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Varroa mite mortality by different types of plant oils/tobacco extract in laboratory. 

Varroa mite mortality by different types of plant oils/tobacco extract in laboratory. 

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Honeybees can be threatened by various pests and diseases. The most common pests are Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Varroidae: Acari) and Tropilaelaps clareae Delfinado and Baker (Laelapidae: Acrina) that can provokes big loss in apiculture of Pakistan. It feeds on haemolymph of larva, pupa and adult bees during the whole life. Contamination...

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... alternatives, we evaluated different essential oils/extract at several concentrations for different intervals of time. The results obtained from our lab experiment showed that the essential oils/extract had a significant effect on the mite mortality (Three Way ANOVA, F (5, 108) = 33.86, P < 0.005). The clove oil and tobacco extract both proved to be most effective against mites ( Fig 1), followed by garlic, olive and neem oil, respectively. The percentage concentrations (Three Way ANOVA, F (2, 108) = 21.96, P < 0.005), and timing of treatment (Three Way ANOVA, F (1, 108) = 73.97, P < 0.005) were also found to be significantly different. About 150 essential oils or any of their components have been tested to control the mite V. destructor , with different results. Their toxicity, repellent or attractive effect towards the mite and their influence on the mite’s reproduction have been evaluated, when essential oils have been locally administered, or applied in pulverization or in a passive evaporation form (Imdorf et al., 1999). The results/findings of the experiment shows that the overall mean mortality for the number of mites for different concentrations i.e. 5%, 10% and 15% of essential oils/extract were 4.15±0.23, 2.95±0.16 and 2.35±0.18, respectively (Fig. 2), which clearly showed that 5% is the most effective as compared to 10 and 15% concentrations, which is against the findings of Abdel Rahman and Rateb (2008) who found that the highest concentrations of lemon juice (10, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) caused high number of fallen dead mites and Zaitoon (2001) who found that the highest concentrations (500 ppm) of Rhazya stricta caused 100% mite mortality. Results are confirmed by Abd El-Wahab and Ebada (2006) who recorded significant differences between the sour orange, lemon grass and citronella oils in different concentrations. The 5% concentrations of different oils/extracts were applied in various combinations following the same procedure and it was found that even the combinations also killed mites in a significantly different manner (at 5% level of significance). The most effective combination was clove oil and tobacco extract with the mean mortality of 5.00±1.01 and the least effective treatment after control was garlic and tobacco extract (0.25±0.21). The results are presented in Figure 1. As far as the timings of application are concerned (Fig. 3) the number of dead fallen mites were higher after 24h, than 48 h. These results are supported by the findings of Shoreit and Hussein (1994), who found that the maximum mean number of dead mites was observed after the first treatment with coriander extract after that it was gradually decreased. Abdel Rahman and Rateb (2008) resulted that the numbers of dead fallen Varroa mites were comparatively higher after 24 h, than after 48 h and after 72 h which exhibited the lowest number. This is contrary to the findings of Calderone and Spivak (1995) and El-Zemity et al . (2006) who found that essential oils showed good result against Varroa mite after 48 h of exposure. In field experiment using only 5% concentration alone and in combination all oils/ extract for the control of Varroa mites. The range of efficacy in colonies treated with different oils/ extract and their combinations were 71.58% to 97.24%. The percentages were arcsine square root transformed and when compared between different treatments the results were significantly different (One Way ANOVA, F (15, 47) = 2.312, P<0.05). All tested combinations confirmed as clove oil + tobacco extract (T14) the best combination with mean value of efficacy (%) 96.48±0.52 (Mean±SE). The percentages were compared between different treatments the results were significantly different (at 5% level of significance) (Table I). From the results obtained from this study, it can be concluded that T14, 381.67±24.31 at 5% concentrations can be considered a promising agent for the control of V. destructor (Table I). The honey yield from hives when treated with different essential oils/extracts was also weighed at the end of experiment. The mean honey yield (kg) compared between the treatments were higher 20.50±0.29 in treatment (T14) and lower in honey yield in control group (T16) i.e. 6.23±0.39 at 5% level of significance (Table I). The results are in agreement with Allam- Sally (1999) and El-Zemity et al . (2006) who stated that the clove oil gave good results in controlling mites and Fouly and Al-Dehhairi (2009) who found clove killed 62% Varroa mites. Rashid et al . (2012a,b,c) found that highest mean efficacy (%) of 99±1.24 and honey yield (kg) 12.08± 0.86 was found in 3.2% oxalic acid treatment. Hussein et al. (2001) used six plant oils to control Varroa mites in honeybee colonies and rated clove oil best among the other essential oils. Similar results were also observed by Rajiter (1983), who found 50-79% mite mortality when applied different amounts of tobacco as fumigant. Abdol-Ahad et al. (2008) who concluded that tobacco extract without harmful effect against honeybees and decreased Varroa mite population. There are different researchers that reported a positive effect of tobacco on Varroa mite mortalities (Rijiter, 1982, 1983; Rijiter and Eijnd, 1984). The conclusion was the effective substances in neem are not volatile. Keeping in view the work of previous researchers the aim was to bring the essential oils in different concentrations into contact with mites. The results of experiment were also found in confirmation with Melathopoulos et al. (2000) who observed that when bees and mites were brought into contact with neem oil that it was spread on a surface it resulted in a 95% success. Hassan et al. (2008) indicated that neem oil efficacy rate is only 4.95% against Varroa mite and not suitable for Varroa control. Botanical extracts obtained from different plant species have also shown a broad spectrum of biological activity in relation with mite population management (Banchio et al., 2003, 2005; Jbilou et al., 2006). From the results obtained from this work, it can be concluded that the clove oil alone or in combination with tobacco extract at 5% concentrations can be considered promising agents for the control of Varroa destructor . It was also concluded that clove oil + tobacco extract can play an important role in an integrated pest management program to control Varroa mite in honeybee colonies. Good results can be obtained when the above materials are used 3-4 times each month during the infestation period. Also these materials proved to be harmless to the bee and quite safe to the environment. We acknowledge Mr. Qurban, Senior Scientific Assistant and Mr. Umar Daraz Bee Attendant for collecting mite collection trays and PMAS-Arid University for providing of oils extraction ...
Context 2
... alternatives, we evaluated different essential oils/extract at several concentrations for different intervals of time. The results obtained from our lab experiment showed that the essential oils/extract had a significant effect on the mite mortality (Three Way ANOVA, F (5, 108) = 33.86, P < 0.005). The clove oil and tobacco extract both proved to be most effective against mites ( Fig 1), followed by garlic, olive and neem oil, respectively. The percentage concentrations (Three Way ANOVA, F (2, 108) = 21.96, P < 0.005), and timing of treatment (Three Way ANOVA, F (1, 108) = 73.97, P < 0.005) were also found to be significantly different. About 150 essential oils or any of their components have been tested to control the mite V. destructor , with different results. Their toxicity, repellent or attractive effect towards the mite and their influence on the mite’s reproduction have been evaluated, when essential oils have been locally administered, or applied in pulverization or in a passive evaporation form (Imdorf et al., 1999). The results/findings of the experiment shows that the overall mean mortality for the number of mites for different concentrations i.e. 5%, 10% and 15% of essential oils/extract were 4.15±0.23, 2.95±0.16 and 2.35±0.18, respectively (Fig. 2), which clearly showed that 5% is the most effective as compared to 10 and 15% concentrations, which is against the findings of Abdel Rahman and Rateb (2008) who found that the highest concentrations of lemon juice (10, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) caused high number of fallen dead mites and Zaitoon (2001) who found that the highest concentrations (500 ppm) of Rhazya stricta caused 100% mite mortality. Results are confirmed by Abd El-Wahab and Ebada (2006) who recorded significant differences between the sour orange, lemon grass and citronella oils in different concentrations. The 5% concentrations of different oils/extracts were applied in various combinations following the same procedure and it was found that even the combinations also killed mites in a significantly different manner (at 5% level of significance). The most effective combination was clove oil and tobacco extract with the mean mortality of 5.00±1.01 and the least effective treatment after control was garlic and tobacco extract (0.25±0.21). The results are presented in Figure 1. As far as the timings of application are concerned (Fig. 3) the number of dead fallen mites were higher after 24h, than 48 h. These results are supported by the findings of Shoreit and Hussein (1994), who found that the maximum mean number of dead mites was observed after the first treatment with coriander extract after that it was gradually decreased. Abdel Rahman and Rateb (2008) resulted that the numbers of dead fallen Varroa mites were comparatively higher after 24 h, than after 48 h and after 72 h which exhibited the lowest number. This is contrary to the findings of Calderone and Spivak (1995) and El-Zemity et al . (2006) who found that essential oils showed good result against Varroa mite after 48 h of exposure. In field experiment using only 5% concentration alone and in combination all oils/ extract for the control of Varroa mites. The range of efficacy in colonies treated with different oils/ extract and their combinations were 71.58% to 97.24%. The percentages were arcsine square root transformed and when compared between different treatments the results were significantly different (One Way ANOVA, F (15, 47) = 2.312, P<0.05). All tested combinations confirmed as clove oil + tobacco extract (T14) the best combination with mean value of efficacy (%) 96.48±0.52 (Mean±SE). The percentages were compared between different treatments the results were significantly different (at 5% level of significance) (Table I). From the results obtained from this study, it can be concluded that T14, 381.67±24.31 at 5% concentrations can be considered a promising agent for the control of V. destructor (Table I). The honey yield from hives when treated with different essential oils/extracts was also weighed at the end of experiment. The mean honey yield (kg) compared between the treatments were higher 20.50±0.29 in treatment (T14) and lower in honey yield in control group (T16) i.e. 6.23±0.39 at 5% level of significance (Table I). The results are in agreement with Allam- Sally (1999) and El-Zemity et al . (2006) who stated that the clove oil gave good results in controlling mites and Fouly and Al-Dehhairi (2009) who found clove killed 62% Varroa mites. Rashid et al . (2012a,b,c) found that highest mean efficacy (%) of 99±1.24 and honey yield (kg) 12.08± 0.86 was found in 3.2% oxalic acid treatment. Hussein et al. (2001) used six plant oils to control Varroa mites in honeybee colonies and rated clove oil best among the other essential oils. Similar results were also observed by Rajiter (1983), who found 50-79% mite mortality when applied different amounts of tobacco as fumigant. Abdol-Ahad et al. (2008) who concluded that tobacco extract without harmful effect against honeybees and decreased Varroa mite population. There are different researchers that reported a positive effect of tobacco on Varroa mite mortalities (Rijiter, 1982, 1983; Rijiter and Eijnd, 1984). The conclusion was the effective substances in neem are not volatile. Keeping in view the work of previous researchers the aim was to bring the essential oils in different concentrations into contact with mites. The results of experiment were also found in confirmation with Melathopoulos et al. (2000) who observed that when bees and mites were brought into contact with neem oil that it was spread on a surface it resulted in a 95% success. Hassan et al. (2008) indicated that neem oil efficacy rate is only 4.95% against Varroa mite and not suitable for Varroa control. Botanical extracts obtained from different plant species have also shown a broad spectrum of biological activity in relation with mite population management (Banchio et al., 2003, 2005; Jbilou et al., 2006). From the results obtained from this work, it can be concluded that the clove oil alone or in combination with tobacco extract at 5% concentrations can be considered promising agents for the control of Varroa destructor . It was also concluded that clove oil + tobacco extract can play an important role in an integrated pest management program to control Varroa mite in honeybee colonies. Good results can be obtained when the above materials are used 3-4 times each month during the infestation period. Also these materials proved to be harmless to the bee and quite safe to the environment. We acknowledge Mr. Qurban, Senior Scientific Assistant and Mr. Umar Daraz Bee Attendant for collecting mite collection trays and PMAS-Arid University for providing of oils extraction ...

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