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Year Brewpubs Became Legal by State Ordered by State Ordered by Year Brewpubs Became Legal

Year Brewpubs Became Legal by State Ordered by State Ordered by Year Brewpubs Became Legal

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We provide a mini-history of the craft beer segment of the U.S. brewing industry with particular emphasis on producer-entrepreneurs but also other pioneers involved in the promotion and marketing of craft beer who made contributions to brewing it. In contrast to the more commodity-like lager beer produced by the macrobrewers in the United States, t...

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... Washington State legislature le- galized brewpubs in 1982, in view of the public support for doing so and the realiza- tion that the brewer-independent distributor-independent retailer regulatory model made brewpubs per se illegal. This induced other states to follow suit, as seen in Table 2. Continuing differences remain as to how states treat craft beer, and they are addressed in Section 3. ...

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The entry of craft breweries has transformed the Italian beer industry. In 1988, a massive flow of craft breweries started to compete with mass producers. The craft’s nature and the local orientation of craft brewers are the key aspects of their success. First, the sentiment and attachment to the concept of a “craft” gave to craft beer a meaning th...

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... Revenues i,t indicates the annual per capita income of each municipality. This variable aims to capture the known relationship between craft beer consumption and income to verify whether firm entry is higher where average incomes are higher, as revealed by Elzinga et al. (2015). Geographical area i is a categorical variable that identifies the five macro-regions of Italy: Centre, North-East, North-West, South and Islands This variable is coded by four dummy variables and indicates if municipality i is located in the North-East, North-West, South or Islands, capturing a macro-regional effect. ...
... To many craft beer drinkers and industry experts California is considered the birthplace of the modern (post-Prohibition) craft brewery movement (Acitelli, 2013;Elzinga et al., 2015;Ortega, 2017). In 1965, when Fritz Maytag purchased a controlling interest in San Francisco's Anchor Steam Brewery, that was considered the first craft brewery in the United States since Prohibition. ...
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The number of craft breweries in the United States grew from 37 in 1985 to over 8,000 in 2019, establishing craft breweries as a ubiquitous feature of the American landscape. At a time when consumers are increasingly shifting their spending from material goods to experiences, the craft brewery industry is a quintessential example of this burgeoning experience economy. Local craft breweries sell a sensorial experience along with their product. By engaging in adaptive reuse of abandoned buildings, combining production and sales under the same roof, offering educational tours, and providing other activities (e.g., board games) for patrons to enjoy, many craft breweries offer a unique venue to enjoy a pint of locally made beer. While the internal appeal of craft breweries and beer contributes to their popularity, our focus in this paper is the role of external neighborhood characteristics in understanding performance variations among a specific type of craft brewery - brewpubs. Many brewpubs are located in mixed-use gentrified neighborhoods, where they co-exist with coffee shops, restaurants, retail boutiques, and other drinking establishments. We use California as our case study and production volumes as a proxy for performance to explore the effect of neighborhood characteristics on brewpub performance. We find that neighborhood variables associated with variations in brewpub production volumes varies depending on whether the brewpub is located in a city or rural area. However, brewpub production volumes in both urban and non-urban areas are negatively associated with neighborhood property values and positively associated with nearby clustering of other drinking establishments. This suggests a desire for affordable production space and illustrates a positive impact of clustering with similar establishments in a neighborhood. Hence, allowing these establishments to locate in areas zoned for commercial activities may be important for their success. Interestingly, walkability was found to have no significant effect on brewpub performance in urban areas while it was found to have significant effect in non-urban areas, suggesting that non-urban areas may be able to increase production by encouraging more walkable environments.
... Beside this socio-cultural reasoning, the emergence of new microbreweries was also supported by the changes directly related to globalisationbetter availability of information, raw materials, capital, and technologies necessary for brewery construction and subsequent beer production (Garavaglia & Swinnen, 2017). As a result, the first new microbreweries emerged in the United States in the form of 'homebrewing' (Garavaglia & Swinnen, 2018) and the United Kingdom in the form of consumer support for the declining small independent brewing sector in the 1970s (Cabras & Bamforth, 2016;Elzinga et al., 2015;Reid & Gatrell, 2017). The breweries' establishment accelerated in the 1990s when the wave also spread to other countries, particularly in continental Europe (Wojtyra 2020). ...
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Europe has experienced a major boom of new breweries over the last thirty years, with thousands of new breweries being set up, even in regions where brewing has no history. So far, however, this microbrewing wave has not been systematically mapped. This paper presents a unique database of European breweries from 1990–2020. Using a series of maps and statistical analyses, it shows how breweries have gradually spread across Europe. Initially, microbreweries were being established in countries that are in a declining stage of the beer life-cycle from industrial breweries. After 2005 (and particularly in the 2010s), breweries reached other regions through neighbouring and hierarchical spatial diffusion.
... Nel corso degli ultimi 25 anni il settore brassicolo artigianale globale e in particolare italiano ha registrato una crescita rilevante, sia dal punto di vista della quantità e qualità produttiva e dei consumi, sia per quanto concerne, a monte, la cultura stessa sottesa alla birra (Assobirra 2020; Garavaglia, Swinnen 2018;Kothiyal, Semwal 2018;Gómez-Corona et al. 2016;Elzinga et al. 2015). Due evidenze sono sufficienti a contestualizzare, nello specifico, il fenomeno-Italia: nel 1993 i birrifici artigianali erano 2, nel 2021 sfiorano quota 1.000 1 e l'evoluzione è stata talmente marcata da spingere il Parlamento ad arginare presumibili aree grigie e derive o storture di mercato attraverso una "denominazione di birra artigianale" inserita nella Gazzetta Ufficiale del 10 agosto 2016. ...
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Baladin is the pioneer producer and emblem of the Italian craft beer. Its “morally controlled supply chain” represents a sustainable model, in which innovation and economic success are rooted in the business ethics’ founding values. Hops, the plant characterizing beer, is one of the symbolic factors of corporate responsible choices with a positive and widespread impact: even in a market with a decreasing value its cultivation is the evidence of a strenuous position that guarantees a constant success. The business management perspective is aimed at bringing out replicable elements of a business that is emblematic from an environmental, economic, and social point of view.
... In the past two decades, the beer industry has been upset by the rise of craft beer, and micro-breweries (Elzinga et al., 2015). The absolute size of the craft beer industry is still relatively small in comparison to the major beer companies which still have a market share of about 75%. ...
... The change in the beer industry was accompanied by the rise of third-parties which facilitated learning about the new product. Elzinga et al. (2015) detail some of the early promoters and the important role they played in the diffusion of knowledge to both producers and consumers of craft beer. More recent year have seen an explosion of books and websites and apps which help the consumer navigate the wide variety, and allow them to communicate their engagement with craft beers. ...
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This paper argues that the different symbolic meanings of goods give rise to three institutionally different market types. We start from the realization that consumption has symbolic meaning, which individuals use to communicate and construct their identity to their social networks. We argue that firm behavior (including size, pricing and marketing strategies) must be congruent with the symbolic meaning of goods. We distinguish between two stylized meanings of goods, status and taste, which we derive from the socio-anthropological literature on consumption. We argue that these different meanings, articulated by consumers to communicate their identity, give rise to three ideal-typical market types. We present the institutional differences between these market types as well as the implications for firm behavior and demonstrate how firm behavior and marketing strategies differs significantly from markets in which the symbolic meaning of goods is relatively unimportant. We use the recent transformation of the beer market by the craft-beer producers , to illustrate our elaborations.
... It is produced by independent breweries in small quantities, supported in the local community (Brewers of Europe, 2020;Feeney, 2017;Kraftchick et al., 2014;Kroezen and Pursey, 2019;Toro-Gonz alez et al., 2014). CB may include Lager, Porter, Ale and Stout (Elzinga et al., 2015). The Brewers Association (2020) identifies six CB market segments: microbreweries, brew-pubs, taproom breweries, regional breweries, contract brewing companies and alternating proprietors. ...
... CB has originated many studies on industry characteristics (Donadini et al., 2014;Elzinga et al., 2015;Giorgi, 2015;Thurnell-Read, 2014). This evidence shows that CB has aroused the interest of the academic community, gaining progressive importance. ...
... Conclusions, implications, limitations and future research recommendations CB is an expanding consumption tendency, particularly in Europe, the USA and Brazil. It is recording good levels of growth and sustained by a considerable increase in sales volume, the number of new microbreweries, entrepreneurs, market share and above all gaining ground from so-called industrial beer, as found in the studies by Donadini et al. (2014), Elzinga et al. (2015), Giorgi (2015) and Thurnell-Read (2014). CB is a product that has managed to gain its own identity (Verhaal et al., 2017) based on tradition, creativity, authenticity and local community support (Fletchall, 2016;Kraus et al., 2018;Mac an Bhaird et al., 2019;Feeney, 2017). ...
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In recent years, the craft beer (CB) industry has gained impetus and has experienced significant growth in scientific publications. This study aims to present a systematic review of the literature on CB in areas related to economic and business sciences. Based on the data from Scopus, Web of Science and a set of articles not indexed to these databases until June 2021, a total of 132 articles were included for analysis, using bibliometric and content analysis techniques. The study allowed us to identify that CB has four main clusters/themes of research, namely, CB industry and market, marketing and branding, consumer behavior and sustainability. Detailed information on the clusters is provided. In addition, the results showed that publications addressing CB have grown significantly from 2015 onwards and are dispersed across many journals, with none assuming a clear leadership. Quantitative approaches account for more than half of publications. This study is a useful guide for academics intending to develop studies with CB. It provides a framework to structure future research by identifying existing literature clusters and proposes several research propositions. The findings from this study are useful for CB companies to get an overview of the main issues affecting the CB industry and market to be able to adapt their strategies and stay aligned with market tendencies in the four main clusters identified. This is the first systematic review of CB. Therefore, it provides a significant contribution to frame and strengthening the literature on CB and serves as a reference for future research. Based on the content analysis and cluster identification, the findings portray the status of current research. Accordingly, a set of research opportunities are offered.
... The modern 'craft beer boom' in the U.S., which really took hold in the mid 2010's, actually dates back to the 1960s when Fritz Maytag took over the Anchor Steam Beer Company (Elzinga et al., 2015). Though the industry has slowed in its growth, the last 10 years have seen the addition of 7,500 craft breweries, and there are now approximately 8,000 breweries in the US. ...
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In the United States, many consumers seek out local consumables, a phenomenon known as neolocalism. This behavior is exemplified by interest in local craft beer, which often uses differentiated local ingredients. Although popular, it is not clear if they taste better, compared to mass-produced craft beers or if a halo effect exists. Thus, this study measures customers’ expectations, perceptions, and satisfaction with the taste of a local craft beer, compared to a mass-produced craft beer using an experimental within-subject comparison. Results indicate that expectations were higher for the local craft beer, but satisfaction levels were higher for the non-local craft beer. Overall, for researchers, this study demonstrates the presence of a halo effect in some local craft beer contexts. For practitioners, findings allow them to gain greater understanding of customers’ expectations, perceptions, and satisfaction levels with relation to the taste of local craft and craft beer.
... The Czech Republic is still first in terms of worldwide beer consumption per inhabitant (144 l in 2019), however, the increase of overall beer consumption in the 21st century is caused by increased consumption in these regions outside of Europe. The consumption in traditional beer areas in Europe either stagnates or even decreases [16][17][18][19][20]. China has the largest beer consumption in the world as a country, where 489.9 million hectoliters are consumed every year, followed by the USA (241.7 million hectoliters), Brazil (131.5 million hectoliters), Russia (100.1 million hectoliters) and Germany (84.4 million hectoliters). ...
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The goal of this article is to evaluate the evolution of the brewing industry in the Czech Republic with an emphasis on the phenomenon of craft-brewery development. It deals with the influence of globalization on the structure of the Czech beer market and the rise of craft-breweries between 2000 and 2019. The main outputs come from research where a representative sample of 48 craft breweries was questioned from the Czech Republic. The result is the identification of the main factors influencing the increase of craft-breweries (legislation changes enabling entrepreneurship, increase of purchasing power of consumers, increase in demand for different beer styles, craft beers and specials, change of consumer behavior) but also the challenges that prevent their further expansion (lack of qualified brewers, complicated administration). The main motive for founding a craft brewery is an effort to improve beer culture in the Czech Republic and the ever-increasing demand for diversified beer (as opposed to the demand for the so-called euro-beers) and a good business opportunity stemming from this, which has been attracting more and more investors into this field.
... However, in contrast to marijuana firms, microbreweries have legal access to banks. Conveniently, they became popular in similar areas and at around the same time as marijuana was legalized (Elzinga et al. 2015;Brewers Association 2017). Both microbreweries and marijuana firms belong to sin industries and as a result share a number of other characteristics. ...
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This paper examines how legally restricted access to banking services affects small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in a highly developed country. Using a mixed-method approach, we examine the unique situation of the US marijuana industry. The industry benefits from the superior institutional environment in terms of legal protection and the labor market of the United States. However, due to conflicting state and federal laws it has no legal access to banking. We find significant value effects around three major events that affected future access to banking. These results indicate that banking access remains desirable for the marijuana industry. A survey taken by marijuana SMEs provides insights into what banking services are considered most valuable. We find that marijuana SMEs have problems to obtain financing and handle their transactions largely in cash, resulting in transaction inefficiency and high security concerns. Thereby, we shed light on the value of banks for SMEs in developed countries. We complement the literature on financial transaction services by highlighting the value for SMEs in developed markets.
... Directly quoted read-me file from supplements to Elzinga et al. (2015): ...
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The intuitive nature of signaling theory in part helps explain its pervasiveness. The usefulness of a signal depends on the extent to which the signal corresponds with the sought after quality of the signaler. Herein, we examine a singular quality signal from the beer industry-winning a coveted Great American Beer Festival (GABF) medal. To provide an assessment of the quantitative impact of winning a GABF medal, this paper exploits a unique and expansive unbalanced panel of time-series, cross-section data from 1989-2012. Firm specific production changes are merged with the GABF medal winner database. Results from a two-way fixed-effects specification finds no significant relationship between winning a GABF medal or medals and changes in a brewery's output. Interestingly, it appears that the GABF quality signal applies more to the brewer than the brewery. JEL classification numbers: D12, L81, M31.