(a-c) Time series of mean sea level anomalies based on TG data. (d-f) Time series of mean sea levels based on SA data. The time series are displayed with arbitrary offsets for presentation purposes. The units are in centimetres.

(a-c) Time series of mean sea level anomalies based on TG data. (d-f) Time series of mean sea levels based on SA data. The time series are displayed with arbitrary offsets for presentation purposes. The units are in centimetres.

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The main aim of the article was to analyse the actual accuracy of determining the vertical movements of the Earth’s crust (VMEC) based on time series made of four measurement techniques: satellite altimetry (SA), tide gauges (TG), fixed GNSS stations and radar interferometry. A relatively new issue is the use of the persistent scatterer InSAR (PSIn...

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Context 1
... this study, 27 TG stations on the European coast ( Figure 1) were selected from the PSMSL [49] and the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management of the Polish National Research Institute. The TG data from the PSMSL are the time series of monthly averages from the Revised Local Reference (RLR) data set, and the 3 selected are presented in Figure 2. Data gaps in the time series were removed with the interpolation method. ...
Context 2
... this study, 27 TG stations on the European coast ( Figure 1) were selected from the PSMSL [49] and the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management of the Polish National Research Institute. The TG data from the PSMSL are the time series of monthly averages from the Revised Local Reference (RLR) data set, and the 3 selected are presented in Figure 2. Data gaps in the time series were removed with the interpolation method. ...
Context 3
... crust movements in TG stations were estimated from different time series of TG data (Figure 12a) and SA data (Figure 12b) using robust linear regression [73]. Each difference in the time series of SA and coastal TG data was analysed by considering a linear trend and an annual, semiannual and 18.61-year cycle. ...
Context 4
... crust movements in TG stations were estimated from different time series of TG data (Figure 12a) and SA data (Figure 12b) using robust linear regression [73]. Each difference in the time series of SA and coastal TG data was analysed by considering a linear trend and an annual, semiannual and 18.61-year cycle. ...
Context 5
... velocity in coastal stations, estimated from the different time series of SA data minus TG data from 1993-2018, is shown in Figure 13b. Figure 12. (a) Map of the linear trend in coastal stations estimated from different time series of TG data (TG data from the beginning of data to 2018). (b) Map of the linear trend in coastal stations estimated from different time series of SA data (SA data from 1993(SA data from to 2017; the units on both pictures are in mm/year. ...

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... In coastal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) deformation measurements, the ground tidal displacements along the LOS direction can reach 2~4 decimeters, and it usually reaches centimetres in a single-frame differential InSAR (DInSAR) interferogram with a spatial range of 100~250 km [1]. Currently, the tidal effects are generally ignored in InSAR deformation measurements, while a best-fitting ramp is applied to remove the spatial residual large-scale errors in differential interferograms [2][3][4]. The traditional bilinear ramp fitting method can eliminate tidal displacements in most instances, such as inland areas or small-range DInSAR measurements because the magnitude of the ocean tidal loading (OTL) displacement within the SAR image is minor and the spatial variations of the solid earth tide (SET) displacements tend to be linear ramps. ...
... where f LSSV M is the least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) based on the polynomial kernel function [26], b 0 is a constant deviation, and Phasor Model m,n is the phasor of the m tidal constituents of the OTL model at the location of n GPS sites with the order from large to small, and the tidal constituents displacements of any tide loading point p in the range of the GPS reference sites network can be predicted. In coastal areas with a high site density of GPS networks, the expression of the site location and the constituents can be determined based on the Formula (4). ...
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