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Work hours and school attendance of children aged 5-17, by gender

Work hours and school attendance of children aged 5-17, by gender

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Context 1
... rural areas, 63 per cent of working males are employed in agriculture, followed by 21 percent in the wholesale and retail industry; 71 percent of working females were employed in agriculture, followed by 15 percent in manufacturing. Figure 1 shows the interaction between work hours and school attendance, which is important for the purposes of this paper because of the direct effects of working hours on school outcomes. The more children have to work, the more tired they will be when in school and the less time they will have for study. ...

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Citations

... In poor communities, households or families with disabled or illiterate parents are more likely to opt for generating income by engaging their children in child labor (Edmonds, 2007;Webbink et al., 2012). Several studies show that parents' education has a positive impact on child schooling and negative impact on child labor in Bangladesh (Ravallion and Wodon, 2000;Khanam, 2005;Shafiq, 2007;Ahmed and Ray, 2011;Hossain and Akter, 2019). Ahmed and Ray (2011) reveal that parents' level of education affects the trade-off decision-making across genders; however, a mother's education shows a significant inclination toward educating a girl child. ...
... Several studies show that parents' education has a positive impact on child schooling and negative impact on child labor in Bangladesh (Ravallion and Wodon, 2000;Khanam, 2005;Shafiq, 2007;Ahmed and Ray, 2011;Hossain and Akter, 2019). Ahmed and Ray (2011) reveal that parents' level of education affects the trade-off decision-making across genders; however, a mother's education shows a significant inclination toward educating a girl child. Based on data collected from two districts of Bangladesh Hossain and Akter (2019) observe that children of educated parents left school less than less-educated parents. ...
... However, due to seasonal variation in agricultural activities, particularly in Bangladesh, the adults of the families may be engaged in non-agricultural work to increase income. This may create the substitution effect on the children in the household activities when the adults are busy working outside (Ahmed and Ray, 2011). ...
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... In addition, it is almost expected that the exhaustion that comes with long hours of working will affect their concentration in class. The wholesome effects of these would be poor performance, irregular school attendance, low NERs, dislike of schooling and cases of increased school drop-outs among boys (Ahmed and Ray 2011). ...
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