Figure - available from: Advances in Tribology
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Variation of cutting power with cutting speed and depth of cut under PRO.

Variation of cutting power with cutting speed and depth of cut under PRO.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
The raw and modified versions of two nonedible vegetable oils, Pongam (Pogammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas), and a commercially available branded mineral oil are used as straight cutting fluids for turning AA 6061 to assess cutting forces. Minimum quantity lubrication is utilized for the supply of cutting fluids. Cutting and thrust forc...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
For many decades transformer oil has served as a well-known insulating medium. Its electrical properties, among others, have been studied in length. In recent years, with the increasing concern for the environment, alternative insulating liquids have been proposed. In the context of this concise review, such alternative fluids are investigated. Som...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Increased attention to environmental issues due to industrial activities has forced the authorities raise awareness and implement regulations to reduce the use of mineral oil. Some vegetable oils unexplored or less explored, particularly the non-edible oils such as Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) and others. Physicochemical properties of JCO is compared...
Article
Full-text available
In the last few decades, the search for renewable energy sources is getting indispensable and imperative for many countries across the globe in order to meet the current and future energy demand as well as to reduce the air pollution. The past research results revealed that non-edible oils are emerging as the prospective substitute to edible oils f...
Article
Full-text available
.J curcas and J. macrocarpa are useful for restoring degraded areas and their seeds contain oils for biodiesel production. The aim of the work was to de-termine the reserve substances in the endosperm and the embryo ofJ. curcasand J. macrocarpa which is important in understanding the germination process, the establishment of these species and its i...

Citations

... Raw and revised variants of two non-edible vegetable oils, Jatropha and Pongamia oil, at the same time mineral oil were used as drilling fluids of AA 6061, applying the HSS drill to determine the MRR. Shashidhara and Jayaram [144] implemented MQL for the dispensation of machining lubricants. Their findings revealed improved MRR in vegetable oils and their variants compared to petroleum oil for the spectrum of thrust force experienced. ...
Article
Full-text available
Scientists and tribologists are currently exploring sustainable and inexhaustible lubricants as a result of increased awareness of environmental and health-related issues. Vegetable oils are being investigated as a potential form of environmentally friendly cutting fluids due to their excellent renewability, biodegradability, and lubricating performance. This report provides an overview of different vegetable oils used as cutting fluids in the machining of engineering materials. The effects of virgin vegetable oils, emulsified vegetable-based oils, and vegetable-oil-based nano-cutting fluids on the cutting force, the surface finish of machined parts, the tool wear, and the temperature of the cutting area were surveyed critically. Compared to mineral-oil-based cutting fluids, studies have demonstrated that vegetable-oil-based cutting fluids meet cleaner manufacturing standards with good or better efficiency.
... The green cutting fluids were given a lot of importance in the era of green machining. Several studies have been reported on various vegetable oils like rapeseed oil [26], palm kernel oil [27][28][29] shear butter [30], coconut oil [31], sunflower oil [32], avocado oil [33], Pongamia oil [34], cottonseed oil [28], canola oil [32] sesame oil [35], jatropha oil [36], and groundnut oil [37]. The stability and usability of the base oil are decided by its lubricant properties, such as corrosive and oxidative stability [38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The enormous consumption of non-biodegradable and toxic mineral oil-based cutting fluids has affected the environment and human health in a hazardous manner. The development of a new eco-friendly cutting fluid is a necessity. Vegetable oils, which hold similar lubricant properties to that of commercial mineral oil, are considered as an alternative solution. The additives used in commercial lubricating fluids are another major reason for their toxicity. In the present work, rice bran oil-based cutting fluid is formulated using food-grade emulsifiers like Tween 80 and Span 80 with bio-additives like holy basil oil and clove oil. The addition of herbal oils is found to improve the oxidative and corrosive stability of the base oil. The experimental results indicated that the formulated green cutting fluid could replace mineral oil-based cutting fluid. The performance test on the lathe during the turning operation revealed that the formulated green cutting fluid had shown lower cutting forces when compared with that of the commercial cutting fluid.
... In continuation of their work, Gunjal and Sanap, 2020 [26] have noted the improved tool life under the MQL application. Many researchers [27][28][29][30] with their experimental investigations and relevant studies on different alloys and hard-to-cut materials under varying cutting conditions and different machining operations have noted the better output under MQL in terms of reduced tool wear, surface roughness, cutting temperature, cutting forces along-with improved tool life and surface integrity. MQL overall is proven to be the most sustainable approach [31]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cutting fluid is a vital part of the machining process. Cutting fluid is significantly applied to lower the friction and heat generated in the machining zone. It also helps in easy chip removal, protection against oxidation, tool life improvement, and an overall improvement in the quality of the product. The current industrial practices are majorly emphasized on mineral-based oil application under flood lubrication to achieve superior quality. However, these oils and techniques are toxic and environmentally unfriendly. Machining under dry or with minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) has been mostly preferred to eliminate the use of abundant oil. The current research work has established the promising potential for vegetable oils as a cutting fluid under MQL during turning of AISI 4130 steel. The results inferred that vegetable-based cutting fluids performed better over mineral-based cutting fluids in terms of lower values of machined surface roughness, tool wear, cutting forces, and chip-tool interface temperature. The MQL machining performance in terms of cutting forces, surface roughness and tool life has been observed better in comparison to machining under flood and dry cutting conditions. 1.Introduction Manufacturing industries are striving to achieve superior product quality with minimumresource utilization. Aiming for higher productivity is closely associated with higher material removal rate which results in extreme heat generation. The heat generated at the machining zone leads to an adverse effect on the machining process in terms of uneven surface quality and abrupt tool failure in certain cases. Cutting fluids are the source of limiting the heat generation during machining attributed to their cooling and lubrication characteristics. However, the current practices of mineral-based cutting fluids and flood lubrication technique resulting in a threat to the environment and operational safety, as the exposure of mineral-based cutting fluids for a longer time could result in dermatological and respiratory issues even [1, 2]. Concerning the same, many environmental protection agencies (EPA) have insisted long back to eliminate the application of mineral-based cutting fluids projecting their carcinogenic nature subsequent issues like disposal and recycling [3-5]. The rising ecological threat concerning the mineral-based cutting fluids and flood lubrication technique enforce to find the alternative for sustainable development. Dry machining was potentially projected as the method to eliminate the use of cutting fluids leading to a green manufacturing approach therein [6]. However, the certain limitations of dry machining were exposed especially at higher cutting speed as increased wear rate was noted as the major concern [7]. Thus, the industries are looking forward to environment-friendly machining which would have a long-term sustainable approach and a potential alternative to flood and dry technique. Near-dry machining which is also termed as minimum quantity lubrication or micro lubrication emerges in the same regard [8]. Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) uses a cutting fluid in the range of 50-150 ml/hr which is significantly low as compared to the flood lubrication system (1-10 ltr/min), so it is appropriately termed as micro lubrication or near-dry machining [9]. The mixture of compressed air and cutting fluids is applied at the machining zone through the nozzle for precise penetrat ion. The minimum attributed cutting oil usage avoids the
... Significant reduction in cutting force as well as cutting zone temperature was witnessed due to application of nanofluid. Again, research groups [30][31] highlighted performance characteristics of a vegetable oil called Jatropha oil in MQL system, and recommended as a viable alternative for metal working fluid. Though a few research groups applied MWCNT (dispersed in vegetable oils) based nanofluids during machining of Ti64; feasibility of using graphene powder, as nano-additives, is yet to be explored adequately in the context of NFMQL machining on the same work alloy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid wear progression of cutting insert associated with attainment of excessive tool-tip temperature are indispensable causes which limit operational domain of cutting velocity during dry turning of Ti64 alloy. Again, to counteract demerits of flood cooling, jet of air-oil mist (MQL technology) is employed in which water-based coolants or vegetable oils are highly preferable. On the other hand, inclusion of nano-additives within base fluid, and supply the same through MQL system (NFMQL) is also a trendy area of research. Application potential of NFMQL is understood over conventional MQL in terms of better cooling, and lubrication effects due to improved thermo-physical, and tribological properties of the resultant cutting fluid. In this context, present study aims to assess performance of MQL jet containing biodegradable Jatropha oil (carried by pressurized air) when applied during longitudinal turning of Ti64 work alloy. In addition, advantages of 2D layered-structured graphene nanoplatelets (when dispersed into Jatropha oil ), in purview of machining performance on difficult-to-cut Ti64 alloy under NFMQL, are studied in this work. Experimental data are compared on the basis of different lubrication conditions (dry, conventional MQL, and NFMQL). Morphology of tool wear is studied in detail. The work extends towards studying chip morphology and machined surface finish of the end product, as influenced by variation in lubrication conditions.
... It is known that vegetable oils show low toxicity, high flash point, viscosity index, and biodegradability [2,3]. Several studies were reported on numerous oils such as rapeseed oil [4], soybean oil [5], Coconut oil [6], Sunflower oil [7], avocado oil [8], Pongamia [9], cottonseed oil [10], canola oil [7], Sesame oil [11], Jatropha oil [9,12] and groundnut oil [13] as a base oil for an industrial lubricant. ...
... It is known that vegetable oils show low toxicity, high flash point, viscosity index, and biodegradability [2,3]. Several studies were reported on numerous oils such as rapeseed oil [4], soybean oil [5], Coconut oil [6], Sunflower oil [7], avocado oil [8], Pongamia [9], cottonseed oil [10], canola oil [7], Sesame oil [11], Jatropha oil [9,12] and groundnut oil [13] as a base oil for an industrial lubricant. ...
... Equations. (8) and (9) were used for estimating the shear viscosities and the uncertainties, respectively. ...
Article
The increasing concern on the harmful effects caused by mineral oil-based lubricants towards the environment has given impetus to the evolution of green-lubricants. Vegetable oils are highly biodegradable, renewable, and possesses good lubricating property. In the present study Pongamia pinnata, non-edible vegetable oil, also known as Karanja Oil (KO) was used as the base oil for a lubricant. The preliminary properties, such as fatty acid profile and viscosity, which has a vital role in governing the performance of lubricants were evaluated experimentally as per international standards. The shear viscosity of KO which constitutes 8 major fatty acids were predicted using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) and periodic perturbation (PP) method using Optimised Potentials for Liquid Simulations (OPLS) and Generalized Amber Force Field (GAFF). The shear viscosities were evaluated at temperatures ranging from 313K to 373 K and pressure P = 0.1 MPa. The experimental and simulation data of KO shear viscosity are in line with each other using OPLS. The kinematic viscosities were calculated using the shear viscosities and densities obtained from simulation. The variation between experimental and simulation data is less while using OPLS, while GAFF force fields resulted in higher deviations.
... turning, milling, and drilling) are used to deal with AA6061 but the machining results may be unacceptable if the part needs to be fit in ultra-precision applications. [3,4] The requirement of high-precision in the aforesaid applications thus ruled out the possibility of the use of conventional means of cutting. Therefore, the use of non-conventional cutting techniques like laser beam, plasma arc, waterjet, ultrasonic, and wire electric discharge machining, etc., have gained noticeable popularity. ...
Article
Geometrical machining errors in terms of overcut and/or undercut are the inherent problems associated with wire-cut electric discharge machining (EDM) process. Such errors are ultimately transformed into compromised dimensional accuracy of the machined part. The magnitude of the said errors is presumed the same in both the cutting orientation of work part. However, practically there exists variations along both the cutting orientations, i.e. axial and lateral. Moreover, not only the lateral and axial dimensions are different from the designed dimensions but also a noticeable difference in errors magnitude is observed along both the cutting directions. Variation in kerf along different edges of the machined profile also plays a pivotal role in error amplification. Such difference in geometrical dimensions seriously matters in high-precision applications. Therefore, the present research examines the impact of seven control parameters for minimizing the magnitude of kerf width, axial and lateral dimensional errors. Al-alloy 6061 is taken as a substrate because of its wide use in precision-oriented applications. Parametric effects are thoroughly analyzed through statistical tests and SEM-based analysis. Results revealed that the use of optimal settings yields a reduction of 13.5%, 49%, and 27% in the magnitudes of kerf width, axial, and lateral dimensional errors, respectively.
... The maximum MRR is not used as an index to evaluate cutting capability of machine tools in both Chinese and American standards. Shashidhara [8] used three kinds of oils as straight cutting fluids for turning AA 6061-T6, and used material removal rate as an evaluation indicator to compare their cutting performance. Cutting force and cutting power are discussed regarding the capability that machine tool provides. ...
... Equation (7) could be simplified in the form of Eq. (8). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present work proposes a theoretical model to test and evaluate cutting capability of turning center based on material removal rate (MRR). The cutting capability is deemed to the maximum MRR that a machine tool can provide. A linear relationship between spindle power and MRR has been presented, which is considered as the self-property of machine tool and is used to evaluate its cutting capability. A series of cutting tests were performed to verify the relationship. It is found that a cutting capability coefficient and a power loss coefficient can be defined to describe the cutting performance of machine tool. The floating error of the model is caused by power loss, cutting mechanism, and state of output power. Then, the testing process and evaluation method were specified. This model has been validated satisfactorily in several series of machine tool, such as two lathes of CAK50 and BRT50. It shows that the cutting capability coefficient of BRT50 is 0.026 with the corresponding MRR 420.44 cm³/min, and the power loss coefficient is 0.165 which means the idle run loss power is less than 0.165 kW. The two values show that the cutting performance of BRT50 is excellent than its previews type of CAK50. This method would also be applied as the acceptance basis of machine tool. In addition, two quick testing strategies on cutting capability and some restrictions such as machining chatter and surface quality have been presented.
... Neem based cutting fluids performed well next to Mahua and followed by mineral oil based cutting fluids with respect to reducing the thrust force. This is because the modified vegetable oils have more resistance to molecular breakdown, or a molecular rearrangement at a higher temperature, due to the presence or absence of oxygen molecules was improved [28]. Previous studies also confirmed that, chemically modified vegetable oil exhibited better lubrication ability and stronger adsorption film onto metallic surface [29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The demand for renewable and biodegradable cutting fluids is increasing day by day. Owing to the desirable properties of vegetable oils as cutting fluids, an attempt is made to explore the potentiality of plentifully available vegetable oils as a cutting fluid for drilling of AISI 304L stainless steel using Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) method. Taguchi’s orthogonal array (L27) is used for obtaining the experimental design. The performances of two Vegetable oil based cutting fluids (VBCFs) Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Mahua (Madhuca indica) and commercial Mineral oil based cutting fluid (Servocut 945) are compared in terms of thrust force, surface roughness, temperature and tool wear during drilling of AISI 304L stainless steel with carbide tool. Experimental observations and statistical analysis show that Neem and Mahua oils have a considerable potential to be used as an alternative to conventional cutting fluids. Confirmation tests verified that the selected optimal combination through Taguchi design was able to achieve desired performance.
... Neem based cutting fluids performed well next to Mahua and followed by mineral oil based cutting fluids with respect to reducing the thrust force. This is because the modified vegetable oils have more resistance to molecular breakdown, or a molecular rearrangement at a higher temperature, due to the presence or absence of oxygen molecules was improved [28]. Previous studies also confirmed that, chemically modified vegetable oil exhibited better lubrication ability and stronger adsorption film onto metallic surface [29]. ...
Article
The demand for renewable and biodegradable cutting fluids is increasing day by day. Owing to the desirable properties of vegetable oils as cutting fluids, an attempt is made to explore the potentiality of plentifully available vegetable oils as a cutting fluid for drilling of AISI 304L stainless steel using Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) method. Taguchi’s orthogonal array (L27) is used for obtaining the experimental design. The performances of two Vegetable oil based cutting fluids (VBCFs) Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Mahua (Madhuca indica) and commercial Mineral oil based cutting fluid (Servocut 945) are compared in terms of thrust force, surface roughness, temperature and tool wear during drilling of AISI 304L stainless steel with carbide tool. Experimental observations and statistical analysis show that Neem and Mahua oils have a considerable potential to be used as an alternative to conventional cutting fluids. Confirmation tests verified that the selected optimal combination through Taguchi design was able to achieve desired performance.
... The increasing consciousness for green manufacturing globally and consumer focus on environmentally friendly products has put increased pressure on industries to minimize the use of petroleum-based cutting fluids [6]. The demand for biodegradable and eco-friendly cutting fluids has opened an avenue for using vegetable oils as a potential alternative to petroleum-based cutting fluids [7]. In this regard, vegetable oils are emerging as potential replacements to conventional cutting fluids [8]. ...
... The lower cutting forces of vegetable oils can be attributed to better lubricity, higher viscosity index, and better thermal conductivity compared to mineral oils. This is because the modified version has more resistance to molecular breakdown, or a molecular rearrangement at a higher temperature, due to which the presence or absence of oxygen molecules was improved [7]. Previous studies also confirmed that, chemically modified vegetable oil exhibited better lubrication ability and stronger adsorption film onto metallic surface [33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Owing to the desirable properties of vegetable oils as cutting fluids, an attempt is made to explore the potentiality of plentifully available vegetable oils as a cutting fluid for turning AA 6061. Two nonedible vegetable oils, Jatropha and Pongamia, in their chemically modified (epoxidized) versions are used as straight cutting fluids. Cutting fluids are introduced to the machining zone with the aid of Minimal Quantity Lubrication (MQL) method. Taguchi’s technique of orthogonal arrays is used to develop an effective design of experiments. The results obtained under epoxidized versions of Jatropha and Pongamia oils are compared with the results of mineral oil in terms of cutting forces and surface roughness. Experimental observations and statistical analysis show that, compared to mineral oil, the modified versions of vegetable oil-based cutting fluids are more effective in reducing the cutting forces and increasing surface finish. It is also observed that the modified Pongamia oil showed lesser flank wear compared to the other two tested oils.