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Various types of dried green and purple lavers are Vitamin B 12 sources: (1) a Japanese green laver, (Suji-aonori, Entromopha prolifera); (2) ordinary purple lavers (Porphyra sp.; nori, which has been formed into a sheet and dried); (3) Taiwan purple laver (Hong-mao-tai, Bangia atropurpurea); and (4) New Zealand purple laver (Karengo, a mixture of Porphyra cinnamomea and Porphyra virididentata). 

Various types of dried green and purple lavers are Vitamin B 12 sources: (1) a Japanese green laver, (Suji-aonori, Entromopha prolifera); (2) ordinary purple lavers (Porphyra sp.; nori, which has been formed into a sheet and dried); (3) Taiwan purple laver (Hong-mao-tai, Bangia atropurpurea); and (4) New Zealand purple laver (Karengo, a mixture of Porphyra cinnamomea and Porphyra virididentata). 

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The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant...

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Context 1
... measure the biological activity of Vitamin B 12 in lyophilized purple laver (Porphyra yezoensis), the effects of laver feeding were investigated in Vitamin B 12 -deficient rats [58]. Urinary methylmalonic acid excretion was undetectable within 20 days of initiating a diet supplemented with dried purple laver (10 μg of Vitamin B 12 /kg diet), and the hepatic Vitamin B 12 (especially coenzyme Vitamin B 12 ) levels significantly increased. These results indicate that Vitamin B 12 obtained from purple laver is bioavailable in rats. A nutritional analysis of six vegan children who had consumed vegan diets including brown rice and dried purple laver (nori) for 4-10 years suggested that the consumption of nori may prevent Vitamin B 12 deficiency in vegans [60]. Our preliminary study indicated that similar dried purple laver products that are available in local markets in Taiwan (Hong-mao-tai, Bangia atropurpurea) and New Zealand (Karengo, a mixture of P. cinnamonea and P. virididentata) contained 28.5 ± 3.9 and 12.3 ± 1.9 μg of Vitamin B 12 per 100 g weight, respectively (Figure ...
Context 2
... types of edible algae are consumed worldwide as food sources. Dried green laver (Enteromorpha sp.) and purple laver (Porphyra sp.) are the most widely consumed edible algae, and they contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B 12 (approximately 63.6 μg/100 g dry weight and 32.3 μg/100 g dry weight, respectively) [53] (Figure 2). However, excluding these two genera, other edible algae contain zero or only traces of Vitamin B 12 [54]. To determine whether dried purple and green lavers contain Vitamin B 12 or inactive corrinoids, the algal corrinoid compounds were purified and confirmed as Vitamin B 12 [55,56]. A substantial amount (133.8 μg/100 g dry weight) of Vitamin B 12 was found in dried Korean purple laver (Porphyra sp.), but seasoned and toasted laver products contain lower amounts of Vitamin B 12 (approximately 51.7 μg/100 g dry weight) [57]. In particular, when the dried purple laver was treated by toasting until the laver's color changed from purple to green, the decreases in the Vitamin B 12 contents of the seasoned and toasted laver products were not due to the loss or destruction of Vitamin B 12 during the toasting process [57]. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion experiments indicated that the estimated digestion rate of Vitamin B 12 from dried purple laver was approximately 50% at pH 2.0 (as a model of normal gastric function). The release of free Vitamin B 12 from the purple laver significantly decreased to approximately 2.5% at pH 7.0 (as a model of severe atrophic gastritis) [57]. Edible purple laver predominantly contains coenzyme forms (5′-deoxyadenosylcoblamin and methylcobalamin) of Vitamin B 12 or hydroxocobalamin (or both) ...

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... Vegans must obtain their vitamin B12 either from supplements or regular use of vitamin B12-fortified foods, such as breakfast cereals, vegetarian meat analogs, plant-based beverages. The introduction of unfortified plant foods such as leafy vegetables, algae (spirulina), fermented soy foods, mushrooms, and seaweeds, is not able to guarantee the daily recommended intake (DRI) of vitamin B12 (42). Other non animal sources of this vitamin are represented by fortified products like soy products, cereals and yeast. ...
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In these recent years many people are adopting a vegetarian type diet due to the numerous positive health effects of this regimen such as the reduction of the incidence of many chronic disorders like diabetes, hypertension, obesity and cancer. However this diet is quite restrictive and so it could be possible to have a deficiency in some specific nutrients, increasing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Although there are conflicting results on the effects of the vegetarian diet on bone health and fracture incidence, it is always recommendable in vegetarian people to have an adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, through an increased intake of supplements, natural and fortified foods, an adequate intake of protein, fruit, vegetables, as well as vitamin B12. The aim of this literature review is to revise the actual knowledge of the effect of some nutrients and vegetarian diets on bone health.
... The study notes that B-12 is found in raw and roasted seaweed. Only four grams of the dried purple laver is considered sufficient to meet the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for B-12 (Watanabe et al., 2014). Polysaccharides in seaweed can be metabolized by humans through the action of intestinal bacterial enzymes. ...
Chapter
Food security is a serious problem. This chapter outlines how seaweed could improve food security and promote environmental mitigation using the holistic-integral approach. Actual conditions that are not expected due to the problems encountered can be resolved if the development paradigm and the existing strategic environmental conditions are considered to formulate the alternative solution. The alternative solution will lead to the expected condition. The expected conditions can be achieved if alternative solutions are successfully implemented. The implementation concept is formulated by using subject, object, and method analysis. The successful implementation of the concept will deliver the expected outputs and outcomes. The actual condition is low food security due to high population growth, limited food resources, limited agricultural lands, water scarcity, land erosion, environmental degradation, and energy scarcity. The related paradigm is sustainable development, livelihood, and equity. The related issues are hunger, global warming, and climate change. The alternative solutions are: develop seaweed as a sea vegetable and other food product; develop seaweed as animal feed; and develop seaweed as raw material for renewable energy production. In the effort to realize the expected conditions and achieve outputs and outcomes, there are twelve implementation concepts have been formulated.
... Therefore, the measurement and extraction of vitamin B12 from food, plant, and algae samples present an enormous analytical challenge. Commonly, the vitamin B12 content in algal materials is low, alongside the presence of other metabolites [19]. The focus of this research was to vary the extraction procedure and drying conditions of vitamin B12 from U. lactuca to maximise the yield of vitamin B12. ...
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Vitamin B12, only found naturally in animal-based foods, is essential for brain functions and various chemical reactions in the human body. Insufficient vitamin B12 leads to vitamin B12 deficiency, common among strict vegetarians due to their limited intake of animal-based foods. Nevertheless, extensive studies have demonstrated that macroalgae, specifically the Ulva lactuca species, are rich in vitamin B12 and could be further exploited in future dietary applications. In the current study, the ideal extraction method of vitamin B12 from dried U. lactuca was developed and optimised to achieve the maximum vitamin B12 yield. The effects of several extraction parameters, including the solvent-to-solvent, methanol:water (MeOH:H2O), and solute-to-solvent ratios, and pH on the total vitamin B12 content were analysed through a two-level factorial and central composite design. The highest vitamin B12 content, particularly cyanocobalamin (CN-Cbl), was recovered through the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of oven-dried U. lactuca at 3 g:60 mL of solute-to-solvent and 25:75% of MeOH to H2O ratios at pH 4. The extraction of CN-Cbl from oven-dried U. lactuca that employed the UAE method has elevated CN-Cbl content recovery compared to other extraction methods.
... Thus, to prevent vitamin B 12 deficiency in vegetarians, specific plant foods particularly rich in vitamin B 12 are required, such as fermented beans and vegetables, edible mushrooms, black trumpet (Craterellus cornucopioides), and golden chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius). Edible algae as dried green laver (Enteromorpha sp.) and purple laver, or nori (Porphyra sp.), common in Japan, contain a significant amount of vitamin B 12 (Watanabe et al. 2014;Rizzo et al. 2016). For instance, 4 g of dried purple laver, served at breakfast, or in some sushi receipts, supplies the RDA of vitamin B 12 (Watanabe et al. 2014). ...
... Edible algae as dried green laver (Enteromorpha sp.) and purple laver, or nori (Porphyra sp.), common in Japan, contain a significant amount of vitamin B 12 (Watanabe et al. 2014;Rizzo et al. 2016). For instance, 4 g of dried purple laver, served at breakfast, or in some sushi receipts, supplies the RDA of vitamin B 12 (Watanabe et al. 2014). ...
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... Gedroogde runderlever en groene laver, een zeewier, zijn rijk aan vitamine B12. De hoeveelheden zijn 2.862 en 636 μg B12/kg (18,19,Noot 6). Rauwe lever bevat hoofdzakelijk de hydroxy-en deoxyadenosylvormen (20). ...
... Op basis van de klassieke Atwaterfactoren (1 g eiwit = 17 kJ; 1 g vet = 37 kJ; 1 g koolhydraten = 16 kJ) is de energiewaarde van het voeder 2.021 kJ metaboliseerbare energie per 100 g (20,21 MJ/kg). Noot 6. Groene laver (Enteromorpha sp.) en puperwier (Porphyra sp.) zijn voor consumptie gebruikte zeewieren/algen, die ± 63,6 en 32,3 μg vitamine B12/100 g droge stof bevatten (19). ...
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... But a wise selection of vegan items can remove all such problems. For the strict followers of vegan diets, dried purple laver (Porphyra sp.; nori -edible seaweed), different fermented beans and vegetables, edible algae, edible mushrooms, etc. can supply vitamin B12 [118]. Apart from different fruits, succulent parts of some plants can supply many other debated nutrients to us. ...
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Background: Diabetes is an important disease without any available medicine to cure it. Lifestyle is having some strong roles in the initiation and progression of the disease. Plant resources are so far studied to get effective medicines for that disease only in their dry state, either directly or on the diluents-extracted sections to identify the active principles to synthesize marketable drugs, but achieved very limited success. The anti-diabetic medicinal plants contain a huge number of phyto-constituents at their succulent stage, all of which can work together when used unaltered for this purpose. Methods: Identification of commonly used anti-diabetic plants from previous reports was targeted to find out a few plants with strong potency for their use as some succulent biomedicines against diabetes. Standardization of a layout for the production of such medicines from these plants was attempted along with a listing of the lifestyle-related factors of diabetes. Result: The succulent plant materials can be encapsulated inside bio-encapsulating materials with bio-preservatives following the standard techniques of drug development with some modifications and can be transported to the patients under a cold chain. A brief list of reported anti-diabetic medicinal plants is added and forty plants are selected for the production of anti-diabetic biomedicines. The layout of all the related techniques is added. The lifestyle-related factors are identified and scopes for their modification are discussed. Conclusion: Triggering of the genetic predisposition for diabetes can be prevented and the severity of the disease can be minimized by incurring some modification in lifestyle and intake of some succulent biomedicine capsules.
... The levels of Vitamin B12 in tempeh (i.e., 0.7-8.0 mg/100 g), (Watanabe et al., 2014). The levels of Vitamin B12 in natto has been reported to be over five times that in cooked soybeans (Wang and Fung, 1996). ...
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... Niacinamide is antioxidant that lowers hyperpigmentation (also caused by blue light) and enhances epidermal features by lowering trans-epidermal water loss [216]. Red algae or other species are good sources of vitamin B12, which has anti-aging characteristics or is required for hair, nail growth, or health in vegetarians [217]. ...
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Since ancient times, seaweeds have been employed as source of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that could act as key medicinal components. Furthermore, research into the biological activity of certain seaweed compounds has progressed significantly, with an emphasis on their composition and application for human and animal nutrition. Seaweeds have many uses: they are consumed as fodder, and have been used in medicines, cosmetics, energy, fertilizers, and industrial agar and alginate biosynthesis. The beneficial effects of seaweed are mostly due to the presence of minerals, vitamins, phenols, polysaccharides, and sterols, as well as several other bioactive compounds. These compounds seem to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, and anti-diabetic activities. Recent advances and limitations for seaweed bioactive as a nutraceutical in terms of bioavailability are explored in order to better comprehend their therapeutic development. To further understand the mechanism of action of seaweed chemicals, more research is needed as is an investigation into their potential usage in pharmaceutical companies and other applications , with the ultimate objective of developing sustainable and healthier products. The objective of this review is to collect information about the role of seaweeds on nutritional, pharmacological , industrial, and biochemical applications, as well as their impact on human health.
... Other undesired features of sunflower seed milk are low levels of essential amino acids, especially l-lysine [16], the presence of indigestible sugars such as stachyose and raffinose [17], and a bitter, seedy taste [18,19]. To overcome B 12 limitation in plant-based materials, direct supplementation of limiting ingredients is a common way [20,21]. However, this adds substantial extra costs, and does no longer meet the expectations of consumers, who more and more expect naturally derived, clean-label food and beverages without artificial blending [2]. ...
... The data for flavor volatiles reflect the change in abundance in comparison to non-fermented sunflower seed milk (control). Classification into favored volatiles with flora, fruity, sweet, and creamy aroma properties (yellow), neutral volatiles with concentration dependent desired and non-desired aroma properties (light blue), and unfavored volatiles,potentially contributing to the beany, green, and mushroom flavor (dark blue) relates to previous dedicated studies and databases on odor and taste [82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97] Vitamin B 12 is one of the most important micronutrients for the human body but is unfavorably absent from plant-derived food [21], including sunflower seed milk. Therefore, vegetarians can face vitamin B 12 deficiency regardless of their demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, and type of vegetarian diet [21]. ...
... Classification into favored volatiles with flora, fruity, sweet, and creamy aroma properties (yellow), neutral volatiles with concentration dependent desired and non-desired aroma properties (light blue), and unfavored volatiles,potentially contributing to the beany, green, and mushroom flavor (dark blue) relates to previous dedicated studies and databases on odor and taste [82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97] Vitamin B 12 is one of the most important micronutrients for the human body but is unfavorably absent from plant-derived food [21], including sunflower seed milk. Therefore, vegetarians can face vitamin B 12 deficiency regardless of their demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, and type of vegetarian diet [21]. Vitamin B 12 deficiency can have severe consequences. ...
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... One of the nutrients of concern for vegans is vitamin B12. Sea vegetables have been regarded as an unreliable source of vitamin B12 (22), though Korean/Japanese nori and Taiwanese purple laver have been suggested to contain true vitamin B12 rather than pseudo vitamin B12 (23). The bioavailability of these sea vegetables needs to be tested in human interventions. ...
... A previous study had reported that Taiwanese purple laver contains true vitamin B12 rather than pseudo-vitamin B12 (23). The amount of vitamin B12 provided by Taiwanese purple laver in our study is estimated to be 3.5 µg/day from Taiwan's food composition table. ...
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Background Systematic inflammation and lipid profiles are two major therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases. The effect of a nutritionally balanced vegan diet on systematic inflammation and lipoprotein subclass awaits further examination.Objective To investigate the change in novel and traditional cardiometabolic risk factors before and after a dietitian-led vegan program, and to test the bioavailability of vitamin B12 in Taiwanese purple laver as part of a vegan diet.DesignA one-arm pilot intervention study.Participants/SettingNine patients with dyslipidemia participated in this 12-week vegan program.Main Outcome MeasuresNuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) detected GlycA signals (systematic inflammation) and lipoprotein subclass (atherogenicity); trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO); and other cardiometabolic risk factors.Statistical Analyses PerformedWilcoxon signed-rank test.ResultsIn this 12-week vegan intervention emphasizing whole foods, systematic inflammation improved as indicated by a reduction in GlycA (median: −23 μmol/L, p = 0.01). LDL-c (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) (median −24 mg/dl, p = 0.04) and LDL-p (low-density lipoprotein particles) (median −75 nmol/L, p = 0.02) both decreased significantly. VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) and chylomicron particles showed a decreasing trend (−23.6 nmol/L, p = 0.05). Without caloric restriction, body mass index (BMI) (−0.7 kg/m2, p = 0.03), waist circumferences (−2.0 cm, p < 0.001), HbA1c (−0.2%, p = 0.02), and (HOMA-IR) homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (−0.7, p = 0.04) have all improved. The change in the TMAO and vitamin B12 status as measured by holo-transcobalamin appeared to depend on baseline diets, TMAO, and vitamin B12 status.ConclusionsA dietitian-led vegan program may improve systematic inflammation and other novel and traditional cardiometabolic risk factors in high-risk individuals.