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Women that hover can control the distance a better than men by bending through their knees. 

Women that hover can control the distance a better than men by bending through their knees. 

Source publication
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of a study about hygiene in train toilets. The central problem is that with the existing train toilet design and the different groups of users it is impossible to keep the train toilet clean. In a conventional train, it is especially difficult for men to urinate without spilling urine outside the bowl while standing....

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... main conclusion of the investigation is that public toilets are experienced as being unhygienic [2, 3, 4, 5, 6] and train toilets even more so. The Omnibus survey demonstrates that 80% of the train travellers avoid using the train toilet because of this lack of hygiene. This works adversely to the aim of Dutch Railways to seduce commuters to leave the car and take the train. The problem cannot easily be resolved, as the users of the train toilet form a very diverse group, with diverse habits and requirements. The train environment also complicates the usage of the train toilet. In this paper we studied the standing posture of the male urination process in a train toilet, justified by the fact that this is adopted by 75% of male train travellers, resulting in (sometimes invisible) urine drops on the floor and toilet seat. One of the main reasons for this spillage is that a man has to aim the urine from a great vertical distance into the traditional train toilet bowl. As a result, women refuse to sit on the toilet seat and the majority (60%) sit in a hover posture when using the toilet, with a great chance of soiling it even more [2, p.232-233, 3] We assume that the soiling of the toilet seat in the female hovering position is less than that from men in a standing posture, because women have more control over the distance a of the beam of urine by bending down through their knees, see Figure 3. [15]. There is no urine spillage when the user sits on the toilet as the urine goes directly into the bowl. The backsplash of the urine [2, 148-151] cannot then reach the toilet rim because ...
Context 2
... need to target the urine into the bowl from a great distance (Figure 1, distance a), which is a difficult task. This distance (Figure 1, distance a) also causes a back-splash of the urine [2, p.148-151] amongst other negative factors. These negative factors, such as bad sight of the task, shaking the last drops, ‘spread’ of the urine stream, an unpredictable ‘spray’, nonchalance, back splash etc. also cause spillage of urine outside the bowl. These factors are not included in this paper and will be published later in a separate paper. The difference between the results from men and women is that women can control the distance a better by bending through their knees, see Figure 3. Therefore, it is easier for them to direct the beam of urine inside the bowl without spillage ...

Similar publications

Conference Paper
Full-text available
Train toilets are perceived to be dirty and as a consequence train travelers rate the toilet as insufficient. While the train toilet is mainly used to urinate it is for men impossible to keep the train toilet clean without spilling urine outside the bowl while standing. This causes women to hover while urinating and as a result they add to the soil...