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World desalination plants per geographical area (%). Adapted from [10]. 

World desalination plants per geographical area (%). Adapted from [10]. 

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Beyond doubt, desalination is growing rapidly worldwide. However, there are still obstacles to its wider implementation and acceptance such as: (a) high costs and energy use for fresh water production; (b) environmental impacts from concentrate disposal; (c) a complex, convoluted and time-consuming project permitting process; and (d) limited public...

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... since desalination was originally invented in antiquity, different technologies have been developed. Back in the 4th century BC, Aristotle, the Hellenic philosopher, described a desalination technique by which non-potable water evaporated and finally condensed into potable liquid. Likewise, Alexander of Aphrodisias in the 200 AD described a technique used by sailors, as follows: seawater was boiled to produce steam, and that steam was then absorbed by sponges, thereby resulting in potable water [1]. Since then, the technology of seawater desalination for the production of potable water evolved rapidly and has become quite popular [2]. The most reliable desalination processes that can currently be exploited at the commercial scale can be divided in two main categories: (a) thermal (or distillation) processes like multi-stage flash distillation (MSF), multi-effect distillation (MED), thermal vapor compression (TVC), and mechanical vapor compression (MVC) processes; and (b) membrane processes: reverse osmosis (RO) and electrodialysis (ED) processes. ED is mostly used for brackish water installations, while RO can be used for both, brackish and seawater [3]. Over the last few years, a large number of desalination plants began to operate globally. Moreover, the production cost of desalinated water has been considerably decreased and is expected to decrease even further [4,5]. This is mostly due to the recent improvements in membrane technology, but also due to the increase of the energy conversion coefficiency for desalination processes [6]. In this paper, a short review of water desalination is provided before cost data are examined and processed. This paper focuses on water desalination processes and projects in Greece. Desalination is growing so fast globally that it is more than certain that it will play a significant role in water supply in the years to come. Desalination is growing particularly in parts of the world where water availability is low. Annual desalination capacity seems to increase rapidly as years go by. A sharp increase in the number of desalination projects to supply water is indicated. This rose from 326 m 3 /d in 1945 to over 5,000,000 m 3 /d in 1980 and to more than 35,000,000 m 3 /d in 2004 [7]. In 2008, the total daily capacity was 52,333,950 m 3 /d, from some 14,000 plants in operation globally [8]. In 2011, the total capacity was about 67,000,000 m 3 /d, while in 2012 it was estimated at about 79,000,000 m 3 /d from some 16,000 plants worldwide [9]. The Gulf Region (Middle East) has the biggest number of desalination plants in the world, followed by the Mediterranean, the Americas, and Asia [10]. The percentages of desalination plants for each geographical area are shown in Figure 1. The global capacity of desalination plants, including renewable desalination, is expected to grow at an annual rate of more than 9% between 2010 and 2016. The market is set to grow in both developed and emerging countries such as the United States, China, Saudi Arabia (SA) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), as shown in Figure 2. A very significant potential also exists in rural and remote areas, as well as in islands (Figure 2, rest of world (ROW)), where grid electricity or fossil fuels to generate energy may not be available at affordable costs. About 54% of the global growth is expected to ...

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... Therefore, it would be convenient to consider the abovementioned proxies to actually replace the expensive and complex energy storage systems. (Milligan and Kirby, 2010;Zotalis et al., 2014; International Atomic Energy Agency, 2019). ...
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... In this perspective, desalination plants offer an economically viable solution for the production of drinking water. Starting from 326 m 3 /day produced worldwide in 1945, the use of this technology based on membrane systems has increased exponentially to over 80 million m 3 /day in 2013 [2,3] and even more today. Moreover, thanks to their versatility, membranes have also found increasing use in other processes related to the food, medical and chemical sectors and more generally in the treatment of wastewater from industrial plants [4][5][6]. ...
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Flux reduction induced by fouling is arguably the most adverse phenomenon in membrane-based separation systems. In this respect, many laboratory-scale filtration studies have shown that an appropriate use of hydrodynamic perturbations can improve both performance and durability of the membrane; however, to fully understand and hence appropriately exploit such effects, it is necessary to understand the underpinning flow processes. Towards this end, in this work we propose and validate a new module-scale laboratory facility with the aim of investigating, at very well-controlled flow conditions, how hydrodynamics affects mass transport phenomena at the feed/membrane interface. The proposed facility was designed to obtain a fully developed and uniform flow inside the test section and to impose both steady and pulsating flow conditions. The walls of the facility were made transparent to grant optical accessibility to the flow. In this paper, we discuss data coming from particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements and preliminary ultrafiltration tests both under steady and pulsating flow conditions. PIV data indicate that the proposed facility allows for excellent flow control from a purely hydrodynamic standpoint. Results from filtration tests provide promising results pointing towards pulsating flows as a viable technique to reduce fouling in membrane systems.
... One of these methods is already commercially available: water desalination through reverse osmosis (RO). 6 However, RO is limited to locations with access to seawater, generates chemical waste due to the products required for water pretreatment, produces a super-saturated brine solution that locally depletes oxygen water levels when released in the ocean, and requires large amounts of energy, up to 10 kWh· m −3 along with related capitalization. 7 Alternatively, water can be harvested from the atmosphere; it is estimated that 13 000 km 3 of freshwater is stored in the atmosphere, and this amount is likely to increase as mentioned with global warming. ...
... Les technologies actuelles de la désalinisation des eaux salées ou marines sont classées en deux grandes catégories, en fonction du procédé utilisé : par distillation traditionnelle qui repose sur un changement de phase eau-vapeur sous l'effet d'une énergie thermique, ou par procédés membranaires faisant appel à des membranes semi-perméables sous l'effet d'une forte pression générée par des pompes c'est le cas d'osmose inverse, ou par un champ électrique, le cas d'électrodialyse (Guern et al., 2003;Tata-Ducru, 2009;Zotalis et al., 2014;Guimard, 2019). ...
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Thesis
This work aims to study the impact of the installation of seawater desalination plant in Agadir bay by drawing up the initial health state of two marine ecosystems Tifnit-Douira and Cap Ghir receiving desalination plants. Thus, a multidisciplinary study was conducted in the sentinel species Mytilus galloprovincialis, combining two complementary approaches: i) the chemical approach (physico-chemistry and chemical detection of pollutants); and (ii) the biological approach (ecotoxicological study of multi-biomarker response and reproductive biology). An inventory of macro-phyto/zoo-benthic species associated with mussel beds was also carried out to assess the biodiversity of these ecosystems. Our results related to the physicochemical approach in the two studied stations reveal values that oscillate between: 16.24 and 21.61 °C for seawater temperature; 7.39 and 8.73 for pH; 43.15 and 65.16 mS/cm for conductivity and between 27.40 and 43.75 PSU for salinity. TDS and dissolved oxygen values vary between 21.14 to 31.88 and 4.33 to 8.14 mg/l respectively. These parameters follow monthly fluctuations in the two studied ecosystems due to the marine environmental responses to changes in daily and weekly climatic conditions and also to seasonal hydrodynamic factors (currents, swell and upwellings). The study of metal pollution in both ecosystems has shown that their concentrations undergo monthly, seasonal and annual fluctuations depending on the dosed element. Cd, Pb and Cu recorded relatively high levels (2.28, 2.50 and 6.86 mg/kg respectively) with comparable annual profiles between the two stations. While Arsenic (As) oscillates between 7.97 and 12.60 mg/kg without reaching the toxicity threshold of 14 mg/kg. The measured values are significantly high, especially at Cap Ghir with a stability of the values throughout the study period. This attests to the presence of Arsenic in a natural way in the Atlantic marine ecosystem. The results obtained for the major metal elements studied showed maximums of 6.33, 145.51 and 285.74 mg/kg respectively for Mn, Fe and Zn. The revealed annual patterns appear similar between the two ecosystems with moderate seasonal fluctuations. Biomarker response measures, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST), Catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in Mytilus galloprovincialis, have been shown to be present in measurable and inducible amounts. In addition, response levels fluctuate respectively between 1.94 to 8.85; 3.74 to 36.91; 3.52 to 17.94 and 1.13 to 5.91 nmol/mg protein. This is explained by the response of these molluscs, to variations in environmental conditions as well as to the presence of certain contaminants including heavy metals mainly Cadmium, and consequently to the physiological disturbances of the species during its development cycle. The study of reproductive cycle in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, testifies to a continuous sexual activity throughout the year with periods of collective egg-laying coinciding with spring and summer. The number of these collective gametic release varies between two to three periods depending on the environmental conditions, especially variations in seawater temperature. This results in a lack of collective sexual rest period in these mussel populations. The sex ratio study shows a balance between males and females of 1.14:1 in Tifnit-Douira, and it varies between 1.12:1 to 1.18:1 in Cap Ghir. The histological study allowed the detection of a single case of hermaphroditism, revealed for the first time in mussel populations in the Agadir bay. The values of the condition index are high (>60) in Mytilus galloprovincialis of the studied stations during all seasons even during laying periods. The favorable conditions of the environment allow a continuous allometric and weight growth throughout the year. Regarding biological diversity, both stations have a very high diversity of Macro-Phyto/Zoo-benthic species. Indeed, the animal kingdom is rather dominated by Crustaceans and Gastropods, while Chromophytes and Rhodophytes are the most dominant in the plant kingdom. All these results prove the well-balanced state of the environment in the two studied ecosystems Tifnit-Douira and Cap Ghir; and that permanent monitoring should be realized to protect their health state from the impact of desalination plants. Keywords: Mytilus galloprovincialis, Agadir Bay, Cap Ghir, Tifnit-Douira, Desalination, Biomarkers, Marine ecosystem, Heavy metals, Reproductive cycle, Biodiversity, Biomonitoring.
... Desalination removes salts and minerals from seawater to render it drinkable through thermal methods (multi flash distillation, multi effect distillation) or filtration approaches (electrodialysis, reverse osmosis). 4 Today, the leading process for intensive production of freshwater is reverse osmosis (RO), 5 which has become increasingly cost-effective over the past decade. However, RO requires the ready availability of energy (between 17 and 83 kWh per m 3 ), 6 together with large bodies of saline or brackish water, a distribution infrastructure and high upfront capital cost. ...