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Volatile constituents of E. sonchifolia.

Volatile constituents of E. sonchifolia.

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The volatile constituents were isolated by hydro-distillation of the aerial parts of Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. (Asteraceae). The constituents were analyzed for the first time by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Forty-three compounds were identified,...

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... compounds were identified according to their mass spectra and their relative retention indices determined in a non-polar stationary phase capillary column, comprising 96.3% of the total oil constituents. The identified compounds are listed in Table 1 in elution order from the BP-1 column, along with the percentage composition of each component and its retention index. The major compounds were identified as γ-muurolene (32.1%) and β-caryophyllene (22.7%). ...

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Citations

... The essential oil was dissolved in a 1% solution of equal-ratio nhexane:dichloromethane and the composition of C zeylanicum oil was analysed with a Varian 450 gas chromatograph (GC) fitted with a fused silica capillary BP-1 column (30 m × 0.25 mm inner diameter, 0.25-μm film thickness; SGE Analytical Science, now Trajan, Chester, UK), using previously described experimental settings. [25][26][27] The programmed oven temperature was 60-220 °C at 3 °C min −1 , with N 2 as the carrier gas. The injector temperature was fixed at 230 °C, whereas the flame ionization detector (FID) temperature was set at 240 °C. ...
Article
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The hydrodistilled essential oil obtained from leaves of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) collected throughout the year was examined using gas chromatography fitted with flame ionization detector (GC‐FID) and gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry (GC‐MS). The variation in essential oil yield was found to be in the range of 1.1–1.4% (w/w). Between 28 and 40 components, representing 97.92 ± 0.15% of the total oil, were identified. The chief compound was identified as eugenol, varying from 60.24 ± 0.42 to 89.82 ± 0.55%. The other constituents were eugenyl acetate (ranging from 0.10 ± 0.01 to 19.87 ± 0.52%), α‐phellandrene (ranging from 0.76 ± 0.04 to 6.23 ± 0.13%), benzyl benzoate (ranging from 0.91 ± 0.05 to 5.03 ± 0.20%), linalool (ranging from 1.11 ± 0.04 to 3.25 ± 0.08%), and β‐caryophyllene (ranging from 0.50 ± 0.01 to 2.92 ± 0.10%). The essential oils collected throughout the year were found to be rich in phenyl derivative constituents (88.49 ± 0.97%). The biosynthesis and conversion of eugenyl acetate to eugenol appeared as the leaves of C. zeylanicum reached maturity. It was noticed that when leaves were immature, in July and August during the full rainy season, the content of eugenyl acetate was found to be highest, as compared with mature leaves in the other months, with the exception of February (flowering season). Variation between eugenol and eugenyl acetate levels were observed in the essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaves. When leaves were immature, in July and August during the full rainy season, the content of eugenyl acetate was found to be highest, as compared with mature leaves in the other months, with the exception of February (flowering season). The period between March and June, when the level of eugenol is higher than 85%, useful in the food industry and other medicinal purposes..
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Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Teucrium capitatum L. subsp. lusitanicum essential oil was investigated for the first time in the present study. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the chemical composition by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–FID and GC–MS) revealed the presence of 60 compounds representing 97.6% of the whole constituents. The main compounds were germacrene D (47.1%), spathulenol (5.8%), α-selinene (5.3%), germacrene A (2.9%), δ cadinene (2.8%) and cubenol (2.7%). In vitro, the antimicrobial activity was investigated against five bacterial strains along with the yeast Candida albicans using broth microdilution assay. T. capitatum subsp. lusitanicum essential oil showed significant activity against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = MBC = 78 µg mL−1), Bacillus subtilis (MIC = MBC = 156 µg mL−1) and the yeast C. albicans (MIC =MFC = 156 µg mL−1). The great potential of antimicrobial effects is most likely due to the very high percentage of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons particularly to germacrene D, for which the antimicrobial properties have been previously reported.
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E)-β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a natural sesquiterpene hydrocarbon present in hundreds of plant species. BCP possesses several important pharmacological activities, ranging from pain treatment to neurological and metabolic disorders. These are mainly due to its ability to interact with the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) and the complete lack of interaction with the brain CB1. A systematic analysis of plant species with essential oils containing a BCP percentage > 10% provided almost 300 entries with species belonging to 51 families. The essential oils were found to be extracted from 13 plant parts and samples originated from 56 countries worldwide. Statistical analyses included the evaluation of variability in BCP% and yield% as well as the statistical linkage between families, plant parts and countries of origin by cluster analysis. Identified species were also grouped according to their presence in the Belfrit list. The survey evidences the importance of essential oil yield evaluation in support of the chemical analysis. The results provide a comprehensive picture of the species with the highest BCP and yield percentages.
Article
This study was carried out to compare for the first time, the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from two Ballota species growing wild in different regions of Tunisia. The volatile oils obtained by hydro-distillation of Ballota bullata Pomel and Ballota nigra L. subsp. uncinata (Fiori & Beg.) Patzak were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spec- � trometry (GC/MS) to investigate the variations in chemical profiles. The results showed a significant difference in terms of essential oil yields and characteristic aroma. Valerianol (18.3%), a-muurolol (7.9%) and spathulenol (7.1%) were identified as the major odorants in B. bullata, while B. nigra subsp. uncinata oil was mainly composed of hexadecanoic acid (31.8%) and linoleic acid (17.9%). In addition, oxygenated sesquiterpenes were found to be the principal constituents of B. bullata essential oil (42.1%), whereas long chain oxygenated hydrocarbons form the main class in B. nigra (49.7%). Moreover, the antimicrobial activities were tested in vitro against five bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and the yeast Candida albicans. B. bullata essential oil showed stronger antibacterial effects comparing to B. nigra oil. Consequently, B. bullata essential oil holds promising antimicrobial potential, confirming its traditional medical use.