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Village institute distribution with the sphere of influence and rural population (colored by the author after Tonguç 1967, 393) / Etki alanları ve kırsal nüfus ile Köy Enstitüleri'nin dağılımı (Tonguç'un 1967, 393 çalışması dikkate alınarak yazar tarafından renklendirilmiştir.)

Village institute distribution with the sphere of influence and rural population (colored by the author after Tonguç 1967, 393) / Etki alanları ve kırsal nüfus ile Köy Enstitüleri'nin dağılımı (Tonguç'un 1967, 393 çalışması dikkate alınarak yazar tarafından renklendirilmiştir.)

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Village Institutes were educational complexes that were designed for 21 villages between 1940 and 1948, as the pioneer of modernization in village development during the Early Republican Period of Turkey. These projects were implemented through architectural competitions and constructed as a campus comprising many buildings instead of a single mass...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... main aim of village institutes established between 1940 and 1944 in 21 sub-regions of Turkey was training village instructors to work in their own villages ( Figure 1). In addition to the legal and administrative process of the project (Act numbered 3803), distribution of the institutes was carefully planned, creating spheres of influence ( Tonguç 1997, 393). ...
Context 2
... the village institutes, HVI, which was established in 1941 in Ankara, differs from the others, as it was established as a training center for trainers who may work in village institutes rather than village schools ( Figures 1 and 2). Thus, it has a broader architectural program than the other institutes. ...
Context 3
... it has a broader architectural program than the other institutes. Additionally, the complex was constructed by the students and trainers of 14 institutes that had been previously established, from the first building to the last (Figure 1). Thus, many people have memories about the construction process of Hasanoğlan, in addition to educational life. ...
Context 4
... academic studies, and memories of the graduates, former trainers, and students who came to Hasanoğlan from other institutes for work, aerial photos of the institute site since 1948 until today, and old photographs were used as the main sources of the study to create a memory map. Before 1941, 14 village institutes had been established in the Aegean, Black Sea, and Mediterranean regions of Turkey (Figure 1), while establishing a village institute in Ankara was not considered in the original project plan because its political location (Kirby 1967, 217). However, the Second World War posed a threat to the Thrace region, where the Kepirtepe Village Institute was located, so the students there had to be transferred to safer place (Arman 2016, 345). ...
Context 5
... previous village institutes, procurement of an architectural design project for the HVI was determined through an architectural competition ( Figure 10). According to specifications of the competition (IHTBV, KLS2_no:60), schools, meeting room, workshop buildings, kitchen, laundry, bath, administrative building, stables, coops, storages, infirmary (revir), toilets and teacher residences are the main type of buildings that should be included in the project. ...
Context 6
... site plan included schools, workshops, dormitories, teacher residences, administrative building, toilets, storage buildings, stables, coops, a kitchen, meeting hall, laundry and bath, exhibition hall and museum, infirmary, and playgrounds (Çorakbaş 2013, 324;IHTBV). Considering the locations and functions of these buildings, the site plan consisted of different functional zones, like educational, residential, social, and husbandry zones, and agricultural land ( Figure 10). ...
Context 7
... addition to Güneri, Sili Layoş, Gaspar Anyipal, Gabel Mihaly and Mualla Eyüboğlu are experts frequently mentioned in former students' memories (Menekşe 2005;Özkuçur 2013;Güneri 2019;Apaydın 2020 As the students from Kepirtepe arrived in Hasanoğlan Village, the first issue was arrangement of accommodations for guest students. Recep Bulut, a graduate from Kepirtepe, stated that while some students settled into the mosque and primary school in the village, tents were established within the courtyard of the primary school for the rest (Figures 11 and 12; Menekşe 2005, 156). A foundation building around the village square was transformed into kitchen and wooden tables were constructed by the villagers for eating and studying (Güneri 2019, 1). ...
Context 8
... these studies, three students from ÇVI, Abdullah Özkuçur, Ali Yılmaz, and Niyazi Baykal, also participated to working team. They were experienced in construction, and they constructed a water storage (şadırvan) above the spring water in the village square, which was the main water source ( Figure 13). Additionally, they constructed the roof of the laundry building, whose walls were built by students of Kepirtepe, and a public bath in the village square with master trainer, Mehmet Yurtkuran (Özkuçur 2016, 152). ...
Context 9
... still exists, although its windows of şadırvan are fully closed, and the laundry and bath buildings are lost at present ( Figure 13). However, the construction technique for the public bath can be deciphered through the inscription panel on the şadırvan. ...
Context 10
... water from şadırvan in the village square was transported to the construction site through an earthen pipe waterway due to difficulties in transporting water ( Figure 14; Güneri 2019, 2). Additionally, temporal wooden workplace and storage buildings were constructed, and lime pits were drilled within the construction site (Menekşe 2005, 156). ...
Context 11
... terms of construction materials, stones were removed from the stone quarry located north of the settlement. According to Özkuçur (2016, 135), after breaking rocks into pieces using dynamite and sledgehammers, stones were transported to the construction site using tumbrels or wheelbarrows ( Figure 15). The sand for mortar and plaster was obtained from stream beds of Hasan River in the west and Asar River in the east ( Güneri 2019, 2). ...
Context 12
... bricks were left to dry, stacked on top of each other to allow air flow through them. Finally, they were baked at a high temperature (Figure 16). Quarries were located under the ground and access was through a ditch (hendek). ...
Context 13
... Apaydın supplied no information regarding the production of tile, Kınacı stated that tile was also produced by students at ÇVI. During which time, molds supplied from a factory in Eskişehir were used (Figures 16 and 17 for Hasanoğlan was a problem. Hürrem Arman, director of Beşikdüzü Village Institute between 1940 and 1943, had an active role in obtaining timber (Arman 2016). ...
Context 14
... of the harsh climatic conditions during winter in Ankara, summer and autumn comprised the construction season of the HVI. In light of the memories and archive documents, the construction process was examined at 5-time intervals, comprising 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, and 1944 until its closure ( Figure 18). ...
Context 15
... to the memories, the first-year program was based on construction of a toilet, six workshops for practical education, four storages for workshops, six schools for theoretical education, a dining hall, and a switchboard across from the dining hall ( Figure 18). Additionally, after constructing the switchboard, poles were established and lines between them were installed ( Güneri 2019, 59). ...
Context 16
... parallel with the construction, agricultural work also began at the end of the first year. Barley and wheat were planted in the expropriated fields, and tree planting began by trenching the land, locally known as kirizma ( Figure 19; Güneri 2019, 60). ...
Context 17
... 1942, a dormitory and ten instructor's houses within the residential zone were constructed, in addition to two schools within the educational zone, a coop, and a stable close to the railway in south. In the third construction season, another dormitory and another toilet within the residential zone, a workshop within the educational zone, an administrative building, a large timber workshop, a mixed workshop, including a switchboard and tailor workshop, a large iron workshop, two garages for vehicles, an open-air theater, and a music hall, added to the original plan by Mualla Eyüboğlu, were constructed ( Figure 18). In addition to the continuing construction process, hundreds of fruit and non-fruiting trees were planted and vegetable cultivation began under the guidance of İzzet Palamar, tarımbaşı (head of agricultural works), until the end of 1942 ( Figure 19). ...
Context 18
... the third construction season, another dormitory and another toilet within the residential zone, a workshop within the educational zone, an administrative building, a large timber workshop, a mixed workshop, including a switchboard and tailor workshop, a large iron workshop, two garages for vehicles, an open-air theater, and a music hall, added to the original plan by Mualla Eyüboğlu, were constructed ( Figure 18). In addition to the continuing construction process, hundreds of fruit and non-fruiting trees were planted and vegetable cultivation began under the guidance of İzzet Palamar, tarımbaşı (head of agricultural works), until the end of 1942 ( Figure 19). ...
Context 19
... the Department of Higher Institute was established in 1942, the high institute building could be constructed in the 1944 construction season. Additionally, another dormitory, bakery, storage building for food, and a complex, including laundry and bath, were constructed in that period ( Figure 18). Finally, after 1944, three dormitories and an instructor's house within the residential zone, three guest residences close to railway, three storages, a practicing workshop, country house close to the agricultural lands, and infirmary (revir) on the village road were constructed in the north (Figure 18). ...
Context 20
... another dormitory, bakery, storage building for food, and a complex, including laundry and bath, were constructed in that period ( Figure 18). Finally, after 1944, three dormitories and an instructor's house within the residential zone, three guest residences close to railway, three storages, a practicing workshop, country house close to the agricultural lands, and infirmary (revir) on the village road were constructed in the north (Figure 18). Among these buildings, much information regarding construction techniques for the buildings from the foundation to the roof could be deciphered through memories related to the construction of workshops, schools, dining hall and music complex roofs, and openair theater (KEÇEV 2003, 252;Menekşe 2005, 157;Özkuçur 2013, 24;Güneri 2019, 22). ...
Context 21
... (2016, 140-141 During excavation, while one group of students carried the stones and bricks to the excavation site, another group prepared mortar in large cauldrons. They sifted sand, quenched lime, and mixed it with cement and water in certain quantities under the direction of the masters to obtain mortar (Figures 20 and 21; Özkuçur 2013, 23). According to old photographs, these works requiring little manual effort were usually done by female students ( Figure 21). ...
Context 22
... sifted sand, quenched lime, and mixed it with cement and water in certain quantities under the direction of the masters to obtain mortar (Figures 20 and 21; Özkuçur 2013, 23). According to old photographs, these works requiring little manual effort were usually done by female students ( Figure 21). ...
Context 23
... completing rough construction of the buildings, the final stage was assembly of the architectural elements shaped in the timber workshop according to the exact dimensions of the openings, and finishing the walls with plaster and whitewash (Figures 30 and 31) (Güneri 2019, 60). In terms producing the plaster, soaked sand was baked within stove-like braziers (locally called maltız), which were also produced by students, and fine plaster was produced by adding sieved sand. ...
Context 24
... main aim of village institutes established between 1940 and 1944 in 21 sub-regions of Turkey was training village instructors to work in their own villages ( Figure 1). In addition to the legal and administrative process of the project (Act numbered 3803), distribution of the institutes was carefully planned, creating spheres of influence ( Tonguç 1997, 393). ...
Context 25
... the village institutes, HVI, which was established in 1941 in Ankara, differs from the others, as it was established as a training center for trainers who may work in village institutes rather than village schools ( Figures 1 and 2). Thus, it has a broader architectural program than the other institutes. ...
Context 26
... it has a broader architectural program than the other institutes. Additionally, the complex was constructed by the students and trainers of 14 institutes that had been previously established, from the first building to the last (Figure 1). Thus, many people have memories about the construction process of Hasanoğlan, in addition to educational life. ...
Context 27
... academic studies, and memories of the graduates, former trainers, and students who came to Hasanoğlan from other institutes for work, aerial photos of the institute site since 1948 until today, and old photographs were used as the main sources of the study to create a memory map. Before 1941, 14 village institutes had been established in the Aegean, Black Sea, and Mediterranean regions of Turkey (Figure 1), while establishing a village institute in Ankara was not considered in the original project plan because its political location (Kirby 1967, 217). However, the Second World War posed a threat to the Thrace region, where the Kepirtepe Village Institute was located, so the students there had to be transferred to safer place (Arman 2016, 345). ...
Context 28
... previous village institutes, procurement of an architectural design project for the HVI was determined through an architectural competition ( Figure 10). According to specifications of the competition (IHTBV, KLS2_no:60), schools, meeting room, workshop buildings, kitchen, laundry, bath, administrative building, stables, coops, storages, infirmary (revir), toilets and teacher residences are the main type of buildings that should be included in the project. ...
Context 29
... site plan included schools, workshops, dormitories, teacher residences, administrative building, toilets, storage buildings, stables, coops, a kitchen, meeting hall, laundry and bath, exhibition hall and museum, infirmary, and playgrounds (Çorakbaş 2013, 324;IHTBV). Considering the locations and functions of these buildings, the site plan consisted of different functional zones, like educational, residential, social, and husbandry zones, and agricultural land ( Figure 10). ...
Context 30
... addition to Güneri, Sili Layoş, Gaspar Anyipal, Gabel Mihaly and Mualla Eyüboğlu are experts frequently mentioned in former students' memories (Menekşe 2005;Özkuçur 2013;Güneri 2019;Apaydın 2020 As the students from Kepirtepe arrived in Hasanoğlan Village, the first issue was arrangement of accommodations for guest students. Recep Bulut, a graduate from Kepirtepe, stated that while some students settled into the mosque and primary school in the village, tents were established within the courtyard of the primary school for the rest (Figures 11 and 12; Menekşe 2005, 156). A foundation building around the village square was transformed into kitchen and wooden tables were constructed by the villagers for eating and studying (Güneri 2019, 1). ...
Context 31
... these studies, three students from ÇVI, Abdullah Özkuçur, Ali Yılmaz, and Niyazi Baykal, also participated to working team. They were experienced in construction, and they constructed a water storage (şadırvan) above the spring water in the village square, which was the main water source ( Figure 13). Additionally, they constructed the roof of the laundry building, whose walls were built by students of Kepirtepe, and a public bath in the village square with master trainer, Mehmet Yurtkuran (Özkuçur 2016, 152). ...
Context 32
... still exists, although its windows of şadırvan are fully closed, and the laundry and bath buildings are lost at present ( Figure 13). However, the construction technique for the public bath can be deciphered through the inscription panel on the şadırvan. ...
Context 33
... water from şadırvan in the village square was transported to the construction site through an earthen pipe waterway due to difficulties in transporting water ( Figure 14; Güneri 2019, 2). Additionally, temporal wooden workplace and storage buildings were constructed, and lime pits were drilled within the construction site (Menekşe 2005, 156). ...
Context 34
... terms of construction materials, stones were removed from the stone quarry located north of the settlement. According to Özkuçur (2016, 135), after breaking rocks into pieces using dynamite and sledgehammers, stones were transported to the construction site using tumbrels or wheelbarrows ( Figure 15). The sand for mortar and plaster was obtained from stream beds of Hasan River in the west and Asar River in the east ( Güneri 2019, 2). ...
Context 35
... bricks were left to dry, stacked on top of each other to allow air flow through them. Finally, they were baked at a high temperature (Figure 16). Quarries were located under the ground and access was through a ditch (hendek). ...
Context 36
... Apaydın supplied no information regarding the production of tile, Kınacı stated that tile was also produced by students at ÇVI. During which time, molds supplied from a factory in Eskişehir were used (Figures 16 and 17 for Hasanoğlan was a problem. Hürrem Arman, director of Beşikdüzü Village Institute between 1940 and 1943, had an active role in obtaining timber (Arman 2016). ...
Context 37
... of the harsh climatic conditions during winter in Ankara, summer and autumn comprised the construction season of the HVI. In light of the memories and archive documents, the construction process was examined at 5-time intervals, comprising 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, and 1944 until its closure ( Figure 18). ...
Context 38
... to the memories, the first-year program was based on construction of a toilet, six workshops for practical education, four storages for workshops, six schools for theoretical education, a dining hall, and a switchboard across from the dining hall ( Figure 18). Additionally, after constructing the switchboard, poles were established and lines between them were installed ( Güneri 2019, 59). ...
Context 39
... parallel with the construction, agricultural work also began at the end of the first year. Barley and wheat were planted in the expropriated fields, and tree planting began by trenching the land, locally known as kirizma ( Figure 19; Güneri 2019, 60). ...
Context 40
... 1942, a dormitory and ten instructor's houses within the residential zone were constructed, in addition to two schools within the educational zone, a coop, and a stable close to the railway in south. In the third construction season, another dormitory and another toilet within the residential zone, a workshop within the educational zone, an administrative building, a large timber workshop, a mixed workshop, including a switchboard and tailor workshop, a large iron workshop, two garages for vehicles, an open-air theater, and a music hall, added to the original plan by Mualla Eyüboğlu, were constructed ( Figure 18). In addition to the continuing construction process, hundreds of fruit and non-fruiting trees were planted and vegetable cultivation began under the guidance of İzzet Palamar, tarımbaşı (head of agricultural works), until the end of 1942 ( Figure 19). ...
Context 41
... the third construction season, another dormitory and another toilet within the residential zone, a workshop within the educational zone, an administrative building, a large timber workshop, a mixed workshop, including a switchboard and tailor workshop, a large iron workshop, two garages for vehicles, an open-air theater, and a music hall, added to the original plan by Mualla Eyüboğlu, were constructed ( Figure 18). In addition to the continuing construction process, hundreds of fruit and non-fruiting trees were planted and vegetable cultivation began under the guidance of İzzet Palamar, tarımbaşı (head of agricultural works), until the end of 1942 ( Figure 19). ...
Context 42
... the Department of Higher Institute was established in 1942, the high institute building could be constructed in the 1944 construction season. Additionally, another dormitory, bakery, storage building for food, and a complex, including laundry and bath, were constructed in that period ( Figure 18). Finally, after 1944, three dormitories and an instructor's house within the residential zone, three guest residences close to railway, three storages, a practicing workshop, country house close to the agricultural lands, and infirmary (revir) on the village road were constructed in the north (Figure 18). ...
Context 43
... another dormitory, bakery, storage building for food, and a complex, including laundry and bath, were constructed in that period ( Figure 18). Finally, after 1944, three dormitories and an instructor's house within the residential zone, three guest residences close to railway, three storages, a practicing workshop, country house close to the agricultural lands, and infirmary (revir) on the village road were constructed in the north (Figure 18). Among these buildings, much information regarding construction techniques for the buildings from the foundation to the roof could be deciphered through memories related to the construction of workshops, schools, dining hall and music complex roofs, and openair theater (KEÇEV 2003, 252;Menekşe 2005, 157;Özkuçur 2013, 24;Güneri 2019, 22). ...
Context 44
... (2016, 140-141 During excavation, while one group of students carried the stones and bricks to the excavation site, another group prepared mortar in large cauldrons. They sifted sand, quenched lime, and mixed it with cement and water in certain quantities under the direction of the masters to obtain mortar (Figures 20 and 21; Özkuçur 2013, 23). According to old photographs, these works requiring little manual effort were usually done by female students ( Figure 21). ...
Context 45
... sifted sand, quenched lime, and mixed it with cement and water in certain quantities under the direction of the masters to obtain mortar (Figures 20 and 21; Özkuçur 2013, 23). According to old photographs, these works requiring little manual effort were usually done by female students ( Figure 21). ...
Context 46
... completing rough construction of the buildings, the final stage was assembly of the architectural elements shaped in the timber workshop according to the exact dimensions of the openings, and finishing the walls with plaster and whitewash (Figures 30 and 31) (Güneri 2019, 60). In terms producing the plaster, soaked sand was baked within stove-like braziers (locally called maltız), which were also produced by students, and fine plaster was produced by adding sieved sand. ...