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Venn diagram of apparent and true resistant hypertension. Area of subpopulations drawn to scale with 30% of the patient population with hypertension, 50% of the known hypertensives controlled, and 12% – 15% of the known hypertensives resistant. Among patients with resistant hypertension, approximately 33% are controlled on more than three medications and 50% of the remaining two thirds of patients have true resistant hypertension. 

Venn diagram of apparent and true resistant hypertension. Area of subpopulations drawn to scale with 30% of the patient population with hypertension, 50% of the known hypertensives controlled, and 12% – 15% of the known hypertensives resistant. Among patients with resistant hypertension, approximately 33% are controlled on more than three medications and 50% of the remaining two thirds of patients have true resistant hypertension. 

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... American Heart Association (AHA) defines resistant hypertension as BP that remains above goal in spite of optimal doses of three antihypertensive agents of different classes, one, ideally, being a diuretic (1). Notably, hypertension that is controlled with use of four or more medications is also defined as resistant (Figure 1). ...
Context 2
... term apparent resistant hypertension has been widely used in epidemiologic studies and refers to patients with an office BP.140/90 mmHg while taking three or more antihypertensive medications (3). True resistant hypertension can be distinguished from apparent re- sistance by excluding pseudo-resistance with 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, verifying proper office BP measurement, and confirming medication adherence ( Figure 1). This distinction is clinically relevant be- cause truly resistant individuals have an increased risk of cardiovascular events, including stroke, myocardial infarction, and ESRD (4,5). ...

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... About 80% of type 1 diabetic individuals present with microalbuminuria and have diabetic nephropathy that typically plays a major role in the development of their hypertension. 5 Resistant hypertension is more common in these patients than nondiabetic hypertensive individuals, 6,7 and this resistance is associated with a higher risk of diabetic nephropathy progression. 5 Patients with the much more common type 2 diabetes often present with coexisting hypertension and diabetes in the absence of clinical renal disease. ...
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