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Use of terrain ruggedness (in meters) in female elk as a function of age (range 1–20 years old) and time of the day (night, dawn, day, and dusk) as predicted by the linear mixed effect model. Ninety-five percent marginal confidence intervals are shown as shaded areas [sample size: n = 49 female elk, each of them contributing with telemetry relocations collected over 2 to 5 consecutive years]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178082.g004 

Use of terrain ruggedness (in meters) in female elk as a function of age (range 1–20 years old) and time of the day (night, dawn, day, and dusk) as predicted by the linear mixed effect model. Ninety-five percent marginal confidence intervals are shown as shaded areas [sample size: n = 49 female elk, each of them contributing with telemetry relocations collected over 2 to 5 consecutive years]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178082.g004 

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In animal behaviour, there is a dichotomy between innate behaviours (e.g., temperament or personality traits) versus those behaviours shaped by learning. Innate personality traits are supposedly less evident in animals when confounded by learning acquired with experience through time. Learning might play a key role in the development and adoption o...

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... We observed heightened avoidance behaviors for alligators that had not directly experienced capture but lived in the treated site, suggesting that animals can learn to avoid or tolerate risk without their own direct experiences. Similar results are reported where animals become trap-shy or avoid researchers after witnessing other animals in their population being captured (Bustard 1968) or when elk that experience a herd member being taken in a hunt behaviorally adapt to reduce their exposure to hunting pressure (Thurfjell et al. 2017). In an experimental study, Indian mynahs (Acridotheres tristis) that witness conspecifics experiencing an aversive event (being captured and handled by humans) exhibit behaviors consistent with increased wariness despite their lack of direct aversive experience (Griffin and Boyce 2009). ...
... For example, crocodilians in areas where they were hunted, captured for research, or otherwise disturbed by humans were less approachable (i.e., sensitization) than those in less disturbed areas (i.e., habituation), and older animals were less approachable than younger animals (sensitization; Webb and Messel 1979, Pacheco 1996, Gramentz 2008, Marques et al. 2016. Elk were more vigilant on public lands where hunting occurs (i.e., sensitization) than in national parks where they encounter large crowds of people but are not hunted (i.e., habituation; Ciuti et al. 2012), and females have been suspected to learn from prior experience and alter movement rates and resource use to specifically avoid human hunters (sensitization; Thurfjell et al. 2017). Collectively, our results add to a growing body of work highlighting that the ways in which animals experience humans can influence their behavior as a result of learning. ...
Article
As anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems increase, novel solutions are needed to mitigate increasing human–wildlife conflict. Aversive conditioning is one strategy that can reduce the risks of humans living alongside wildlife by modifying the behavior of animals through their experiences with humans. Although considered rare, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) attacks on humans most often occur in human‐dominated landscapes and can be fatal. Our goal was to determine if capture and release protocols might serve as a form of aversive conditioning to reduce alligator tolerance of humans. Specifically, we compared the behavioral response of alligators to an approaching human for animals with 3 different levels of capture experience: alligators from a reference site where no captures occurred, alligators from a site where captures occurred that directly experienced capture and release, and alligators from the site where captures occurred that indirectly experienced capture and release (never captured but likely observed capture of others). We used a hurdle model and information‐theoretic approach to evaluate support for 8 hypotheses regarding factors that influence alligator probability of flight in response to an approaching human and the flight initiation distance (FID) of alligators that did flee. Our hypotheses considered the effects of capture experience, exposure to non‐capture (visual) surveys, alligator size, ambient temperature, and season. The best‐supported models provided strong evidence that capture experience increased the probability of flight and, to a lesser extent, increased FID of alligators that did flee, but that the strength of the effect varied with alligator size or some correlate. Furthermore, the effect of capture may extend beyond animals with direct experience. Capture and release protocols can result in an aversive conditioning response in alligators, effectively reducing habituation to humans. Given the geographic limitations of our study, more work is necessary to determine whether the utility of aversive conditioning may be site‐dependent, or similarly effective across a wider selection of developed landscapes. Alligators that indirectly and directly experience capture events are less tolerant of humans than alligators that do not experience capture by humans, though effects of capture are stronger for large alligators than smaller alligators. Capture events might be useful as a form of aversive conditioning to increase public safety and facilitate coexistence in landscapes shared by humans and alligators.
... In the presence of predators, prey generally alter their behavior to become more difficult to capture, detect, or encounter. Antipredator behaviors are a complex suite of innate and learned behavioral responses, which can be individual or species-specific Thurfjell et al., 2017). They can be affected by predator species and habitat characteristics. ...
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Because ungulates are important contributors to ecosystem function, understanding the "ecology of fear" could be important to the conservation of ecosystems. Although studying ungulate ecology of fear is common, knowledge from ungulate systems is highly contested among ecologists. Here, we review the available literature on the ecology of fear in ungulates to generalize our current knowledge and how we can leverage it for conservation. Four general focus areas emerged from the 275 papers included in our literature search (and some papers were included in multiple categories): behavioral responses to predation risk (79%), physiological responses to predation risk (15%), trophic cascades resulting from ungulate responses to predation risk (20%), and manipulation of predation risk (1%). Of papers focused on behavior, 75% were about movement and habitat selection. Studies were biased toward North America (53%), tended to be focused on elk (Cervus canadensis; 29%), and were dominated by gray wolves (40%) or humans (39%) as predators of interest. Emerging literature suggests that we can utilize predation risk for conservation with top-down (i.e., increasing predation risk) and bottom-up (i.e., manipulating landscape characteristics to increase risk or risk perception) approaches. It is less clear whether fear-related changes in physiology have population-level fitness consequences or cascading effects, which could be fruitful avenues for future research. Conflicting evidence of trait-mediated trophic cascades might be improved with better replication across systems and accounting for confounding effects of ungulate density. Improving our understanding of mechanisms modulating the nature of trophic cascades likely is most important to ensure desirable conservation outcomes. We recommend future work embrace the complexity of natural systems by attempting to link together the focal areas of study identified herein.
... This phenomenon is most likely to occur in long-lived species, as in our study. For example, elk learn over the course of their lives to adjust their habitat selection during hunting seasons in order to avoid hunters 25 . Across primate species, adults also are more likely to develop new foraging behaviors than juveniles or adolescents 26 . ...
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Migrating animals may benefit from social or experiential learning, yet whether and how these learning processes interact or change over time to produce observed migration patterns remains unexplored. Using 16 years of satellite-tracking data from 105 reintroduced whooping cranes, we reveal an interplay between social and experiential learning in migration timing. Both processes dramatically improved individuals’ abilities to dynamically adjust their timing to track environmental conditions along the migration path. However, results revealed an ontogenetic shift in the dominant learning process, whereby subadult birds relied on social information, while mature birds primarily relied on experiential information. These results indicate that the adjustment of migration phenology in response to the environment is a learned skill that depends on both social context and individual age. Assessing how animals successfully learn to time migrations as environmental conditions change is critical for understanding intraspecific differences in migration patterns and for anticipating responses to global change.
... The hunt might affect elk population dynamics in the Bald Hills by increasing elk abundance through movement. During the years of the hunt elk might move to parkland where hunting is prohibited to reduce mortality risks (Thurfjell, Ciuti, & Boyce, 2017). We considered the possibility that the hunt might influence population dynamics by coding a binary variable for whether or not a hunt occurred in a year. ...
Article
Prescribed fires often stimulate short-term productivity of grasslands that influences use by large, grazing herbivores. But studies examining burning effects on large herbivore population dynamics while simultaneously considering other environmental factors that might also influence population dynamics are lacking. We examined the influences of burned area, precipitation during the growing season, and possible distributional shifts from a nearby public hunt on maximum intrinsic rate of population growth (rmax) and environmental carrying capacity (K). We examined the influences of these predictors in a Roosevelt elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti) population studied across 43 years where abundances ranged from 4 to 322 animals and prescribed fires ranged from 14 to 891 ha of burned area in Redwood National and State Parks, California, USA. The highest count across surveys conducted in a year was our index of elk (females, juveniles, subadult males) abundance. We estimated Ricker type models in a hierarchical, state-space formulation that separated observer error from process variation. We found a slight influence from burned area on both rmax and K but a stronger influence from precipitation during the growing season. The lack of a substantial effect from burned area on elk population parameters might be from a variety of factors such as spatial and temporal variation in intensity of prescribed fires and weak density dependence. Nonetheless, one positive benefit to elk population processes was that the patchwork of burning retarded encroachment of woody plants into forage habitat and, thus, maintained a constant area of forage habitat across 43 years.
... While this may put developed coyotes at a disadvantage due to the risks they might face travelling long distances through the urban matrix, given coyotes' high degree of behavioral plasticity and their early life experience with developed habitat we hypothesized that these coyotes are better at navigating these risks. Studies examining the relationship between behavioral responses to human disturbance and previous experience have found that experience with humans and human altered habitats plays an important role in shaping adaptive behavior (Zaccaroni et al. 2007;Thurfjell et al. 2017). Despite this evidence, our mortality analyses did not indicate that this phenomenon occurs in these coyotes. ...
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Natal dispersal plays an important role in connecting individual animal behavior with ecological processes at all levels of biological organization. As urban environments are rapidly increasing in extent and intensity, understanding how urbanization influences these long distance movements is critical for predicting the persistence of species and communities. There is considerable variation in the movement responses of individuals within a species, some of which is attributed to behavioral plasticity which interacts with experience to produce interindividual differences in behavior. For natal dispersers, much of this experience occurs in the natal home range. Using data collected from VHF collared coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Chicago Metropolitan Area we explored the relationship between early life experience with urbanization and departure, transience, and settlement behavior. Additionally, we looked at how early life experience with urbanization influenced survival to adulthood and the likelihood of experiencing a vehicle related mortality. We found that coyotes with more developed habitat in their natal home range were more likely to disperse and tended to disperse farther than individuals with more natural habitat in their natal home range. Interestingly, our analysis produced mixed results for the relationship between natal habitat and habitat selection during settlement. Finally, we found no evidence that early life experience with urbanization influenced survival to adulthood or the likelihood of experiencing vehicular mortality. Our study provides evidence that early life exposure influences dispersal behavior; however, it remains unclear how these differences ultimately affect fitness.
... Human activity is driving global declines of wild animal populations (Dirzo et al., 2014), in part due to the inability of animals to effectively respond to pervasive, rapid environmental change (Sih, 2013). Although humans have co-evolved and interacted with many species for millennia (Bird and Nimmo, 2018) and many animals do effectively navigate the risks posed by people (Oriol-Cotterill et al., 2015;Thurfjell et al., 2017;Ditmer et al., 2018), modern human cues can be especially novel, unreliable, and/or pervasive, leading to mismatches between exhibited behaviors and optimal behavioral responses (Trimmer et al., 2017a). Anti-predator behavior and other risk mitigation strategies, which reduce an individual animal's risk of mortality from predation or other environmental threats, can have high-stakes fitness consequences if over-or under-employed. ...
... For instance, retaliatory killing in response to livestock predation or crop raiding is a major threat to many wildlife populations, but the stimuli that trigger these behaviors, i.e., livestock pens or agricultural fields, may be dissociated from cues of human risk if depredating animals are killed in another place or time (Thapa, 2015;Loveridge et al., 2017). Similarly, animals that are hunted using long range rifles from hundreds of meters away may exhibit less change in habitat use than those exposed to bowhunters who must hunt at much closer range (Thurfjell et al., 2017). ...
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Human activity has rapidly transformed the planet, leading to declines of animal populations around the world through a range of direct and indirect pathways. Humans have strong numerical effects on wild animal populations, as highly efficient hunters and through unintentional impacts of human activity and development. Human disturbance also induces costly non-lethal effects by changing the behavior of risk-averse animals. Here, we suggest that the unique strength of these lethal and non-lethal effects is amplified by mismatches between the nature of risk associated with anthropogenic stimuli and the corresponding response by wild animals. We discuss the unique characteristics of cues associated with anthropogenic stimuli in the context of animal ecology and evolutionary history to explore why and when animals fail to appropriately (a) detect, (b) assess, and (c) respond to both benign and lethal stimuli. We then explore the costs of over-response to a benign stimulus (Type I error) and under-response to a lethal stimulus (Type II error), which can scale up to affect individual fitness and ultimately drive population dynamics and shape ecological interactions. Finally, we highlight avenues for future research and discuss conservation measures that can better align animal perception and response with risk to mitigate unintended consequences of human disturbance.
... In an analogous way to other life history traits, the sex-specific spatial ecology of a given species is also expected to be strongly structured by age and life stage (Charlesworth, 1980;Stearns, 1992;Gaillard, Festa-Bianchet, Yoccoz, Loison, & Toïgo, 2000). For instance, old individuals are reported to move less and use restricted home ranges compared to younger individuals, as a result of a decline in locomotor performance and/or greater experience, presumably through a better knowledge of the distribution of resources and predation risk in the local environment (birds: Catry et al., 2006;Harel et al., 2016;fish: Magnhagen et al., 2008;large herbivores: Froy et al., 2018;Montgomery, Vucetich, Peterson, Roloff, & Millenbah, 2013;Thurfjell, Ciuti, & Boyce, 2017;carnivores: MacNulty et al., 2009). Furthermore, allocation to reproduction varies markedly with age and/or life stage in numerous vertebrate taxa (Clutton-Brock, 1984;Forslund & P€ art, 1995;Lemaître et al., 2015;McBride et al., 2015). ...
... Eggeman, Hebblewhite, Bohm, Whittington, & Merrill, 2016), investigated the relative importance of locomotor senescence and experience (e.g. Froy et al., 2018;Thurfjell et al., 2017) and inferred relationships between these behavioural modifications and survival/reproduction (e.g. Froy et al., 2018;Taylor et al., 2020). ...
Article
Life histories are strongly age dependent, notably linked to the onset of reproductive maturity and subsequent senescence. Consequently, ageing is predicted to impact behaviour, through the expression of either mating tactics in males or neonatal antipredator tactics in females. However, the influence of ageing, and the associated reproductive activity, on spatial behaviour remains poorly investigated. In this regard, we quantified age- and sex-specific intra-annual variation in movement rates and space use of two large herbivores with contrasting life histories: the roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, an asocial species with a territorial male mating strategy and a hider neonatal tactic, and the Mediterranean mouflon, Ovis gmelini musimon × Ovis sp., a gregarious species with a roaming male mating strategy and a follower neonatal tactic. We expected age-related differences to be mostly related to (1) age-specific mating tactics during the rut for males and the presence/absence of offspring for females, and (2) experience and/or locomotory senescence otherwise. During the rutting period, older roe deer males travelled greater daily distances than younger males due to patrolling behaviours for territory defence, whereas older mouflon males travelled less than younger males, which often adopted coursing tactics to mate with females. During the birth period, reproductive females had smaller home ranges than nonreproductive females in roe deer, whereas no marked differences were observed in mouflon females. The most marked age-related variation in space use of mouflon occurred outside the reproductive periods; specifically, the oldest individuals travelled less far and had a smaller home range (females only) than younger individuals. Our findings illustrate how space use tactics vary within and between populations of large herbivores, providing strong evidence that age and reproductive activity are major determinants of their spatial behaviour.
... Boman et al. (2003) incorporate the spatial dimension in wildlife management by developing a theoretical economic model to find the optimal geographical distribution of wolf populations provided the high dispersal capacity of this species. Extant ecological literature has recognized the potential of human hunters and large carnivores to change the spatial distribution and behavior of ungulates (Cromsigt et al. 2013, Thurfjell et al. 2017). If game species migrate to minimize predation risk (Kjellander et al. 2004, Hebblewhite andMerrill 2007), it can be inferred that benefits and costs of available game can spread to neighboring regions. ...
Thesis
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The present research consists of four articles addressing wildlife management and conservation using different methodological approaches of applied economics. The thesis encompasses various economic analyses on three carnivore species mainly: the wolf (Canis lupus), the brown bear (Ursus arctos), and the lynx (Lynx lynx). Other wildlife species are also present to a relatively lesser extent: the moose (Alces alces), the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), the wild boar (Sus scrofa), and the wolverine (Gulo gulo). The first three articles comprise applied analyses in Sweden, and the last article covers North America as well as Eurasia. The first article uses revealed preference methods to address the impact of large carnivores and licensed carnivore hunting on hunting rental prices in Sweden. The results suggest that regulated carnivore hunting exerts a statistically significant and positive effect on hunting lease prices whilst carnivore presence influences lease prices negatively. The analysis is performed using least absolute deviation estimations to minimize the effect of outliers. The second article expands the analysis of the first paper by implementing an unconditional quantile regression analysis. This methodological approach allows to study the effect of large carnivores over different segments of the hunting rental price distribution. The outcome confirms that carnivores reduce lease prices in the quantiles near the median, yet no significant impact is found for the lower quantiles. The third article introduces a spatial dimension in the analysis. It formulates a dynamic bioeconomic model to estimate the effects of carnivores and hunting pressure on game harvests in Sweden. A linearized version of the bioeconomic model is then estimated using dynamic spatial econometrics. The model accounts for spatial and temporal dimensions in order to explore spatial effects in game harvests and estimate the value of the impact of large carnivores on the harvest of ungulate game. The results elicit dynamic spatial spillovers in roe deer and wild boar harvests. Lynx presence and human hunting pressure reduce roe deer and wild boar harvests, respectively. The wolf and the brown bear decrease moose harvests, however moose does not exhibit spatial effects, seemingly due to Swedish hunting regulations for this particular species. The last article explores the implications of immediate emotions on group outcomes for conserving two carnivore species, the wolf and the wolverine. By conducting an online public goods experiment, the study examines the degree of cooperation across group participants after inducing positive and negative emotions with audio-visual stimuli. The results indicate that positive emotions seemingly enhance cooperative behavior for wolf conservation yet no corresponding evidence is found for the wolverine. Furthermore, for a given induced emotion, monetary contributions do not differ significantly across the two animal species.
... Les réponses comportementales d'évitement de la prédation s'expriment à différentes échelles spatiales et temporelles. Ainsi les animaux chassés expriment des réactions immédiates en contact avec le risque de prédation comme la fuite (Walther, 1969;Sodeikat & Pohlmeyer, 2003) ou encore la mise à l'abri (Mysterud & Østbye, 1999;Eilam, 2005), tandis que des interactions répétées avec les prédateurs peuvent permettre à la proie d'améliorer leurs techniques anti-prédatrices par des jeux d'apprentissage, que ce soit à l'échelle d'une saison de chasse ou à l'échelle d'une vie (Brown, 2003;Thurfjell et al., 2017). L'ensemble de ces comportements sont susceptibles de diminuer la vulnérabilité d'un individu ou d'un groupe d'individus par l'expérience acquise. ...
... This is congruent with studies on deer hunting where there were less opportunities for shooting a deer as the hunting season progressed (Grau & Grau, 1980), and a decrease in the number of catches with the accumulation of hunting days (i.e with the progess of hunting seaon, Rivrud et al., 2014). This was possibly driven by a decrease of animals' availability in the environment over time (Creel & Christianson, 2008), or learning by the animals (Lima & Bednekoff, 1999;Thurfjell et al., 2017). However, in our case, hunting pressure did not seem to be gradually decreasing over time, but specifically and suddenly decreased in February. ...
... Catchability can fluctuate both in space and in time depending on the behavior of the animal and the hunting conditions affecting the hunters (Salthaug & Aanes, 2003;Wilberg et al., 2009;Thurfjell et al., 2017;Vajas et al., 2021). Regarding hunting conditions, in space, the visibility for hunters can vary with vegetation cover, and terrain accessibility (difficulty of access and progression) can be impaired by topography, possibly reducing hunting success (Lebel et al., 2012;Wszola et al., 2019;Vajas et al., 2021). ...
Thesis
Despite all the means implemented to manage wild boar populations in France, it appears that there is an increase in negative interactions with humans (damage to crops, road accidents, etc.). In France, the main means of managing these populations is hunting, and more particularly drive hunting, which contributes the most to the national hunting bag. However, despite all the efforts invested in the hunting activity, some populations continue to increase and expand. Therefore it seems essential to understand the mechanisms of drive hunting which can explain the number of wild boar culled. To understand the "hunting model" we can decompose the hunting process into a few key components of hunting effort and animal catchability, i.e the probability of catching an animal. Thus, a hunting effort exerted on a given population of a given size characterized by a given catchability, will lead to a certain harvest. (i) A first study examines the components of drive hunting effort which explains the hunting pressure observed on wild boar populations in Chateauvillain territory. Hunting effort is a complex notion that resume several modalities of hunting. Thus, the effort can include a number of posted hunters, a number of beaters, a number of dogs etc. From all the modalities that make up the drive hunting, we determined that the metric of the hunting effort exerting pressure on the wild boar populations included a number of hunters per drive hunting event per unit area. (ii) A second study was carried out using the hunting logs of hunters from Ardèche and Hérault to distinguish the effect of catchability from that of abundance in the prediction of the hunting bag as a function of variable hunting effort. These notebooks summarize several information relating to hunting such as the number of hunters, the date and location of the hunt as well as the number of wild boars culled for each drive hunting event in these departments. The results of our modeling allowed us on the one hand to estimate wild boar densities and on the other hand to estimate catchability values. These catchability values reflect the local hunting difficulties for catching a wild boar depending on the hunting conditions. These results allow us to predict a hunting bag as a function of the hunting effort invested according to the hunting conditions. (iii) A third study allowed us to assess the effect of weather conditions on the success of a hunt as well as on the effort invested by the hunters. The results showed us a decrease in success as well as a decrease in effort under bad weather conditions. All of these studies have enabled us to improve scientific knowledge on the functioning of the hunting process, and have also enabled us to provide results that may find application in the management of wild boar.
... Les réponses comportementales d'évitement de la prédation s'expriment à différentes échelles spatiales et temporelles. Ainsi les animaux chassés expriment des réactions immédiates en contact avec le risque de prédation comme la fuite (Walther, 1969;Sodeikat & Pohlmeyer, 2003) ou encore la mise à l'abri (Mysterud & Østbye, 1999;Eilam, 2005), tandis que des interactions répétées avec les prédateurs peuvent permettre à la proie d'améliorer leurs techniques anti-prédatrices par des jeux d'apprentissage, que ce soit à l'échelle d'une saison de chasse ou à l'échelle d'une vie (Brown, 2003;Thurfjell et al., 2017). L'ensemble de ces comportements sont susceptibles de diminuer la vulnérabilité d'un individu ou d'un groupe d'individus par l'expérience acquise. ...
... This is congruent with studies on deer hunting where there were less opportunities for shooting a deer as the hunting season progressed (Grau & Grau, 1980), and a decrease in the number of catches with the accumulation of hunting days (i.e with the progess of hunting seaon, Rivrud et al., 2014). This was possibly driven by a decrease of animals' availability in the environment over time (Creel & Christianson, 2008), or learning by the animals (Lima & Bednekoff, 1999;Thurfjell et al., 2017). However, in our case, hunting pressure did not seem to be gradually decreasing over time, but specifically and suddenly decreased in February. ...
... Catchability can fluctuate both in space and in time depending on the behavior of the animal and the hunting conditions affecting the hunters (Salthaug & Aanes, 2003;Wilberg et al., 2009;Thurfjell et al., 2017;Vajas et al., 2021). Regarding hunting conditions, in space, the visibility for hunters can vary with vegetation cover, and terrain accessibility (difficulty of access and progression) can be impaired by topography, possibly reducing hunting success (Lebel et al., 2012;Wszola et al., 2019;Vajas et al., 2021). ...
Thesis
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Résumé en Français: Malgré l’ensemble des moyens mis en œuvre pour gérer les populations de sangliers en France, il appert une augmentation des interactions négatives avec l’Homme (dégâts dans les cultures, accidents de la route etc.). En France, le principal moyen pour gérer ces populations est la chasse, et plus particulièrement la chasse en battue, qui contribue le plus au tableau de chasse national. Cependant, malgré tous les efforts investis dans l’activité de la chasse, certaines populations continuent d’augmenter et de s’étendre. Il semble alors essentiel de comprendre les mécanismes de la chasse en battue qui permettent d’expliquer le nombre de sangliers prélevés. Pour comprendre le « modèle chasse », nous pouvons décomposer le processus de la chasse selon quelques indicateurs clés que sont l’effort de chasse et la capturabilité des animaux, c’est-à-dire la probabilité de capturer un animal. Ainsi, un effort de chasse exercé sur une certaine population d’une certaine taille caractérisée par une certaine capturabilité, conduira à un certain prélèvement. (i) Une première étude s’interroge sur les composantes de l’effort de chasse en battue qui explique la pression de chasse observée sur les populations de sangliers sur le territoire de Chateauvillain. L’effort de chasse se présente comme une notion complexe qui résume plusieurs modalités de la chasse. Ainsi, l’effort peut regrouper un nombre de chasseurs postés, un nombre de rabatteurs, un nombre de chiens etc. De l’ensemble des modalités que composent l’effort la chasse en battue, nous avons déterminé que la métrique de l’effort de chasse exerçant une pression sur les populations de sangliers regroupait un nombre de chasseurs par battue par unité de surface. (ii) Une seconde étude a été menée en utilisant les carnets de battues des chasseurs de l’Ardèche et de l’Hérault pour distinguer l’effet de la capturabilité de celui de l’abondance dans la prédiction de la pression de chasse en fonction d’un effort de chasse variable. Ces carnets résument plusieurs informations relatives à la chasse comme le nombre de chasseurs, la date et le lieu de chasse ainsi que le nombre de sangliers prélevés pour chaque battue de ces départements. Les résultats de notre modélisation nous ont permis d’une part d’estimer des abondances relatives de sangliers et d’autre part d’estimer des valeurs de capturabilité. Ces valeurs de capturabilité traduisent les difficultés locales de chasse dans le prélèvement de sangliers selon les conditions de chasse. Ces résultats nous permettent de prédire une pression de chasse en fonction d’un effort de chasse investi selon les conditions de chasse. (iii) Une troisième étude nous a permis d’appréhender l’effet des conditions météorologiques sur le succès d’une chasse ainsi que sur l’effort investi par les chasseurs. Les résultats nous ont montré une diminution du succès ainsi qu’une diminution de l’effort sous de mauvaises conditions météorologiques. L’ensemble de ces études nous a permis d’améliorer la connaissance scientifique sur le fonctionnement du processus de chasse, et nous a également permis de fournir un certain nombre de résultats pouvant trouver une application dans la gestion du sanglier._____________________________________________________________________________ English Abstract: Despite all the means implemented to manage wild boar populations in France, it appears that there is an increase in negative interactions with humans (damage to crops, road accidents, etc.). In France, the main means of managing these populations is hunting, and more particularly drive hunting, which contributes the most to the national hunting bag. However, despite all the efforts invested in the hunting activity, some populations continue to increase and expand. Therefore, it seems essential to understand the mechanisms of drive hunting which can explain the number of wild boar culled. To understand the "hunting model" we can decompose the hunting process into a few key components of hunting effort and animal catchability, i.e the probability of catching an animal. Thus, a hunting effort exerted on a given population of a given size characterized by a given catchability, will lead to a certain harvest. (i) A first study examines the components of drive hunting effort which explains the hunting pressure observed on wild boar populations in Chateauvillain territory. Hunting effort is a complex notion that resume several modalities of hunting. Thus, the effort can include a number of posted hunters, a number of beaters, a number of dogs etc. From all the modalities that make up the drive hunting, we determined that the metric of the hunting effort exerting pressure on the wild boar populations included a number of hunters per drive hunting event per unit area. (ii) A second study was carried out using the hunting logs of hunters from Ardèche and Hérault to distinguish the effect of catchability from that of abundance in the prediction of the hunting pressure as a function of variable hunting effort. These notebooks summarize several information relating to hunting such as the number of hunters, the date and location of the hunt as well as the number of wild boars culled for each drive hunting event in these departments. The results of our modeling allowed us on the one hand to estimate wild boar densities and on the other hand to estimate catchability values. These catchability values reflect the local hunting difficulties to catching a wild boar depending on the hunting conditions. These results allow us to predict a hunting pressure as a function of the hunting effort invested according to the hunting conditions. (iii) A third study allowed us to assess the effect of weather conditions on the success of a hunt as well as on the effort invested by the hunters. The results showed us a decrease in success as well as a decrease in effort under bad weather conditions. All of these studies have enabled us to improve scientific knowledge on the functioning of the hunting process, and have also enabled us to provide results that may find application in the management of wild boar.________________________ Manuscript written in French (introduction, m & m, discussion) and chapters (articles) in English