the opposite direction-male eyebrows are darker than female eyebrows, resulting in greater luminance contrast around male eyebrows than female eyebrows (Jones et al., 2015). ...
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... To influence the visual perception of facial stimuli, women use color cosmetics to highlight individual features, particularly the eyes and mouth (McCabe, de Waal Malefyt, and Fabri 2020;Tanaka 2016). Cosmetics are said to increase the contrast between the eyes, the lips, and the rest of the face-precisely the manipulation capable of making the face appear more feminine (Russell 2009) and attractive (Jones and Kramer 2016;Kościński 2012). A difference is observed between the genderqueer and other models, with a less flamboyant and expressive portrayal on display in the latter group. ...
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... For example, impressions such as trustworthiness (Mealey, Daood, & Krage, 1996), attractiveness (Cross, Cross, & Daly, 1971;Tsukiura & Cabeza, 2011), and expression (Shimamura, Ross, & Bennett, 2006) were also morphologically represented, and these might affect memory processes. Moreover, facial reflectance cues such as texture, color, and contrast-independent factors of facial shape (Jaeger, Wagemans, Evans, & van Beest, 2018;Jones, Little, Burt, & Perrett, 2004;Russell, 2003;Russell, 2009)-might affect facial memory processes because they are also the adjustment factors of facial impressions (Han et al., 2018;Jones, Little, Burt, & Perrett, 2004;Nakamura & Watanabe, 2019). Thus, the occurrence process of false memory could be influenced by their factors that were excluded from this study. ...
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Previous studies on false memory of non-semantic stimuli reported that false memories were produced for items that were unstudied but that were similar to the studied items. However, it remains unclear what representations of false memory are constructed by studied items and how the representations of studied items contribute to the occurrence of false memory. Therefore, we examined whether false memory is produced in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm for non-semantic stimuli (i.e., facial lists), which was divided according to the morphological characteristics quantified by principal component analysis, and whether the false memory rate could be quantitatively predicted by the morphological characteristics of the studied items with a regression analysis. Thirty-five participants memorized five faces and performed a recognition memory test, including an unstudied lure item whose morphological characteristics were approximately the average of the studied items. The results showed that the lure items were more likely to be falsely remembered than other unstudied items whose morphological characteristics were not the average of the studied items, indicating that false memory of non-semantic stimuli was produced in the DRM paradigm owing to the morphological characteristics of the studied items. In contrast, the false memory rate could not be quantitatively explained by each kind of morphological characteristic. This indicates that false memory was not caused by the particular morphological characteristic of the studied items. Moreover, these results implicate that false memory of non-semantic stimuli in the DRM paradigm was provoked by gist representation of the studied items.
... However, since we take gender properties in their organizational sense, it should be clear that they can be handled independently of sexual properties, which are biological properties. 17 This does not mean, indeed, that gender categorization cannot be influenced by variations of low-order properties, such as facial contrast (see Russell 2009). As we will stress later, generic dependence of higher-order properties with lower-order properties is quite compatible with this idea. ...
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On the basis of a new criterion for a property to be perceivable–a property is perceivable iff it is not only given immediately and non-volitionally, but also grasped via a holistic form of attention–in this paper we will claim that not only facial properties, but other high-order properties located in a hierarchy of high-order properties, notably gender and racial properties, are perceivable as well. Such claims will be both theoretically and empirically justified.