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(a) Image of 7 m 2 printable perovskite solar panels. (b) Schematic illustration of the proposed production line of PSM.

(a) Image of 7 m 2 printable perovskite solar panels. (b) Schematic illustration of the proposed production line of PSM.

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Article
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The commercial manufacturing of perovskite solar modules (PSM) suffers from stability concerns and scalability issues. We demonstrate a hole-conductor-free printable solar module embodiment, which employs a triple layer of mesoporous TiO2/ZrO2/carbon as scaffold, and is infiltrated by a mixed cation lead halide perovskite (5-AVA)x(MA)1−xPbI3 as a l...

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Context 1
... over 10% initial efficiency and long-term stability, we are confident that the hole-conductor-free fully printable perovskite solar modules are on the roadmap to successful commercialization of perovskite solar cells. We have fabri- cated a 7 m 2 fully printable perovskite solar panel as a first step toward practical photovoltaic application, as shown in Figure 5a. Each of the 1 m 2 panels was assembled using 96 PSMs and contained modules with different numbers of subcells. ...
Context 2
... Auto production line needs to be developed, enabling continuous and controllable fabrication process of the module. The schematic illustration of the proposed production line is given in Figure 5b. The conducting glasses were first etched by laser in parallel lines. ...

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... Later on, Zhang et al. [80] reported an HTL-free device based on SrCl 2 -modified CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite sensitizer that approached up to 16% PCE with enhanced stability. Other than these precedents, many more researchers have reported HTL-free device structures that exhibited comparatively better stability than HTL-comprising devices [127,135,214,[278][279][280][281][282]. Another advantageous aspect of these devices is their low-cost fabrication process since one of the basic layers is eliminated in such construction. ...
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