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Yearly sum of global irradiance in Europe. (JRC a, 2006) 

Yearly sum of global irradiance in Europe. (JRC a, 2006) 

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Technical Report
Full-text available
This report is published within the Water Asset Renewable Energy Solutions (WARES) project. WARES is a two-year strategic project of the Northern Periphery Programme, which explores the opportunities to generate renewable energy at water utility assets. The project is led by the International Resources and Recycling Institute in Scotland, in partne...

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Context 1
... cells, also called as solar photovoltaic devices, are gaining more attention in the field of renewable energy technology. Cell prices are predicted to get lower and the efficiency higher in future. Being able to generate emission free energy from irradiation coming from an abundant energy source, from the Sun, solar cells can be considerable technology for electricity generation. Solar energy is converted into electricity using photovoltaic (PV) cells. A group of these cells can be mounted together into a solar panel. The PV cells are made out of layers of semiconductor material such as silicon. When sunlight shines on the semiconductor a negative charge is created on one side of the surface and a positive charge on the other. This creates a voltage. The two sides of the cell are connected to a load and as the current flows from one side to the other, electricity is generated. (IPCC, 2011) Solar cells are available at various scales from watt scale to hundreds of kilowatts. The amount of power produced by a cell is rated by watt peak (W p ) under standard testing conditions with incident power density of 1000 W/m 2 , air mass of 1,5 and temperature of 25°C. (Nelson, 2004) Usually, solar panels have power production values of 20 to 500 W p (Mikkonen, 2013). The amount and properties of incoming solar radiation are affecting significantly to the power production of a cell. Indeed, solar radiation flux varies greatly seasonally and daily due to the movement of the Earth. For example, during summer time the amount of irradiation is greater compared to winter period, resulting to slightly lower annual solar radiation in higher latitudes. Due to these variations, declination angle of the Earth, latitude and hour angle must be taken into account when evaluating the amount of solar irradiation. In addition, weather conditions have an influence to the direction of the radiation by scattering, reflecting and absorbing solar radiation in the atmosphere. Furthermore, the cell can be installed by having a certain slope and azimuth angle, affecting thus the final amount of reached solar radiation at a given moment. However, Figure 3 below illustrates the sum of yearly irradiation on optimally inclined south oriented solar cell in Europe. As Figure 3 illustrates, the yearly sum of solar irradiation is around 1000 kWh/m 2 , being a considerable amount of energy. However, only a part of this can be converted to electricity. (Sørensen, 2011) The most used solar cells are based on silicon (Si), an abundant material on the Earth’s crust. Si -based solar cells are designed to have either monocrystalline or polycrystalline structure. The main advantage of these two designs is relatively high efficiency, but the limiting factor is usually the price of the Si-based cell, being rather high. Hence, there are several technologies existing and under development requiring less material compared to Si-based solar cells. These thin film solar cells tend to have lower efficiency, but considerably lower price. Thin film solar cells include amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe ) and organic solar cells. (Bhubaneswari, et al ., ...
Context 2
... cells, also called as solar photovoltaic devices, are gaining more attention in the field of renewable energy technology. Cell prices are predicted to get lower and the efficiency higher in future. Being able to generate emission free energy from irradiation coming from an abundant energy source, from the Sun, solar cells can be considerable technology for electricity generation. Solar energy is converted into electricity using photovoltaic (PV) cells. A group of these cells can be mounted together into a solar panel. The PV cells are made out of layers of semiconductor material such as silicon. When sunlight shines on the semiconductor a negative charge is created on one side of the surface and a positive charge on the other. This creates a voltage. The two sides of the cell are connected to a load and as the current flows from one side to the other, electricity is generated. (IPCC, 2011) Solar cells are available at various scales from watt scale to hundreds of kilowatts. The amount of power produced by a cell is rated by watt peak (W p ) under standard testing conditions with incident power density of 1000 W/m 2 , air mass of 1,5 and temperature of 25°C. (Nelson, 2004) Usually, solar panels have power production values of 20 to 500 W p (Mikkonen, 2013). The amount and properties of incoming solar radiation are affecting significantly to the power production of a cell. Indeed, solar radiation flux varies greatly seasonally and daily due to the movement of the Earth. For example, during summer time the amount of irradiation is greater compared to winter period, resulting to slightly lower annual solar radiation in higher latitudes. Due to these variations, declination angle of the Earth, latitude and hour angle must be taken into account when evaluating the amount of solar irradiation. In addition, weather conditions have an influence to the direction of the radiation by scattering, reflecting and absorbing solar radiation in the atmosphere. Furthermore, the cell can be installed by having a certain slope and azimuth angle, affecting thus the final amount of reached solar radiation at a given moment. However, Figure 3 below illustrates the sum of yearly irradiation on optimally inclined south oriented solar cell in Europe. As Figure 3 illustrates, the yearly sum of solar irradiation is around 1000 kWh/m 2 , being a considerable amount of energy. However, only a part of this can be converted to electricity. (Sørensen, 2011) The most used solar cells are based on silicon (Si), an abundant material on the Earth’s crust. Si -based solar cells are designed to have either monocrystalline or polycrystalline structure. The main advantage of these two designs is relatively high efficiency, but the limiting factor is usually the price of the Si-based cell, being rather high. Hence, there are several technologies existing and under development requiring less material compared to Si-based solar cells. These thin film solar cells tend to have lower efficiency, but considerably lower price. Thin film solar cells include amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe ) and organic solar cells. (Bhubaneswari, et al ., ...

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