Figure 4 - uploaded by Frances M Baines
Content may be subject to copyright.
UV index estimates based upon the Ferguson zones. Columns 1 to 5 of the table identify the characteristics of each zone as presented by Ferguson et al. (2010). The original 15 species of reptiles studied in their natural habitat in Jamaica and south and west USA are shown in column 5. In the column 6 are examples of species commonly held in captivity, assigned to Ferguson zones based upon their known basking behaviour. Arrows link animals from each zone to either shade or sunbeam methods of UV provision as proposed in the BIAZA UV-Tool (2012) and indicate typical lamp types suggested for each method. 

UV index estimates based upon the Ferguson zones. Columns 1 to 5 of the table identify the characteristics of each zone as presented by Ferguson et al. (2010). The original 15 species of reptiles studied in their natural habitat in Jamaica and south and west USA are shown in column 5. In the column 6 are examples of species commonly held in captivity, assigned to Ferguson zones based upon their known basking behaviour. Arrows link animals from each zone to either shade or sunbeam methods of UV provision as proposed in the BIAZA UV-Tool (2012) and indicate typical lamp types suggested for each method. 

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Guidance is almost non-existent as to suitable levels of UV lighting for reptiles and amphibians, or how to achieve satisfactory UV gradients using artificial lighting. The UV-Tool is a working document that seeks to address this problem, by considering the range of UV experienced by each species in the wild. The UV-Tool contains an editable and ex...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... charts are no substitute for in-situ measurements; they are merely guides to aid lamp selection. Figure 4 summarises the zone ranges recorded by Ferguson et al. (2010) and illustrates the way in which we propose they might be used to create suitable UV gradients for any species based upon its thermoregulation behaviour. the time and place the reptiles were found were averaged. ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity loss is a major challenge. Over the past century, the average rate of vertebrate extinction has been about 100-fold higher than the estimated background rate and population declines continue to increase globally. Birth and death rates determine the pace of population increase or decline, thus driving the expansion or extinction of a sp...

Citations

... This consideration is surprisingly counterintuitive, given that provisioning of UV light in captivity is intended to mimic the natural conditions the organism experiences in the wild that are necessary for survival and successful reproduction (e.g. Baines et al., 2016). Thus far, our understanding of the capacity of lizards and other reptiles to actively regulate their UV exposure draws from indirect (but pivotal) studies by Ferguson and colleagues on F. pardalis (Ferguson et al., 2003;Karsten et al., 2009). ...
... In general, most attention to the impact of variation in UV exposure on reptile behaviour has come from zoological facilities and private hobbyists, many of whom rely on published UVI ranges to establish viable long-term husbandry conditions for a diverse array of species (i.e. Ferguson Zones; see Baines et al., 2016;Ferguson et al., 2010). In general, the Ferguson Zone assigned to a given species depends on its basking behaviour, with zone limits derived from a range of UV exposure values (in UVI) taken at multiple individual animal observation points across several lizard species (Ferguson et al., 2010). in the field and responses to our treatment levels, we would expect UV needs to have a greater impact on females than males during the reproductive season (c. ...
Article
Over a century of ecophysiological studies on lizards have perpetuated the assumption that basking and shuttling movements between sun and shade function solely for temperature regulation. However, these behaviors also modulate exposure to ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths that are essential for maintaining physiological homeostasis as well as ensuring proper growth and development and enhancing long‐term fitness. An alternative hypothesis is that lizards also actively regulate their UV exposure. In this scenario, UV needs may even override temperature needs (or vice versa), generating asymmetries in the ability of a lizard to regulate both conditions equally. We test this hypothesis using field and laboratory data collected on adult Sceloporus undulatus. We found that S. undulatus actively regulate UV exposure and prioritize UV over temperature, favoring body temperatures much higher than preferred values to sustain preferred UV exposure. In stark contrast, temperature had no reciprocal impact on UV regulation behavior. Our field data support these patterns, suggesting that lizards may even seek out hotter environments despite thermal costs to enhance UV exposure. We conclude that S. undulatus actively regulate for UV as well as temperature. Unfortunately, outside of zoos and private hobbyists, appreciation of the importance of UV for ectotherm survival and reproductive success has been minimal. Addressing this deficit will therefore be vital to improve our understanding of the factors shaping the evolution of ectotherm photoregulation behavior in nature.
... The dimensions of the on-exhibit enclosure were 220 × 94 × 113 cm (length × width × height) (Figure 1), and half of the available height within the enclosure was furnished and therefore accessible to the animals. A full range of temperature and humidity gradients, UV provision (0 UVI in shade and up to 3 UVI at basking areas, based on FZ2; Baines et al. 2016) and multiple hiding places within rock crevices were provided within the enclosure. The glass viewing panels at the front of the enclosure allowed keepers to monitor behaviour of the individuals and adjust parameters where necessary to meet the putative needs of the species. ...
Article
Full-text available
Climatic seasonality has allowed species to evolve to use such variation to their advantage. Correct timing of breeding and parturition can be an essential factor in species survival, and adaptations to geographic seasonal changes can assist in preparation for a successful breeding season. The Gorongosa girdled lizard Smaug mossambicus is a little-known cordylid lizard from Mozambique, for which there is very limited information regarding its natural history and breeding habits. Through keeping this species at Drayton Manor Resort, UK, it was apparent that seasonal climatic changes may have an impact on the successful reproduction of this species. Using data collected at Drayton Manor Resort and additional data collected from both private and professional institutions via a questionnaire, the climatic factors affecting reproduction in this reptile were investigated. The results suggest that seasonal temperature variation may have some influence on captive breeding success, although this is likely to be in conjunction with other factors such as variance in photoperiod, humidity and rainfall. There is evidence of strictly seasonal reproductive behaviour by S. mossambicus, which corresponds with many other species from southern Africa: producing a single litter annually, breeding in winter with parturition in summer. Litter size varied between one and six individuals. Future research should focus on exploring further climate variables that may influence the breeding habits of S. mossambicus. This study builds a foundation for understanding the breeding behaviour of S. mossambicus and should aid in the successful maintenance and reproduction of the species.
... Furthermore, because both under-and over-exposure to the UV spectrum can have deleterious effects, it is important for lizards to regulate that exposure (Hays et al., 1995;Blaustein et al., 1998;Ferguson et al., 2002;Gehrmann, 2006;Baines, 2008;Gardiner et al., 2009). Thus, knowledge of natural UV exposure levels is important when considering habitat availability and protections for wild lizard populations and to inform husbandry practices for lizards in human care, including conservation breeding programs for threatened and endangered species (Ferguson et al., 2010;Selleri and Girolamo, 2012;Baines et al., 2016). ...
... Data Collection and Analysis: for an unrelated project, UV index (UVI) readings were taken opportunistically from the exact location of basking lizards from 4-8 November 2019 in Matanzas Province, Cuba, and from 1-4 December 2019 on Grand Cayman Island (Tables 1, 2). Readings were taken using a Solarmeter Model 6.5R Reptile UV Index Meter (Solar Light Company, Glenside, Pennsylvania, USA), a tool found to be suitable for measuring the irradiance from sunlight as it pertains to the needs of reptiles (Baines et al., 2016). The range of appropriate Zones relates UVI to the physiological needs of the species, in particular to predict photoproduct conversion of provitamin D when exposed to UVB (Ferguson et al., 2010). ...
... Continuing to opportunistically collect UV exposure data for lizards could contribute towards much improving the provision of appropriate UV levels for lizards in human care, such as those involved in conservation breeding efforts. Currently, in the absence of natural exposure levels from which to derive captive standards, experts recommend that levels offered in human care be based upon a species' basking behaviour, skin permeability to UV radiation, and response to UVB in the context of vitamin D production (Baines et al., 2016). Species can then be assigned to Ferguson Zones for UV exposure levels in human care (Ferguson et al., 2010), which can then be used to inform conservation efforts such as conservation-breeding programs. ...
... amphibians (Michaels et al., 2014b). Calcium metabolism is a case in point as it relies on the appropriate replication of sunlight (specifically UVB radiation and heat) and the provision of dietary calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D3 sources in appropriate amounts and combinations (Antwis & Browne, 2009;Baines et al., 2016). This is further complicated by the tendency for commercially raised invertebrate species to be calcium-deficient in both absolute terms and relative to phosphorus content (Barker et al., 1998;Finke et al., 2002;Jayson et al., 2018a). ...
Article
Full-text available
The mountain chicken frog (Leptodactylus fallax) is among the 42 % of amphibians threatened with extinction and is dependent upon ex situ populations to recover in the wild. Amphibian captive husbandry is not fully understood and empirical data are required to optimise protocols for each species in captivity. Calcium metabolism and homeostasis are areas of importance in captive husbandry research and have been identified as a challenge in maintaining ex situ populations of L. fallax. We trialled two frequencies (twice and seven times weekly) of calcium supplementation via dusting of feeder insects in two groups of L. fallax juveniles and measured growth and health effects through morphometrics, radiography, ultrasonography and blood and faecal analysis over 167 days, followed by a further 230 days of monitoring on an intermediate diet informed by the initial dataset. We showed that supplementation treatment did not affect growth or health status as measured through blood analysis, radiography and ultrasonography. More frequent supplementation resulted in significantly more radiopaque endolymphatic sacs and broader skulls. Frogs fed more calcium excreted twice as much calcium in their faeces. The intermediate diet resulted in previously lower supplementation frogs approximating the higher supplementation frogs in morphometrics and calcium stores. Comparison with radiographic data from wild frogs showed that both treatments may still have had narrower skulls than wild animals, but mismatching age class may limit this comparison. Our data may be used to inform dietary supplementation of captive L. fallax as well as other amphibians.
... amphibians (Michaels et al., 2014b). Calcium metabolism is a case in point as it relies on the appropriate replication of sunlight (specifically UVB radiation and heat) and the provision of dietary calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D3 sources in appropriate amounts and combinations (Antwis & Browne, 2009;Baines et al., 2016). This is further complicated by the tendency for commercially raised invertebrate species to be calcium-deficient in both absolute terms and relative to phosphorus content (Barker et al., 1998;Finke et al., 2002;Jayson et al., 2018a). ...
Article
Full-text available
The mountain chicken frog (Leptodactylus fallax) is among the 42 % of amphibians threatened with extinction and is dependent upon ex situ populations to recover in the wild. Amphibian captive husbandry is not fully understood and empirical data are required to optimise protocols for each species in captivity. Calcium metabolism and homeostasis are areas of importance in captive husbandry research and have been identified as a challenge in maintaining ex situ populations of L. fallax. We trialled two frequencies (twice and seven times weekly) of calcium supplementation via dusting of feeder insects in two groups of L. fallax juveniles and measured growth and health effects through morphometrics, radiography, ultrasonography and blood and faecal analysis over 167 days, followed by a further 230 days of monitoring on an intermediate diet informed by the initial dataset. We showed that supplementation treatment did not affect growth or health status as measured through blood analysis, radiography and ultrasonography. More frequent supplementation resulted in significantly more radiopaque endolymphatic sacs and broader skulls. Frogs fed more calcium excreted twice as much calcium in their faeces. The intermediate diet resulted in previously lower supplementation frogs approximating the higher supplementation frogs in morphometrics and calcium stores. Comparison with radiographic data from wild frogs showed that both treatments may still have had narrower skulls than wild animals, but mismatching age class may limit this comparison. Our data may be used to inform dietary supplementation of captive L. fallax as well as other amphibians.
... Laboratory-based research has shown the impact that light intensity, duration and wavelengths have on psychological and physical well-being (reviewed in Wulff et al. 2010;Ross and Mason 2017). The impact of lighting is one area of work that is gaining traction across a wide range of species in zoos (e.g., Baines et al. 2016;Fuller et al. 2016;Ross et al. 2013;Benn et al. 2019). With the increasing accessibility of technology to monitor sound and light levels (Fuller 2014;Kardous and Shaw 2014), this area seems poised for additional development with the potential for a positive impact on welfare. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research into the conditions that promote good animal welfare is essential to equip zoos and aquariums with the knowledge to create environments in which animals thrive. In order to collate the empirical information that is available regarding animal welfare in zoos and aquariums with regard to topics, methods and species, a systematic literature review was conducted of the primary peer-reviewed journals publishing zoo-based and welfare-based research. Journals included Animal Welfare, Animals, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, International Zoo Yearbook, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research, and Zoo Biology. The literature review spanned 2008–2017 and revealed that 7.6% (n=310) of reviewed publications (n=4,096) in these journals were zoo- or aquarium-based and animal-welfare focused. The main topics studied included enrichment, social conditions and enclosure design, while understudied topics included the welfare of ambassador animals, and the welfare impacts of sound and light. Behaviour was by far the dominant welfare parameter used and the use of hormonal measures declined over this period. Taxonomic representation in these publications was notably skewed. Mammals were the focus of 75% of studies, and 82% of studies were vertebrate-focused (great apes being the dominant taxa). This study considers potential reasons for these patterns and highlights research areas for future emphasis that could serve to fill gaps in current knowledge regarding zoo and aquarium animal welfare, including more research into affective states that underlie an animal’s welfare status.
... It remains unclear, however, to what extent UVB bulb outputs were monitored; this is important because the UVB emissions decay over time, and different products decay at different rates. 20 The second most popular response, at 18 per cent, was natural sunlight. Another 11 per cent each indicated that they use room lighting to provide light in the enclosure or a regular fluorescent bulb. ...
Article
Background A large number of snakes are kept as pets in Western societies. Few studies have been undertaken to assess keeping practices of snakes by private owners in Australia. Therefore, there is concern that some owners may not understand even basic husbandry requirements. The aim of this preliminary study was to identify the most common practices used by snake owners in Victoria, Australia. Method An online survey asked 251 snake owners to describe ways in which they attempt to meet their snake’s environmental, behavioural, dietary, social and health needs. Results Fewer than half of participants had an enclosure large enough for the snake to fully stretch out, and just over half had an enclosure large enough to meet the requirements in the Victorian Code of Practice. Only 60 per cent of owners correctly identified their snake’s activity patterns based on information about wild snakes of the same species. Conclusion Educational campaigns may help improve outcomes for snakes in the future, but more research is needed about captive snake husbandry, to provide an evidence base for informing snake management recommendations.
... However, 1.1% of keepers of adult tortoises kept them free within the house, where there was a lack of opportunity for thermoregulation and no UV light source, preventing natural behaviors such as basking and burrowing. More than 50% of respondents who kept their tortoises in terraria used HID lamps with electronic ballasts, which is the highest-quality UV source (Baines et al., 2016)-a finding that showed a high responsibility of Testudo spp. keepers toward their tortoises. ...
Article
Mediterranean and Russian tortoises (Testudo spp.) are popular companion animals (pets), despite ongoing controversy concerning privately keeping reptiles. The arguments used during these controversial discussions have often been based on outdated facts. Therefore, a survey was developed to evaluate the current population structure, husbandry conditions, diet regime, and health status of Testudo species in captivity. More than 75% of the 1075 respondents housed their tortoises in an outdoor enclosure containing a greenhouse or cold frame, which is considered the most species-appropriate way of husbandry. Of the respondents, 67.7% fed their tortoises with the optimum diet of more than 80% grasses and weeds during the summer vegetation period. Only 8.2% of respondents owned a tortoise with a diagnosed disease. According to the results, the likelihood of tortoises developing pyramidal growth syndrome, which can be used as an indicator of the quality of tortoise husbandry, was high in tortoises kept in a terrarium and/or fed a diet of less than 80% grasses and weeds in summer. This likelihood varied among species, with a higher incidence in Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni).
Article
Background: Amphibians are commonly kept in the UK but are afforded little time in veterinary curricula and are often grouped with reptiles in veterinary texts and continuing professional development resources. While the approach to the amphibian patient shares some similarities with how reptiles are approached, there are significant zoological, biological and clinical differences. A background knowledge of their anatomy, physiology, biology and husbandry is required in order to successfully diagnose and treat illness. Three orders of amphibian exist: the anura (frogs and toads), the caudata or urodela (newts and salamanders) and the gymnophiona (caecilians). Although the number of amphibian species kept and bred in captivity is vast, practitioners in the UK are likely to encounter some species more commonly than others. Aim of the article: This article outlines the veterinary approach to the amphibian patient, discusses some of the diagnostic and therapeutic options available and provides an overview of the most common conditions seen in these species.
Article
Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD) is a clinical sign of a disease called Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (NSHP). This is when there is not enough calcium in the diet and incorrect/insufficient UVB provision, or the calcium:phosphorus (Ca:P) ratio becomes imbalanced, causing the calcium levels in the blood to decrease resulting in hypocalcaemia (low blood calcium). This decrease is detected by the kidneys and the parathyroid gland is alerted to produce parathormone to rebalance the blood calcium levels by removing calcium from the bones to increase the level in the bloodstream.