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XANES spectra at the different element edges for monolithic (MON) and modulated (MOD) TiO 2 :Cr,N coatings before (black) and after (red) FLA. The reference spectra from binary oxide compounds are also included in the bottom part (see text for details).

XANES spectra at the different element edges for monolithic (MON) and modulated (MOD) TiO 2 :Cr,N coatings before (black) and after (red) FLA. The reference spectra from binary oxide compounds are also included in the bottom part (see text for details).

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we report on the phase selectivity in Cr and N co-doped TiO2 (TiO2:Cr,N) sputtered films by means of interface engineering. In particular, monolithic TiO2:Cr,N films produced by continuous growth conditions result in the formation of a mixed-phase oxide with dominant rutile character. On the contrary, modulated growth by starting wit...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... complementary phase identification at the near-surface region, the bonding structure around host and dopant sites has been studied in detail by XANES. The spectra for the Ti 2p, O 1s, Cr 2p and N 1s element edges are shown in Figure 3. For the sake of clarity, only the spectra from the bilayer coating are shown as representative case of the modulated growth (same results were obtained from the gradient design). ...
Context 2
... impact of FLA on the structural properties of monolithic and modulated films was also examined. XANES spectra of the flashed (red curves) and as-deposited (black curves) films are compared in Figure 3. Since the films were grown at moderate temperatures, the modifications induced by FLA are not severe. ...

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Citations

... The paper "Phase Selectivity in Cr and N Co-Doped TiO 2 Films by Modulated Sputter Growth and Post-Deposition Flash-Lamp-Annealing" by Gago et al. presents how the interface engineering strategy can vary the phase occurrence in Cr and N co-doped TiO 2 (TiO 2 :Cr,N) sputter-deposited films [24]. A post-deposition flash-lamp-annealing (FLA) is also used to favor anatase phase, and to give rise to dopant activation and diffusion. ...
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This Special Issue contains a series of reviews and papers representing some recent results and some exciting perspectives focused on advanced strategies in thin films growth, thin films engineering by magnetron sputtering and related techniques. Innovative fundamental and applied research studies are then reported, emphasizing correlations between structuration process parameters, new ideas and approaches for thin films engineering and resulting properties of as-deposited coatings.
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The impact of Ta incorporation (up to ∼21 at.%) in titanium dioxide (TiO2) films subjected to post-deposition millisecond-range flash-lamp annealing (FLA) is addressed. Phase formation with short-range information was established by means of soft X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) in combination with standard X-ray diffraction. As-grown films are X-ray amorphous, but display a significant structural improvement upon FLA. Up to relatively large Ta concentrations (∼ 12 at.%), FLA can be used to effectively incorporate Ta into a nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 phase, although its structural quality deteriorates progressively with the Ta content. For the intermediate Ta range between 12 and 17 at.%, the structure of the FLA films is highly disordered, being unable to overcome the initial distorted arrangement. In any case, rutile- or Ta2O5-like environments emerge for low and high contents, respectively. Finally, for the highest Ta content (∼21 at.%), the Ta2O5 phase is dominant with an increased quality after FLA. As assessed by XANES, the structural evolution upon FLA seems to be determined by the initial (amorphous) structure. Lastly, all the samples are highly transparent from the visible to the near-infrared region, and the band-gap can be tailored from ∼3.2 to ∼3.8 eV with increasing the amount of incorporated Ta.