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1 United States Farm-based Horse Population, 1850-2007

1 United States Farm-based Horse Population, 1850-2007

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This paper examines the economic impact of Virginia\'s horse industry using input-output analysis. Statewide impacts are further disaggregated into three categories: (1) expenditures on horse maintenance and support by horse owners and operations, (2) expenditures on horse shows and competitions, and (3) expenditures associated with pari-mutuel rac...

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... According to the Equine Heritage Institute, almost 60 million horses were found worldwide in 2006 (see www.equineheritageinstitute.org), and, by 2009, the total number of horses in the European Union was estimated to exceed 5 million (Liljenstolpe, 2009). These statistics suggest that horses are a quite profitable industry (Rephann, 2011). ...
... Gilbert and Gillett (2012) claim that, '[w]hereas [they were] once central to agriculture, industry and transportation, the new social realm for horses is limited primarily to sport, leisure and recreation pursuits' (p. 632), whose profitability is well established (Jeong et al., 2009;Rephann, 2011). ...
... Ponies do not tend to be schooled. Rephann (2011) states that horses' breeds and uses in either races, shows or competitions have a differentiating effect on total expenditures on horses. The cited author observes that some horses require owners to spend more on training. ...
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Horses currently play a leading role in many leisure events worldwide. However, their involvement in leisure activities raises various ethical questions. Based on a posthumanist approach, this study sought to explore the use and treatment of horses in a leisure event in Mexico. A participant observation method was adopted to conduct the research, revealing that horses become quite instrumental and commodified for humans, fulfilling intersecting entertainment, economic and cultural purposes. These results thus provide evidence of the prevailing anthropocentric and speciesist nature of horse-human interactions in leisure events. The findings include that, when horse-human relations become highly commercialised and are institutionally recognised as cultural heritage, a complete embracement of posthumanism is needed to dissolve basic horse-human dichotomies, but this remains a utopian ideal in tourism and leisure practices.
... Together with the equine operations themselves, it was estimated that the equine industry supported about one-fifth of the state's total agricultural acreage [33]. Using a similar chain of logic incorporating feed and bedding, the Virginia impact study estimated that the equine industry preserves about 2.6% of that state's total land area [34]. Elgåker [30] elaborates on the synergistic benefits of equine hay production for the rest of local agriculture: "The production of cereal grains is often combined with fodder production for horses. ...
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Sustainability is frequently defined as the need to place equal emphasis on three societal goals: economic prosperity, environment, and social equity. This “triple bottom line” (TBL) framework is embraced by practitioners in both corporate and government settings. Within agriculture, the horse-racing industry and its breeding component are an interesting case study for the TBL approach to local development. The sector is to some extent a “knowledge industry”, agglomerating in relatively few regions worldwide. In the USA, choices made by breeders or owners are likely affected by sudden changes in specific state policies, especially those related to gambling. Both of these unusual conditions—for agriculture at least—have been playing out against a background of national decline in the number of registered racehorse breeding stock. This study traces changes, between 1995 and 2017, in the geographic distribution of registered Thoroughbred and Standardbred stallions. We find that isolated, scattered registered stallions have largely disappeared, strengthening one or more core states (or counties) that had an initially high percentage of stallions. The gainers and losers among previously core regions appear to be heavily influenced by state-level policies. It follows that such policies can influence the conservation of agricultural landscapes as well as racing revenues.
... They also attracted an estimated 2.25 million winerelated tourists in 2015, a 43 percent increase from 2010. Virginia hosted almost 1,200 horse shows and competitions in 2010 that drew approximately 940 thousand people who spent more than $220 million on travel and associated expenses (Rephann 2011). ...
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... Table 2 describes the eleven considered livestock commodities and their respective variable type (e.g, "inventory," "production," etc.). While not specified in the ERS (or AMS) approach, horses are added to the types of livestock included since they are an important component of Virginia agriculture [16]. Details regarding the consumption calculations such as where the data may be found in the NASS reports, which variables were converted to a September-August marketing year, and any additional steps taken are provided in the Appendix. ...
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... Since NASS does not collect yearly numbers on horses, the AMS does not estimate horse population and its contribution to feed demand at the state-level. However, Virginia's horse industry had a total sales impact of $1.2 billion in 2010 [16]. Thus, horses are a relevant part of the state's agriculture and merit inclusion in the feed consumption estimates. ...
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... In the most recent comprehensive statewide horse inventory, it ranked first among Virginia localities in the number of horses (USDA, NASS 2008). In a follow-up study of Virginia horse industry economic impacts Loudoun County was found to host the largest number of horse shows and competitions in the state and generated the most sizeable local economic impacts (Rephann 2011). ...
... The impact analysis for this study used IMPLAN (Impact analysis for PLANning). This model has been used in many economic impact studies, including studies of the statewide equine industry (Rephann 2011;The Wessex Group 2004) and studies of the Virginia Horse Center in Lexington, Virginia (Knapp 2005;Knapp and Barchers 2001). Impacts are evaluated within IMPLAN using four different measures: (a) total sales or total industrial output (TIO), (b) value-added, (c) labor income and (4) employment. ...
... Next adjustments were made for margins. These adjustments 5 The estimated county per capita expenditures sometimes differed significantly from those obtained in the Virginia equine economic impact study event surveys using a similar survey instrument (Rephann 2011). Using unreported survey tabulations from that study, the average per participant member expenditure was (a) host county resident ($153), (b) resident elsewhere in Virginia ($448), (c) out-of-state resident ($714). ...
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Loudoun County, located in the heart of Virginia Horse Country, is widely known as a premier horse community. In the most recent comprehensive statewide horse inventory, it ranked first among Virginia localities in the number of horses. In another Virginia horse industry study, Loudoun County was found to host the largest number of horse shows and competitions in the state. This report examines the economic contribution that the horse industry makes to Loudoun County using new 2015 horse inventory and event survey results. The horse industry as defined here encompasses all spending related to the maintenance and upkeep of horses and the expenditures of equestrian event participants and spectators.
... This assumption departs from the Crompton recommendation. Information collected from the Virginia horse industry attendee survey indicates that 81 percent of horse show and competition attendees visited the county where the event was held for the expressed purpose of attending the event (Rephann 2011). For the Virginia Cattle Convention, we found that figure to be 97.5 percent. ...
... Combining the assumptions described above with baseline visitor estimates by event type and year in Table 2.3, residential origin patterns by event type in Table 4.4, average expenditure by event type, participant/spectator status and residential origin for non-residents in Tables 4. 5-4.7, and assigning the expenditures to the appropriate IMPLAN industry in a manner similar to that described in Rephann (2011) produces Wythe County visitor expenditures reported in Table 4.10. Doing the same for out-of-state resident visitor counts and Virginia expenditures produces state visitor expenditures reported in Table 4.11. ...
... 2008). The Wythe County horse industry in 2010 was estimated to be associated with 117 jobs, $3.1 million in gross domestic product, and nearly $100 thousand in local tax revenue (Rephann 2011). ...
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... In addition, the study discusses other economic benefits that result from Fauquier County agriculture. To analyze economic impacts, the study uses a methodology (input-output analysis) and a software tool (IMPLAN) that have been applied often in agribusiness impact analysis, including recent economic impact studies of Virginia's agricultural and forest industries (Rephann 2013) and the horse industry (Rephann 2011). The methodology accounts not only for the direct spending attributable to agriculture but also for indirect spending attributable to backward linkages in the supply chain. ...
... (Denckla Cobb 2011) Agricultural open space also provides accessible venues for outdoor recreation. The availability of these venues can possibly boost levels of household physical activity participation (Rephann 2011). For example, Rephann (2014) shows that the number of local equestrian and other horse competition events available is positively associated with the rate of local household participation in horse riding. ...
... Therefore, we incorporate an additional adjustment to count only those who likely visited the area for the specific purpose of attending the agritourism event or venue. We based the percentage of such visitors on figures obtained from survey data of horse shows and competitions derived from The Economic Impact of the Horse Industry in Virginia (Rephann 2011). According to that survey, 78.15% of in-state, outof-county and 90.32% of out-of-state participants were in the show host area specifically to attend the event and 72.04% of in-state, out-of-county and 96.43% of out-of-state spectators were in the show host area specifically to attend the event. ...
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... In Virginia, the horse industry ranks 12th nationally in number of horses (USDA, 2006), and has an estimated $1.2 billion impact on the state's economy. Virginia horse owners support over 16,000 full-time jobs in racing, showing, recreation, breeding and other industry activities (Rephann, 2011). This diversity combines all the challenges of traditional commodity groups with contemporary issues of leisure and companion animal sectors. ...
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Using online survey instruments, knowledge needs and information retrieval methods in Cooperative Extension agents and horse industry stakeholders in Virginia were assessed. Data collected included: information resources used; educational methods used by agents; and stakeholders’ preferred learning method. While over 50% of stakeholders used the Internet to find answers, only 20% of agents utilized online resources to answer stakeholder questions, and agents were more opposed to using online methods for teaching. Current delivery methods for Extension educational programs in Virginia fail to serve modern audiences. Targeted professional development programs aimed at familiarizing agents with online technology may increase their use in Extension programming.
... Estimates based on survey data are available for specific types of agri-tourism. According to one recent study, approximately 940 thousand people attended almost 1,200 Virginia horse shows and competitions in 2010 and generated more than $220 million in travelrelated expenditures, much of it outside the horse event venue (Rephann 2011). A study of the Virginia wine and grapes industry (Frank, Rimerman + Co. LLP, 2012) estimated that Virginia's 193 wineries in 2010 attracted 1,618,000 wine-related tourists and generated $131 million in associated tourism expenditures. ...
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... This article is based on a recent study prepared under contract for the Virginia Horse Industry Board. 1 The study relies on extensive survey work and regional input-output analysis to estimate the economic contribution of what is popularly known as the horse industry. "Equine industry," which includes ponies, mules, donkeys and burros, as well as horses, would be a more accurate descriptor, but "horse industry" will be used here because it is a more common term, and the primary focus is on horses. ...