Figure - uploaded by Amanda L Paule-Koba
Content may be subject to copyright.
WSF Female Leaders in Sport Survey: Perceptions of Social and Behavioral Barriers

WSF Female Leaders in Sport Survey: Perceptions of Social and Behavioral Barriers

Source publication
Technical Report
Full-text available
Girls and Women shines a light on the current landscape for girls and women in sport reflected in the latest data from nearly 500 research reports and results from a new national survey of more than 2,300 women working in women's sport. Taking stock of where we are in achieving gender equity in sport requires study, transparency and candor. This gr...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
In this Research Paper the Author has enumerated certain facts about attitude of people along with Ego and Jealousy. The author has also factually stated the consequences in which such attitude is being portrayed where the impact and remedial measures have been described exponentially. The author is a life balance coach and executive leadership coa...

Citations

... Oftentimes, coaches may tend to favor and are more comfortable working with a specific personality regardless of coping skill set or, due to the limited number of high school athletes competing in field events when compared to the extensive number of Division I programs, attracting a specific type of athletic mindset may simply come down to challenges in recruiting. Lastly, the stage at which females matriculate into this sport due to school funding, lack of access, limited role models, or social stigma challenges experienced prior to college (Staurowsky et al., 2020), may influence the maturation of optimal coping skill response, which was beyond the scope of this study but warrants further attention. ...
Article
Full-text available
[Journal of Sport Behavior. 2022;45(3):61-74] For collegiate field athletes, the inability to manage and cope with stressful situations and injuries may affect sport-specific development, impede optimal performance, lead to unnecessary injuries, and delay the rehabilitation process. Unfortunately, this essential component to competitive success is often not emphasized during training. Due to limited research in this unique area of sport, this study was conducted to quantify athletic and pain coping skills of NCAA Division I field athletes. Following written informed consent, 151 collegiate field athletes (46 males, 105 females; mean age 20.1 ± 1.5 yrs) completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI; Smith et al., 1995), and the Sports Inventory for Pain (SIP; Meyers et al., 1992a). Data were grouped for analyses by skill level, gender, event, and injury history. MANOVAs (Wilks’ λ) indicated significant main effects across skill level (p <.004) and gender (p <.021), not by event (p <.495) or injury history (p <.207). Univariate analyses indicated that top ranked qualifiers responded significantly higher (p <.02 to p <.001) in confidence, direct coping, and total coping response, and lower in catastrophizing than non-qualifiers. Males responded significantly higher (p <.02 to p <.001) across most athletic coping skills, and lower in catastrophizing than females, with females exhibiting below normative responses across 75% of subscales. This unique view of athletic and pain coping skills of field athletes also reflected suboptimal responses not reported in the literature. It is recommended that coaches incorporate time within their programs to conduct coping skills training involving sport psychologists familiar with field events.
... Their victory was bookended by headline-grabbing stories regarding a class-action lawsuit filed by 28 members of the USWNT against the U.S. Soccer Federation (USSF), which highlighted issues that continue to envelope women's sports amid a fight for equality, regarding compensation, media coverage, and a need to remove sexist and misogynistic ways regarding women's sports (Staurowsky et al. 2020). These issues are significant and need to be examined, but the current study focused solely on media coverage of the on-field event. ...
... Women's sports have struggled for consistent traction and representation in news media, and journalistic ambivalence has been part of the issue (Bruce 2016;Schmidt 2018;Staurowsky et al. 2020). A longitudinal study of female subjects appearing in stories across 13 American newspapers highlighted slight growth in news, business, and entertainment sections, and the only downtick was in sports (Shor et al. 2014). ...
... These numbers hidden within the non-USWNT coverage do not sink to the depths of alltime gender disparity in overall sports coverage (Duncan and Messner 2000), but they offer a damning glimpse at a gender gap that remains historically wide and embedded in the journalistic practice of favoring coverage of male athletes (O'Neill and Mulready 2015; Staurowsky et al. 2020). This study did not directly examine whether sexist journalistic practices were deployed against women's sports coverage on the front page. ...
Article
The United States women’s national team (USWNT) successfully defended its 2015 FIFA World Cup title with a 2-0 victory over the Netherlands on July 7, 2019. With the win, the USWNT increased its total World Cup titles to four, accounting for half of the total Women’s World Cup tournaments ever played. The current study examined 418 American newspapers the following day and whether the team’s 2019 repeat victory was enough to warrant front-page coverage. Guided by framing theory, this content analysis indicated the victory was significantly represented on front pages and offered a snapshot of how international success in women’s sport can result in increased media attention in the U.S. The framing specific to the USWNT presented positive signs for representation. However, when attention focused on non-USWNT sports, gender disparity in overall coverage represented a long-standing trope to diminish quantity and quality of coverage of women’s sports. Within a nation that gravitates toward “American exceptionalism” in sport, this study highlighted that even winning—if it is within women’s sports—leaves room for journalistic debate whether that accomplishment merits front-page attention, and it hinted at the recurring journalistic ideology that has historically and systematically underrepresented women throughout modern history.
... 37 The Women's Sport Foundation confirmed that NCAA Division I has significantly more resources allocated to men's sports than women's sports. 38 The lack of resources given to women's sports programs has a significant impact on the representation of female coaches at NCAA Division I schools. The number of female coaches in power conference schools (e.g. ...
... In the USA, modern progress in women's sport has been helped along by legislation (Gregg and Gregg, 2017;Staurowsky et al., 2020). The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination in employment and public services on the basis of protected classes, including sex. ...
... 1). Title IX has had a significant impact on women's sport because it requires that public high schools and colleges support women's sport programmes equivalently to men's programmes (e.g. in the number of opportunities, scholarships, or equipment provided) or risk losing federal funding (Staurowsky et al., 2020). Participation rates support the effectiveness of this legislation. ...
... Competitive school-based sport programmes also provide significantly less support for women's athletics (e.g. less media coverage, lower-paid coaches, less desirable practices, and competition schedules). Moreover, women comprise a disproportionally small number of leadership positions in sport organizations (e.g. less than one-quarter of university athletic administrators are women); thereby resulting in a lack of female role models and limited understanding of what modifications are appropriate (or not appropriate) for women's sport (Staurowsky et al., 2020). ...
Chapter
This book provides a comprehensive discussion of women, leisure, and tourism through the lens of leisure production and consumption, both by women and for women. Specifically, this text includes a multicultural perspective highlighting the unique attributes leisure brings to women, the role of women in leisure entrepreneurship, and the creation of supportive, inclusive environments to enhance female well-being through the examination of these activities in often overlooked populations. The diversity of women's leisure and tourism practices is best perceived through the links between various leisure practices (e.g., sport, outdoor recreation, travel and tourism, learning, crafts, events, and family leisure), as well as an understanding of leisure production and consumption across cultures and life stages. Chapters bring to the forefront many of the challenges inherent in providing and experiencing leisure and tourism that support the diverse needs of women, as well as a look at female innovation that is also often overlooked in leisure research. This multi-disciplinary book includes examples of both applied and conceptual chapters from global perspectives in academic studies, which will be useful for academics and graduate students of tourism, leisure and gender studies.
... (National Archives and Records Administration, 1979) Compliance will be assessed in any one of the following ways: 1) Whether intercollegiate level participation opportunities for men and women are provided in numbers substantially proportionate to their respective enrollments; or 2) Where the members of one sex have been and are underrepresented among intercollegiate athletes, whether the institution can show a history and continuing practice of program expansion which is demonstrably responsive to the developing interest and abilities of the members of that sex; or 3) Where the members of one sex are underrepresented among intercollegiate athletes, and the institution cannot show a continuing practice of program expansion such as that cited above, whether it can be demonstrated that the interests and abilities of the members of that sex have been fully and effectively accommodated by the present program. (Ali, 2010) Given the judgment involved in interpreting these guidelines, they were subject to immediate criticism by both advocates of women's sports and the stalwarts of the status quo (Bennett, 2019;Klinker, 2003;Lerner & Lakowski, 2009;Reich, 2003;Shelton, 2000;Staurowsky et al., 2020). The criticisms demonstrate how each side has used the vagueness of the law's language to push their narrative regarding gender equity and equality (Johnson, 1994;Reich, 2003). ...
... Critics argue there cannot be true equality between men and women's athletics regarding participation opportunities if one side is harmed to fix the injustices of another (Brake, 2010). Some women's rights advocates-such as the Women's Sports Foundation and Champion Women-have argued this point as well through their various reports on gender equity in college sports (Staurowsky et al., 2020;Champion, 2020b). They push for moving beyond Title IX to achieve true equality for all regardless of sex or team (Brake, 2010;Espinoza, 2007). ...
... Another area creating an unnecessarily difficult situation around Title IX compliance is the lack of women in leadership positions within athletics departments (Brake, 2010;Lerner & Lakowski, 2009;Staurowsky et al., 2020). The Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sport found in their 2019 report that women accounted for only 13.6% of all athletic director positions at the Division I level (Lapchick, 2020). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Almost 50 years since its passage, Title IX and intercollegiate athletics continue to be in conflict. Though plenty of research has been done regarding the two, there has been little research that practitioners can use in real-world contexts. This study sought to explore two Big Ten institutions, the University of Minnesota and the University of Illinois, to better understand the why public universities are still struggling with Title IX compliance. The purpose of this study was to explore various institutional and athletic department characteristics and their potential impact on an institution’s compliance with Title IX’s proportionality component. Using a qualitative multi-case study, I focused on two Division I institutions to develop a better understanding of how institutional structures and market forces have impacted Title IX compliance. This study examined Equity in Athletics Data Analysis (EADA) and institutional data, institutional and external reports, documents, meeting minutes, and memos to compare these institutional and athletic department characteristics and contextualize their impact on institutional Title IX compliance. Espinoza’s (2007) equity-equality framework as well as a structuralism/subordination framework were used to examine various institutional characteristics and Title IX compliance at these two Power 5 institutions. Consistent with other studies, this study found that two institutional characteristics, such as the presence of football and the primary undergraduate gender, are predictors of Title IX proportionality compliance. The results of this study also support the importance of institutional governance structures and the integration of the athletic department into the broader university community. The study also provides valuable insights for presidents, conferences, the NCAA, and the Department of Education to leverage their positions as a means of ensuring future gender-equity success. Last, further research into utilizing an intersectional framework in a diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) remit at the institutional level could account for the intersectionality of athletes and allow for expansive new insights into gender and racial equity in college sports.
... In addition to establishing a fraught context for the full inclusion of transgender athletes, segregation enables unequal support for and value of women's sports. Sports for girls and women remain severely under-funded (Staurowsky et al. 2020), opportunities for women in coaching and athletic leadership have substantially decreased in the past decades (Sabo et al. 2016;Whisenant 2003), female athletes remain vulnerable to sexual harassment and abuse (Macur and Levenson 2021;Novkov 2019), media coverage of women's sports falls well below that of men's (Cooky et al. 2021), and when women athletes are covered it is more likely to be through sexualizing frames (Musto et al. 2017;Musto and McGann 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Between 2020 and 2021, one hundred and ten bills in state legislatures across the United States suggested banning the participation of transgender athletes on sports teams for girls and women. As of July 2021, ten such bills have become state law. This paper tracks the political shift towards targeting transgender athletes. Conservative political interests now seek laws that suture biological determinist arguments to civil rights of bodies. Although narrow binary definitions of sex have long operated in the background as a means for policy implementation under Title IX, Republican lawmakers now aim to reframe sex non-discrimination policies as means of gendered exclusion. The content of proposals reveal the centrality of ideas about bodily immutability, and body politics more generally, in shaping the future of American gender politics. My analysis of bills from 2021 argues that legislative proposals advance a logic of “cisgender supremacy” inhering in political claims about normatively gendered bodies. Political institutions are another site for advancing, enshrining, and normalizing cis-supremacist gender orders, explicitly joining cause with medical authorities as arbiters of gender normativity. Characteristics of bodies and their alleged role in evidencing sex itself have fueled the tactics of anti-transgender activists on the political Right. However, the target of their aims is not mere policy change but a state-sanctioned return to a narrowly cis- and heteropatriarchal gender order.
... Uniforms that provide minimal coverage (i.e., bathing suits, volleyball spandex) put more of the body on display for others to evaluate, and therefore may increase body talk, self-objectification, and social comparisons relative to less revealing uniforms (i.e., hockey/basketball jerseys; Lauer et al., 2018;Steinfeldt, Zakrajsek, Bodey, Middendorf, & Martin, 2013;Tiggemann & Andrew, 2012). Volleyball is the most common interactive team-based sports played by girls (Staurowsky et al., 2020), reinforcing that differences in body talk across non-aesthetic sport based on uniforms should be explored. Given the difference in focus on body functionality, and variable findings on how body image differs between aesthetic and non-aesthetic sport (de Bruin, Oudejans, & Bakker, 2007;Fernández-Bustos, Infantes-Paniagua, Gonzalez-Martí, & Contreras-Jordán, 2019), it remains to be seen if the current findings are transferable to aesthetic sport. ...
... By gaining a comprehensive understanding of the diverse motivations for and types of body talk during sport, strategies to challenge the appearance-focused culture and mitigate the effects of body talk can be created. The urgency for developing mandatory training and protective policies against athlete mistreatment is considered an essential step toward creating a supportive and inclusive sport environment for girls (Staurowsky et al., 2020). However, there is a paucity of empirically-based body image resources for athletes, their parents, and coaches (Sabiston, Lucibello, et al., 2020). ...
... However, there is a paucity of empirically-based body image resources for athletes, their parents, and coaches (Sabiston, Lucibello, et al., 2020). Providing such resources may reduce athletes' negative body image and disordered eating (Bar, Cassin, & Dionne, 2016), help sport stakeholders reduce their contribution to an objectifying and appearance-focused culture, and create intolerance of behaviours such as body talk through policy changes (Staurowsky et al., 2020). The development and dissemination of resources may contribute to the creation of a more enjoyable and retentive sporting environment for adolescent girls. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Body image concerns may contribute to poor sport experiences and low sport participation in girls. Objectification theory and evidence from studies in non-sport contexts suggests body talk may elicit an environment that fosters negative body image. However, the phenomenon of body talk within adolescent girls sport is not well-understood from an in-depth person-centered perspective. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to explore adolescent girl athletes’ experiences of body talk within sport. Methods Twenty Canadian girl athletes (ages 14–18 years) enrolled in team-based non-aesthetic sports participated in one semi-structured interview. Using a qualitative description approach, an inductive thematic analysis was used to generate three themes. Results “Body talk as a performance tactic” highlighted complimentary and negative body talk pertaining to sport performance came from coaches, opposing players, and parents. “Casual conversations and body talk” reflected body talk from teammates and male spectators that was not specific to sport but occurred in the sport context. “Coping with body talk” reflected strategies athletes used to combat negative body talk from teammates, and reflected the athletes’ perceptions that negativity towards the body is normative. Conclusions Body talk served many purposes within sport; researchers should further explore the diverse motivations and perceived utility of body talk across sport stakeholders. Creating standardized resources and policies to eliminate body talk may foster more positive and supportive sport experiences for girls.
... 60 Evidence on the effectiveness of these changes in helmets is limited primarily to laboratory testing environments. [61][62][63][64][65] Two exceptions are large multiyear epidemiologic studies that reported conflicting findings. A study of high school football players found no differences in concussion characteristics among players wearing new and refurbished helmets and no differences across the most common brands and models. ...
... Girls (vs boys), racial/ethnic minority adolescents (vs White adolescents), young people from households of low socioeconomic status (vs from households of high socioeconomic status), young people living in rural areas (vs urban and suburban areas), and young people with disabilities (vs without disabilities) are less likely to be physically active and play sports. 1,7,65 A safer game of football can be more accessible to even larger numbers of young people who stand to reap the benefits of playing. However, a concerted effort must be made to implement effective football safety measures in all communities. ...
Article
Physical activity during adolescence is associated with positive health outcomes, yet only 26% of US middle and high school students report daily physical activity. Moreover, the number of high school students playing a sport is declining, with the largest decline in football. One reason for this decline in playing football may be increased attention to the risk of head injury. For public health, the decline is alarming because football offers a physical activity opportunity for millions of young people every year. In response, efforts have been made to institute measures to enhance the safety of football. The objective of this topical review was to review these measures and the data supporting their effectiveness. We conducted a search of scientific literature supplemented by a web search to identify safety measures. We used the Indiana University library electronic database, PubMed, and web browser searches with specific search terms. In addition to peer-reviewed studies, we searched news stories and reports from sport-related organizations. We summarized the measures and evaluations of effectiveness and categorized the measures by type (game rules, practice guidelines, equipment innovations, strategic initiatives) and target age group (elementary/middle school, high school, college, professional). We found that attempts are being made to improve the safety of football at all levels. However, many measures lack scientific evidence to support their effectiveness. Therefore, researchers need to systematically evaluate safety measures. By implementing evidence-based interventions, we can balance the public health risk of playing football versus the public health risk of continued declines in participation.
... In contrast, men's professional sport contracts set elite male athletes up for economic security long past their playing days (Verdola, 2019). In 2020, women athletes continue to receive 1% of sponsorship dollars spent by global brands, and women's sport garners a mere 5% of sports media coverage (Staurowsky et al., 2020). Cheri Kemp, commissioner of the National Fastpitch Softball League, captured the essence of Pinsker's (2020) notion of two pandemics when she observed that both men's and women's sports were navigating high seas during the crisis, but men's sports were yachts and women's sports were canoes (Peterson, 2020). ...
... As positive as this momentum change was, the reaction to its interruption by the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates the precarious position women's sport holds within the sport industry. These positive narratives nest within a larger set of narratives that highlight deeply disturbing accounts of female gymnasts being sexually assaulted by sports medicine doctor, Larry Nassar (Lapook, 2019); failures of multiple sport governing bodies and institutions to protect female athletes from abusive coaches (Chakrabarti, 2019); and persistent budgetary inequities, wage gaps, and hostile sport workplaces (Staurowsky et al., 2020). Thus, the importance of the positive momentum was not just about record-breaking performances and hires that broke the glass ceiling, but efforts to overcome longstanding barriers to women's full participation in sport and gendered forces that exact substantial tolls on women who work and compete in the sport industry. ...
... Note that the industry started to take women more seriously as public health concerns emanating from a growing awareness about the effects of concussive and subconcussive hits mounted and criticisms regarding the mistreatment of women rose as well. Conversations about women and sport framed within the context of scarcity and loss misses, at some level, the point that the sport industry needs women, as fans who are controllers of discretionary spending in households, as mothers who influence the sports their children play, and as workers (Staurowsky et al., 2020). That reality presents a foothold that has largely gone unrecognized in conversations about women and sport during the pandemic. ...
Article
In this essay, the authors explored Pinsker’s conception of two pandemics, as reflected in the concerns expressed about the future of women’s sport, prospects for female athletes, and the security of women leaders in sport as they emerged in articles published in national news sources. The purpose of this essay was to capture, in a limited way, how women’s sport concerns surfaced in the media in the aftermath of a forced industry shutdown; to gauge reactions, assess real and perceived threats; and to examine how and whether this crisis inspired positive thoughts about women’s sport opportunities for the future. Our work is based on the tracking of articles published in major news outlets about the impact of the pandemic on women’s sport from March 10, 2020, to May 25, 2020. Readings of the collected articles revealed several themes that fit within the two pandemics framework: reactions to the loss of momentum in women’s sport; fears regarding a reversal in gains made by women’s sport in the marketplace as competition for limited resources escalates; concerns about women’s sport participation decreasing due to cuts and delays in programs; and a focused commitment to gender equity and maintaining momentum, even in the face of significant headwinds.
Article
In 2022, the Women’s Sports Foundation published a report addressing the current status of Title IX compliance in U.S school-based sports, examining the limitations of Title IX as a single axis law that addresses gender but not other areas of intersectionality including race, gender identity, sexual orientation, and ability. What is presented here is the executive summary and policy recommendations from the report.