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Variables used for the cluster analysis

Variables used for the cluster analysis

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Pedestrians aged over 65 are known to be a critical group in terms of road safety because they represent the age group with the highest number of fatalities or injured persons in road accidents. It is therefore important to identify and characterize how old pedestrians perceive pedestrian paths with respect to their age related declines in perceptu...

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... 8 variables considered are instead showed in Table 2. The variable No driving license indicates whether the respondents had not ever got the driver license, that means whether the respondents had not ever drove. ...

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Citations

... Many researchers have investigated the influencing factors of crashes in the elderly (Al AlKheder, AlRukaibi et al., 2020;Amiri, Sadri et al., 2020;Casado-Sanz, Guirao et al., 2019;Haule, Sando et al., 2019;Noh, Kim et al., 2018;Pan, Wu et al., 2022;Park, Choi et al., 2021;Wen, Qu et al., 2021;Yuan, Q., Zhang et al., 2022;, the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of the elderlyinvolved accidents Chang, Li et al., 2020;Etehad, Yousefzadeh-Chabok et al., 2015;Freitas, Bonolo et al., 2015;Kang, Cho et al., 2018;Nishino, 2013;Prochowski, Gidlewski et al., 2018;Sadeghi-Bazargani, Samadirad et al., 2018;Sagar, Stamatiadis et al., 2020;Setiawan, 2021), safety awareness and risk cognition of the elderly Guo, Shi et al., 2018;Hamido, Hamamoto et al., 2021;Handa and Mitobe, 2020;Jian and Shi, 2020;Laosee, Rattanapan et al., 2018;Makizako, Shimada et al., 2018;Nakagawa, 2019;Nishiuchi, Park et al., 2021;Pulvirenti, Distefano et al., 2020;Söllner and Florack, 2019;Uchibori, Handa et al., 2021). Using traditional traffic safety analysis methods, scholars have analysed the relationship between the number or severity of crashes and various factors involving human error, vehicles and the road environment to find the cause of accidents. ...
... Other researchers analyzed samples of people 65 years old and older ( Table 1). Still others selected an age range starting at 50 years , 55 or 70years old (Nishiuchi, Park et al., 2021;Pulvirenti, Distefano et al., 2020). Although most scholars adopt 65 years as the standard to define the elderly, there is no uniformity and no comparison of differences between different samples. ...
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... In modern life, older people prefer to walk in their neighborhoods [6][7][8], but like all age groups, they rely on cars as their primary mode of transportation, which allows them to maintain their autonomy over long distances [9]. However, as people age, decline in motor skills, vision, somatosensory functions and cognition increases, which can have a significant impact on driving skills, including the ability to correctly visualize the driving scenario and understand the dynamics occurring there [10,11]. ...
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... The body of literature dealing with accessibility of urban areas for vulnerable road users is extensive (Campisi et al. 2018;Canale et al. 2015;Leonardi et al. 2020;Mrak et al. 2019). The mobility of older people in particular has been intensely investigated (Van Hoven and Meijering 2019; Jittrapirom et al. 2019;Pulvirenti et al. 2020). Various authors have emphasized that to facilitate mobilities in later life, it is important that accessible, clearly structured and predictable urban environments are provided (Van Hoven and Meijering 2019; Risser et al. 2010). ...
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... The authors have already developed two studies related to elderly pedestrians' safety and perception in the urban area of Catania (Leonardi, Distefano, & Pulvirenti, 2020b;. Pulvirenti et al. (Pulvirenti et al., 2020) wanted to understand how human factors influence elderly pedestrian perception of critical issues of pedestrian paths. Leonardi et al. (2020b) instead focused on the design solutions and strategies that elderly propose in order to improve the safety of pedestrian paths, considering the influence of human factor. ...
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The benefits of mobility in later life and active ageing have been widely documented and evidenced. Despite its clear benefits, physical activity levels among older people fall short of recommended levels. Older people can have feelings of fear when walking in the outdoor environment. In order to facilitate mobility in later life, it is important that accessible, clearly structured and predictable urban environments are provided. This study wants to understand which aspects and measures the elderly consider more important in order to encourage and improve neighbourhood walkability, considering the influence of age-related declines and experience as road users. A survey was developed in the urban area of Catania (Italy). The total sample comprised 645 participants (355 men and 290 women) aged over 70. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was developed to analyse the data. Results show that elderly pedestrians with minor age-related declines give stronger importance to the walkability along the road, but also focus on improper or aggressive driving behaviours. Pedestrians with major age-related declines give instead more importance to the level of comfort and safety when they cross the road. The driving experience was found to have little influence on elderly priorities for neighbourhood walkability.
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Introduction: Pedestrians aged over 65 are known to be a critical group in terms of road safety because they represent the age group with the highest number of fatalities or injured people in road accidents. With a current ageing population throughout much of the developed world, there is an imminent need to understand the current transportation requirements of older adults, and to ensure sustained safe mobility and healthy. Objectives: The aim of this study is to capture and analyze the key components that influence the identification of design solutions and strategies aimed at improving the safety of pedestrian paths for elderly. Method: A survey was conducted in 5 different locations in Catania, Italy. The locations were specifically chosen near to attraction poles for elderly pedestrians (e.g. centers for the elderly, squares, churches). Participants were recruited in person, so as to select exclusively people over 70. The sample comprised 322 participants. Both Hierarchical and K-Means clustering were used in order to explore which solutions elderly pedestrian propose for improving the safety of pedestrian path. Results: The results show that the judgment expressed by the elderly on the solutions for improving pedestrian safety is linked to the gender, to the experience as road users, and to mobility and vision problems. All solutions proposed regard road infrastructure (improvement of pedestrian crossings and of sidewalks, implementation of traffic calming measures, improvement of lighting), except for police supervision. Conclusion: This study has identified the factors that influence the identification of the best solutions to increase the safety level of pedestrian paths for elderly people. The aspects related to human factors considered were the gender, the factors associated with the experience as road users and the factors related to age related problems (mobility, vision and hearing problems). The results of this research could support traffic engineers, planners, and decision-makers to consider the contributing factors in engineering measures to improve the safety of vulnerable users such as elderly pedestrians.