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Wake-up receiver block diagram.  

Wake-up receiver block diagram.  

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In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), batteries are unlikely to be replaced or recharged once they get depleted, because of costs and feasibility. In a typical application, sensor nodes should be accessible and able to respond within a defined period of time, especially in real-time applications. However, the idle listening of the radio wastes most o...

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... process of the WuRx, power consumption remained the number one issue to be controlled in every single step. Low-power active compo- nents are incorporated for the purpose of enhancing the sen- sitivity of the WuRx. In this section, the design analysis of all blocks of WuRx are discussed. The different parts of a WuRx circuit are illustrated in Fig. ...

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Citations

... Conventional radios play a crucial role in WSN nodes' operation since they are frequently one of the most expensive components in terms of power consumption [1]. A common solution to obtain significant power savings consists in duty cycling the radio interface [2]; this is applied by turning it off and on again to save power using hibernation or sleep modes, or using it only when necessary, as defined by the unscheduled IEEE 802.11 communications protocol. The by turning it off and on again to save power using hibernation or sleep modes, or using it only when necessary, as defined by the unscheduled IEEE 802.11 communications protocol. ...
... To obtain high resistance, transistor M2 is a long-length, narrow device with a size of (80 nm/3 μm). Since it presents a feedback configuration, the input impedance of the circuit is given by (2), where Av represents the circuit AC gain. The AC gain increment ensures a high bandwidth, given as (3), since it relaxes the contribution of the parasitic Figure 9. RFED WuR with current-reuse amplifier [8]. ...
... To obtain high resistance, transistor M2 is a long-length, narrow device with a size of (80 nm/3 µm). Since it presents a feedback configuration, the input impedance of the circuit is given by (2), where A v represents the circuit AC gain. The AC gain increment ensures a high bandwidth, given as (3), since it relaxes the contribution of the parasitic capacitances due to M1 and P1. ...
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... Nevertheless, recent developments have revealed exciting possibilities to enhan energy harvesting (EH) efficiency by designing suitable converters, combining converte in hybrid solutions, and adopting opportunities for wireless energy transmissio Developments in microelectronics enable significant energy savings, making an ener supply from ambient sources increasingly practicable. Wake-up receivers swit unnecessary system parts entirely off and reduce energy consumption during sleepi phases [4,5]. Data aggregation techniques [1], clustering, and intelligent routing realiz significant energy savings on the network level. ...
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... This module employs LoRa communication technology for data transfer [24]. The module is based on the Semtech SX1276/SX1278 chip and has been instrumental to the enormous growth in low-cost IoT applications [24]. The Dragino shield as a sensitivity of over -148 dBm and +20 dBm power which has enabled achieve a very high link budget of 168 dBm [24]. ...
... The module is based on the Semtech SX1276/SX1278 chip and has been instrumental to the enormous growth in low-cost IoT applications [24]. The Dragino shield as a sensitivity of over -148 dBm and +20 dBm power which has enabled achieve a very high link budget of 168 dBm [24]. LoRa shields are generally very suitable for robust and long-range projects IoT projects [24]. ...
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... Battery capacity is developing at a very slow rate compared to other technologies, such as integrated circuits or software design. Therefore, energy efficiency has been the prime goal when designing and deploying WSNs [7,8]. Bachir et al. address the challenges related to the reliability of communication and the efficient use of the node's battery in WSN [9]. ...
... Therefore, in real-time communication, a wireless method with a very low duty cycle may be inadequate. Similarly, Bdiri et al. [8] introduced the wake-up receiver (WuRx), which handles idle listening while keeping the main radio completely off. The main function of WuRx is to send an interrupt signal to the processing unit when receiving a radio frequency (RF) or wake-up packet (WuPt). ...
... T Act,k contains the time parameters T W, T p and T D shown in Table 1, which depend on the node state. The consumed energy E Act,k is given in Equation (8). ...
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... For this reason, various strategies have been explored to minimize the activity of the conventional transceiver, and can result in significant energy savings, thus, increasing the sensor's battery life. One well-known solution to drastically reduce power consumption is to aggressively duty-cycle the transceiver in order to save power, but this may leave the sensor node unreachable and unable to communicate with other nodes for a short time period [3]. Therefore, this decrease in power consumption when the sensor node's radio is in sleep-mode results in a higher latency. ...
... The solution proposed by [3] is an RFED WuR implemented with off-chip components and a structure similar to that proposed in Section 3. The authors use an envelope detector with Schottky diodes and the AS3933 circuit as pattern recognizer as well. In [33] the authors propose an RFED WuR, too. ...
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... In comparison to other wake-up receivers with internal digital signal processing the realized circuit excels in its RF sensitivity. Power consumption is comparable and supply voltage is at the lowest limit of all relevant studies [4][5] [6]. The power consumption of pure RF receivers and signal conditioners [7][8] [9][10] is lower. ...
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... Much work to develop such near-zero power RF-wakeup sensors has been implemented in CMOS rectification circuits using a combination of envelope detectors and comparators after down-converting RF or using added external transformers and filters. Many of these have tradeoffs between power consumption and sensitivity, while achieving sub-100nW power consumption even at -40 dBm [9]. Recently, CMOS based switches have been developed offering < -60 dBm sensitivity for less than 10 nW [10,11]. ...
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An ultra-low-power digital baseband (DBB), based on a low power microcontroller (MCU), is presented. The DBB functions as a decoder for the Wake-up receiver (WuRx). It also implements a duty-cycle protocol meant to control the WuRx peripherals to further reduce its average energy consumption. The DBB generates very short power-on periods, during which, it has to detect the presence of a wake-up packet. This allows very low latency between a transmitted wake-up packet and its detection. The WuRx’s power consumption and data rate are scalable and can be reconfigured to meet specific requirements. It emphasizes the possibility to decode more than 512-bit address pattern.