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(a) Carcass of a beaver, showing the location of the cut to be made to remove castor sacs and anal glands. (b) Castor sacs and anal glands exposed, showing where the cut should be made to separate the sets of glands.  

(a) Carcass of a beaver, showing the location of the cut to be made to remove castor sacs and anal glands. (b) Castor sacs and anal glands exposed, showing where the cut should be made to separate the sets of glands.  

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... castor sacs and anal (oil) glands are large structures in the vicinity of the cloaca (Svendsen 1978); they may be removed from the body after skinning is completed. Make a horizontal cut just ahead of the castors (Fig. 2a). Then, using your thumb and forefinger, pull and separate the castors and oil glands from the surrounding tissue (Monk 1985). Once removed from the body the two are easily separated (Fig. 2b). Remove any excess fat and other tissue from the castors, twist them to help seal the duct, then hang them on a string or cord to dry; check ...
Context 2
... the vicinity of the cloaca (Svendsen 1978); they may be removed from the body after skinning is completed. Make a horizontal cut just ahead of the castors (Fig. 2a). Then, using your thumb and forefinger, pull and separate the castors and oil glands from the surrounding tissue (Monk 1985). Once removed from the body the two are easily separated (Fig. 2b). Remove any excess fat and other tissue from the castors, twist them to help seal the duct, then hang them on a string or cord to dry; check periodically that they are drying properly. Placing the castors in a windy area or in front of a fan will hasten the formation of a dried outer layer, which minimizes further loss of liquid from ...
Context 3
... similar to mink or raccoons by cutting from one footpad to the other. Make cuts on either side of the anus of weasels (as for mink), avoiding the anal glands. The pelt can be removed by hand using gentle pressure. Once free of the carcass, the pelt should be placed immediately on the appropriate-size drying board made of 0.6-cm ( 1 /4 inch) stock (Fig. 20). A piece of cheesecloth or burlap may be all that is necessary to rub the fat and flesh off the skin. The pelt should be pulled down snugly, but the hindlegs should be pulled gently so that the fur around the rump does not thin out. The leather can be gently washed with clean water to remove bloodstains, and a belly wedge may be ...
Context 4
... coyote pelts should be mounted leather-out on a solid stretcher, split stretcher, or galvanized wire frame; wooden stretchers at least 2 cm thick are preferred (Fig. 22), as they result in flanks with a fuller appearance. Wire frames produce a pelt with flat flanks. The pelt should be pulled snugly over the board and centered. Then, in order to gain length but at the same time minimize thinning out the fur, grab the base of the tail, pull gently upward on the pelt until it is tight, pull forward ...
Context 5
... pull forward towards the head, then pull back down the other way and tack down the base of the tail. Then spread the tail and pin it in place. Turn over the board and spread and pin the hindlegs after pulling them down gently. Next, if the forelegs have not been cut off close to the body, insert foot paddles in the forelegs, tack them in place (Fig. 23), and pin the lower lip if it is to be left on. It is important that the forelegs stick out from the rest of the pelt so that all the leather dries properly. When using a solid board, insert a belly wedge and hang the stretcher in a cool area away from direct heat. Leave the pelt to dry for 12-24 hours until the leather has a dry shiny ...
Context 6
... boards (both solid and split) and galvanized wire frames are used to stretch fox pelts. Boards used to stretch foxes should be 1.5-2 cm thick to give a full appearance to the flanks (Fig. 24). Wooden stretchers are recommended for foxes because wire stretchers do not give a full appearance to the flanks. The Canada Fox Breeders Association (CFBA) recommends a narrower, longer board for stretching ranched fox pelts. The CFBA fox board is 152 cm (60 inches) long and 14.3 cm (5 5 /8 inches) wide at the base; at a length of 15 ...
Context 7
... wide at the base; at a length of 15 cm (6 inches) the board is 10 cm (4 inches) wide, at 76 cm (30 inches) the board is 12 cm (4 3 /4 inches) wide. This board produces pelts that are well- proportioned and attractive to buyers. The CFBA board should be considered by trappers as an alternative to the more common board for wild foxes shown in Fig. 24. When placing foxes on a stretcher the head should be pulled snugly onto the board, but the neck should not be pulled down as firmly. The shoulder area of foxes tends to be flat, so a pelt that is pulled too tightly in that area will appear unprime. In order to get maximum length from a pelt without affecting the density of the fur, ...
Context 8
... be removed as close as possible to the nosepad without damaging it. The lips and gums must be skinned out completely and stretched and dried. The feet must be skinned out completely down to the claws. Then all bones in the feet must be removed, leaving only the claws attached to the pelt. The pelt should be mounted on an appropriate-size board (Fig. 25); the forelegs should be attached to foot paddles and the hindlegs stretched open and tacked or pinned to the board. When wolf pelts are turned fur-out the forelegs should be pulled through so that the legs and claws can be examined by graders and ...
Context 9
... removed by combing without damaging the fur. The dresser can usually safely remove the resin with techniques that do not damage the fur. The feet and claws should be removed from the pelt by cutting the fur at the ankle joints, and the tail should be split open. Fleshed pelts are placed leather-out on solid boards of appropriate size for each sex (Fig. 26). Care should be taken to ensure that boards are not too wide because this lowers the density of fur, especially that of early-caught ...
Context 10
... it is important that the pelts be thoroughly scraped. Trappers should carefully remove any porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills found embedded in the pelt. Fisher pelts are placed leather-out for initial drying. Three sizes of boards are recommended, one for small females, one for large females and small males, and one for large males (Fig. 27). However, because of the low quotas for fishers in most juris- dictions, few trappers bother to make three different-size boards. Instead, many trappers simply use a red fox board or a small river otter board for fisher pelts. Although this is not the preferred technique, it is acceptable to the fur industry. Pelts should be pulled ...
Context 11
... Any mats or debris should be gently combed out of the fur prior to fleshing. The chest, shoulders, and abdomen should be carefully scraped to remove all fat and muscle. Wooden boards 1.3 cm (0.5 inches) thick, either solid or split, are preferred over wire stretchers for drying lynx and bobcat pelts because they give the dried pelt fuller flanks (Fig. 28). How- ever, some trappers use galvanized wire stretchers for bobcats. The pelt should be pulled down sufficiently to make it snug. The hindlegs should be pulled down snugly without overstretching the rump and belly areas, which will lower the density of the fur. During the initial drying period, foot paddles should be placed in the ...
Context 12
... Then, when turning the pelt for final drying, the forelegs may be left inside (if dry) to reduce the possibility of damage during drumming. Hindlegs can be fastened around the outer edge of the board, with half the leg on each side of the board, but it is recommended that the hindlegs be placed on the belly side of the board as for coyotes (Fig. 23). When a lynx or bobcat pelt is stretched in this manner, the pattern on the belly runs unbroken to the hindlegs when the pelt is turned fur-out, resulting in a desirable presentation of the pelt. Borax may be applied where the legs join the body to ensure that the area dries properly. When the pelt is completely dry, the fur may be ...
Context 13
... remove the pelt of a bear or mountain lion, place the animal on its back and make initial cuts as shown in Fig. 29. When cutting under the lower jaw extend the cut only as far as the lower lip, not through it. The cut from foot to foot should extend to the midpoint of the large ...