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a) The open window occurs between three to 72 hours after the exercise, which exposes the individual to illness and infection. b) Shows the eff ect of training sessions on the immune system without considering the appropriate recovery period [1].

a) The open window occurs between three to 72 hours after the exercise, which exposes the individual to illness and infection. b) Shows the eff ect of training sessions on the immune system without considering the appropriate recovery period [1].

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Background: With the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies’ attention to this world’s complexity increased dramatically. Different views on sports and physical activities have been presented, which have addressed the advantages and disadvantages of sports activities in this period differently. The purpose of this review was...

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Context 1
... researchers have also used the term "open window" after strenuous exercise. When the intensity, duration, and frequency of strenuous activities increase without a proper recovery period, the immune system will respond to viruses and infections for three to 72 hours that can expose an individual to COVID-19 ( Figure 2) [18,38]. (Nieman, 1994;Glesson, 2006) show the eff ect of exercise load and volume on upper respiratory tract infection risk. ...

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Citations

... Previous studies, American Sports Medicine Association (ACSM) and World Health Organization (WHO) have suggested regular physical activity to eliminate inappropriate mental conditions. Regular exercise and physical activity can alter the prevention and treatment of anxiety and depression (Maroufi, 2021). Regular physical activity regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which increases cognitive function and the ability to face depression and anxiety . ...
... Regular physical activity regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which increases cognitive function and the ability to face depression and anxiety . Studies showed that all types of exercise, such as aerobic, resistance or high-intensity training, effectively reduced psychological disorders (Maroufi, 2021). Randomized controlled studies have illustrated that exercise is associated with an anti-depressant effect (Martinsen, 2008). ...
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