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(a) SEM of a breast cancer cell that clearly shows both the soft petals of membrane ruffling and much longer lamellipodia spiking extensions. (b) A scanning electron microscopic 3D-enhanced NIH image of cancer cells and lamellipodia spike processes on a cellular tissue surface (with permission from the National Institutes of Health/Department of Health and Human Services).

(a) SEM of a breast cancer cell that clearly shows both the soft petals of membrane ruffling and much longer lamellipodia spiking extensions. (b) A scanning electron microscopic 3D-enhanced NIH image of cancer cells and lamellipodia spike processes on a cellular tissue surface (with permission from the National Institutes of Health/Department of Health and Human Services).

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Polymer free-radical lipid alkene chain-growth biological models particularly for hypoxic cellular mitochondrial metabolic waste can be used to better understand abnormal cancer cell morphology and invasive metastasis. Without oxygen as the final electron acceptor for mitochondrial energy synthesis, protons cannot combine to form water and instead...

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... F-actin lies beneath the plasma cell membrane that supplies high modulus intracellular fiber structural support to increase cell stiffness [124][125][126], However, tight gingival intercellular junctions were suppressed increasingly on rough surfaces where f-actin did not disassemble to allow pliable cell spreading [123]. Conversely, f-actin disappeared in the areas of cell membrane lamellipodia extension development on smooth surfaces to allow high levels of filipodia formation with tight junctional epithelium and no intercellular gaps [123]. ...
... Conversely, f-actin disappeared in the areas of cell membrane lamellipodia extension development on smooth surfaces to allow high levels of filipodia formation with tight junctional epithelium and no intercellular gaps [123]. Subsequent filipodia are small membrane focal adhesion proteins thought to provide cell mobility by bond formation with bond contractions at the leading edge of the cell [124][125][126]. ...
... Normal cells have relatively smoother more-even round membranes with smooth nuclei compared to cancer cells that reflect free-radical oxidative stress with uneven distorted borders, membrane ruffling and irregularly shaped nuclei [124][125][126]. As a possible related interest, in cancer cells f-actin also disassembles intracellularly under the plasma cell membrane to create a highly pliable cell with low modulus that can squeeze between narrow gaps like openings in the blood vessel endothelium [124][125][126]. ...
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... Fibers of the cytoskeleton conduct electrons from the negative centrosome near the nucleus to the positively charged outer plasma cell mem- brane surface side as radical negatively charged electrons to provide polymeriza- tion chemistry for advancing actin fibers. Electrons conducted through micro- tubules to actin fibers are generated in excess by mitochondria under irregular oxidative conditions with hypoxia[163]. ...
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Normal water structures are maintained largely by interactions with biomacromolecular surfaces and weak electromagnetic fields, which enable extended networks for electron and proton conductivity. All standard chemistry is totally reliant on electrostatics and avoids all mention of electrodynamics and the consequent radiation field, which is supporting the notion of water as a primary mediator of biological effects induced via electromagnetic means into living systems. Quantum Electrodynamic (QED) field theory have produced a vision of water in a liquid state as a medium, which for a peculiarity of its molecular electronic spectrum reveals itself as an essential tool for long-range communications, being able to change its supra-molecular organization in function of the interaction with the environment. This paper draws attention to the fact that interfacial water (nanoscale confined water) has been shown, independently by Emilio Del Giudice et al. and by Gerald Pollack et al., to contain respectively Coherence Domains (CDs) and Exclusion Zones (EZs), which may be regarded as long-range ensembles of CDs, dynamic aqueous structures, which uses the special properties of water, such as its electron/proton dynamics and organized response to electromagnetic fields, to receive electromagnetically encoded signals endowed with coherence (negentropy) at a low frequency, and sum the resultant excitations, so as to foster the redistribution of that coherence at frequencies which may affect biological systems. The phase transition of water from the ordinary coherence of its liquid state (bulk water) to the semi-crystalline or glassy and super-coherent state of interfacial water and its role in living organisms is discussed. The link between interfacial and intracellular water of the living and 1) the thermodynamic correlation between electron and proton transfer responsible for the redox potential of chemical species, 2) the Grotthuss mechanism and the H+ eightfold path, 3) superconductivity and superfluidity (dissipationless quantum states), 4) the proton motive force and protons role in biological liquid-flow systems, and 5) two possible explanations to as many non-ordinary phenomena, one related to the mind-body severely stressful condition due to a Near Death State (NDS) or to a Near Death Like State (NDLS), namely the Electromagnetic Hyper Sensitivity (EHS) or Electromagnetic After-Effect (EAE), the other related to the harmful consequences avoided during the so-called fire walking (ceremony), are discussed.
... Free-radical polymerization is one of the most important chemistries in the world today key to many diverse applications including use in the development for various types of aerotech structures, aircraft, marine manufacturing, commercial/military cars and trucks, ballistic material, medical bone cements, many dental restoratives, water resistant surface protection and repairs. A breakthrough in free-radical chemistry is distinguished by reactive secondary sequence covalent bonding through multiple carbon-carbon double bonds especially during intermittent hypoxia that provides significant understanding to most known medical states [1][2][3]. Free radicals are extremely unstable molecules with an unpaired electron in an outer valence orbital that needs an extra electron to restore stability [4][5][6]. Unsaturated carboncarbon double bonds particularly at exposed end groups are especially susceptible to a freeradical forming a covalent single bond on one carbon atom to create a new free radical on the opposite carbon atom [1,2]. ...
... High levels of ROS generated through mitochondria can cause damage to lipids, proteins and DNA [17,[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. Further, ROS can augment pathology [1,3,15,17,22,25,27,30] and even increase ageing [9,19,20,24,31]. On the other hand, ROS can provide a level of biology for physiologic protection at low concentrations [17,21,22,30,[32][33][34][35][36]. ...
... Erythrocytes with high concentrations of PUFAs exposed to ROS experience reduced fluidity that indicates free radicals are involved by crosslinking [48,49]. Also, erythrocyte membranes deform when exposed to ROS developing a pointed extension [49] similar to pointed membrane extensions that are traits of free-radical crosslinked cancer cells [3]. Consequently, PUFA free-radical crosslinked stiffer membranes during irregular hypoxic conditions with mitochondrial energy synthesis could explain loss of membrane fluidity and resultant pathology [2]. ...
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Unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds particularly at exposed end groups of nonsolid fluids are susceptible to free-radical covalent bonding on one carbon atom creating a new free radical on the opposite carbon atom. Subsequent reactive secondary sequence free-radical polymerization can then continue across extensive carbon-carbon double bonds to form progressively larger molecules with ever-increasing viscosity and eventually produce solids. In a fluid solution when carbon-carbon double bonds are replaced by carbon-carbon single bonds to decrease fluidity, increasing molecular organization can interfere with molecular oxygen (O2) diffusion. During normal eukaryote cellular energy synthesis O2 is required by mitochondria to combine with electrons from the electron transport chain and hydrogen cations from the proton gradient to form water. When O2 is absent during periods of irregular hypoxia in mitochondrial energy synthesis, the generation of excess electrons can develop free radicals or excess protons can produce acid. Free radicals formed by limited O2 can damage lipids and proteins and greatly increase molecular sizes in growing vicious cycles to reduce oxygen availability even more for mitochondria during energy synthesis. Further, at adequate free-radical concentrations a reactive crosslinking unsaturated aldehyde lipid breakdown product can significantly support free-radical polymerization of lipid oils into rubbery gel-like solids and eventually even produce a crystalline lipid peroxidation with the double bond of O2. Most importantly, free-radical inhibitor hydroquinone intended for medical treatments in much pathology such as cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, infection/inflammation and also ageing has proven extremely effective in sequestering free radicals to prevent chain-growth reactive secondary sequence polymerization.
... In addition, the largest groups of buffers in the biologic fluids are proteins as intracellular proteins and the plasma proteins [76]. Also, the most common antioxidants for ROS are identified as proteins by the enzymes superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione peroxidase [27,79,80,86] with radical delocalization by proteins into side chains and peptide bonds [87]. Buffering of acids and bases with ROS and the delocalization of electrons as radicals thus maximizes protein enzyme specificity to fold most effectively for substrate reactivity, provide mechanomolecular mixing motion for increased reaction rates and afford the possibility of overcoming large thermodynamic energy barriers for bond dissociation during chemical reactions. ...
... During lipid peroxidation of erythrocyte membranes that contain high concentrations of PUFAs fluidity is reduced where evidence of free radical injury is suggested [33,34]. Concurrently during erythrocyte membrane peroxidation, a reduction in PUFAs measured by six C=C bonds [33] could also occur during C=C free-radical crosslinking that also reduces fluidity with viscosity increases observed during unsaturated lipid oil fatty acid reactive secondary sequence chain growth to solids [1], Figures 4 and 5. Further, free radicals distort erythrocyte membranes by creating pointed extensions [34] that is characteristic of freeradical crosslinking in cancer cell membranes [87]. Therefore, free-radical crosslinking of membrane PUFAs during intermittent periods of hypoxia with low O 2 mitochondria levels could account for loss of membrane fluidity or increased membrane rigidity and subsequent pathology. ...
... However, at higher pathologic ROS concentrations cell membrane fluidity is decreased toward more rigid structure [26,31,33,34,35,38]. High concentrations of free radicals are generated during hypoxia in cancer cells [87,[92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100], predicted as following intermittent O 2 supply during energy synthesis in the mitochondrial electron transport chain to initially produce O 2 •− as the one electron reduction of O 2 [26,27,39,[79][80][81][82][83]. Cancer cell morphology represents an emphasis on oxidative stress that is particularly evident with the membranes [87]. ...
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... In terms of potential problems arising without proper electron distribution, higher-thannormal electron concentrations can enter into free-radical crosslinking reactions to produce structured molecules [62]. The molecular structure then has the ability to interfere with normal biological diffusion or flow to prevent nutritive delivery to cells and even oxygen can be blocked that complicates physiology into pathological states [62,69]. Electron transfer reactions are extremely fast [63] and become particularly prevalent when free radical concentrations build which is the condition during disease with pathology [62,69] that should require fast conduction unloading of excess cell electrons. ...
... The molecular structure then has the ability to interfere with normal biological diffusion or flow to prevent nutritive delivery to cells and even oxygen can be blocked that complicates physiology into pathological states [62,69]. Electron transfer reactions are extremely fast [63] and become particularly prevalent when free radical concentrations build which is the condition during disease with pathology [62,69] that should require fast conduction unloading of excess cell electrons. Also, high free-radical concentrations might encompass problems related to surgical inflammation as tissue heals. ...
... Also, high free-radical concentrations might encompass problems related to surgical inflammation as tissue heals. By similar free-radical electron transfer chemistry, biologic crosslinking could explain the coarse or clumping chromatin of DNA to DNA or DNA to protein [69] and protein agglomeration with insoluble accumulation [70,71] that overall could interfere with implant healing. Subsequent carbon-fiber-reinforced PMC has electrical conductivity/resistivity properties bordering on semiconducting bone properties also with polymer insulated carbonfiber conductive biocircuits to support vital biocompatible physiological relationships [2,5,14,19] in preventing electron free-radical build up related to damaging increased molecular structure [62]. ...
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... Regarding highly relevant biological interactions, conducting carbon fibers that reinforce developmental biopolymer implants have influenced enhanced cell growth beyond normal limits [Petersen, 2011]. Also, protein fiber form is essential in the metastasis of cancer cells by creating structural extensions that provide leverage through normal tissue [Wienberg, 2007;Lindberg et al., 2008;Petersen, 2013a]. Higher eukaryote cells that include mammalian species have a large evolved cytoskeleton composed of structural protein fibers that resist deformation and transmit mechanical forces whereas prokaryote cells that include bacteria have only primitive fibers identified within just the last 20 years [Bermudes et al., 1994;Dolan et al., 2002;Alberts et al., 2002;Tuszynski, 2008;Bermudes, 1994;Wickstead and Gull, 2011;Drechsler and McAinsh, 2012;Celler et al., 2013]. ...
... Subsequent inversion processes during equilibrium in the single-bond states for the nitrogen atoms might then continue almost indefinitely until possible pipi ring stacking or bond entanglement occurs as the triclocarban molecule is propelled in different directions during the nitrogen inversions near the phosphate head interface of the membrane. Still, a full mechanical test analysis for flexural strength with complete strain energy toughness measurements [Petersen et al., 2007a;Petersen et al., 2007b;Petersen, 2013] need to be determined for the possibility of triclocarban bond inversion entanglements or aromatic pi-pi ring stacking with BisGMA polymer. ...
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