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U.S. eSports viewers by age group. Source: [40].

U.S. eSports viewers by age group. Source: [40].

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Article
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eSports is a rising modality of sports entertainment in the United States and has growing implications for education. Providing competitive eSports teams in schools satisfies the growing desire to train and educate students on the skills emphasized in STEM and Career Technical Education (CTE) education, as well as in programs such as English and La...

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... additional argument for an emphasis on eSports at a post-secondary level is the demographic of the sport. According to SuperData [40], 15% of eSports viewers are 13-17 years old, and 46% are 18-26 years old, as shown in Figure 1. This data uncovers that over 60% of eSports viewers are either secondary or post-secondary age, with post-secondary-age viewers being the majority. ...
Context 2
... additional argument for an emphasis on eSports at a post-secondary level is the demographic of the sport. According to SuperData [40], 15% of eSports viewers are 13-17 years old, and 46% are 18-26 years old, as shown in Figure 1. This data uncovers that over 60% of eSports viewers are either secondary or post-secondary age, with post-secondary-age viewers being the majority. ...

Citations

... Over 170 colleges in the United States have established varsity esports teams and offer esports players' educational opportunities, including partial or full scholarships (Lyman, 2022). Esports has also found its place in schools, largely influencing the youth (Rothwell and Shaffer, 2019). Additionally, numerous NBA teams have entered the esports race, and even Usain Bolt owns an esports team (Gardner, 2022), perhaps better illustrating esports' global prevalence. ...
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Whether the International Olympic Committee (IOC) ever includes electronic sports (esports) in the official program of the Olympic Games, the popularity of competitive gaming continues to grow—sports present a modern audience powerhouse the world cannot fail to notice. By the end of 2025, the number of viewers in esports is expected to reach 640.8 million and revenue growth of 1,866.2 billion U.S. dollars (Gough, 2022). Over 170 colleges in the United States have established varsity esports teams and offer esports players’ educational opportunities, including partial or full scholarships (Lyman, 2022). Esports has also found its place in schools, largely influencing the youth (Rothwell and Shaffer, 2019). Additionally, numerous NBA teams have entered the esports race, and even Usain Bolt owns an esports team (Gardner, 2022), perhaps better illustrating esports’ global prevalence.
... Another lure of esports for teachers is the opportunity to convert a course from a traditional learning format to game-based learning or task-based learning by using class meetings for 'learning-by-doing' tasks (Hallinger & Bridges, 2017). Moreover, teachers can use esports games to appeal to students in the learning process (Rothwell & Shaffer, 2019). For example, courses related to language instruction through MMOGs might be more engaging and effective than those applying traditional forms of knowledge delivery (Zheng et al., 2012). ...
Article
Esports have increased in popularity among young people over the past decade. There is evidence that involvement in esports helps young players to develop skills that are needed in 21st century societies and increasingly valued by employers. However, there has been no systematic investigation of what 21st century skills can be developed through esports participation and how these skills are acquired through esports. This paper presents a systematic review of the literature for the purpose of providing a holistic understanding of the impact of esports on the development of 21st century skills in young people. The review focuses on the methodologies employed in esports research, the effects of different types of esports games on the development of various skills, the mechanics embodied in esports through which these skills are acquired and the potential negative effects and trade-offs of esports participation. The findings show that the literature has paid most attention to collaboration and communication skills, with less focus on other life and career skills related to creativity and innovation, information literacy and citizenship. The review also reveals the possibility of transferring acquired skills, such as those in leadership and communication, to the real-world context. Further research is needed on the transferability of a wider range of skills from esports to broader settings, on instruments and designs for examining the value of esports for educational purposes, and other areas that are not well covered in the literature. Identifying the skill development potential of esports has implications for designing specific skill development programmes for students, making pedagogical innovations for teachers’ professional development and empowering educational change at the school level.
... The strategic consumption of carbohydrates and adequate doses of caffeine during certain training sessions and tournaments are also excellent nutritional strategies to improve cognitive performance (Stevenson et al. 2009). As video gaming continues to grow and evolve, nutrition will become more important for video game programs (Rothwell & Shaffer, 2019). ...
Article
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This review article aims to synthesize all the observational studies that examined the effects of video gaming on nutritional behaviors. In addition, it is aimed to draw the attention of field academicians and researchers to the issue related to video gaming and to shed light on future observational studies in the field of sports sciences. All peer-reviewed observational studies on the nutritional behaviors of video gamers have been systematically examined and collected. Playing video games or playing them for a long time can have significant consequences on the health of those who play. While interest in video games or online digital games is increasing rapidly, studies focusing on understanding the health risks and benefits associated with them are long overdue. There is a need to develop and evaluate preventive interventions that address the harms video games can cause. Similarly, there are gaps in the evidence on ways to encourage safe and healthy digital gaming among the ever-growing video gamer population. In order to develop evidence-based guidelines and intervention strategies that include nutritional behaviors, these gaps need to be filled with scientific research. Article visualizations: </p
... It is therefore essential to identify the sector's needs in terms of professions, develop appropriate training courses, build relevant educational content, and identify the appropriate contributors [63]. Such an approach would benefit both the staff who supervise the players (from initiation to high level) and the future professionals who will be active in the sector in the coming years [64]. Numerous training programs, whether at the school or university level, have been developed worldwide, mainly in Western Europe and Scandinavia, North America, and Southeast Asia. ...
Article
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Aims: The aim of the paper is to explore emerging themes, which support the development of a sustainable esports industry. Methods and results: This study is based on a workshop methodology, which aims to identify and explore topics perceived as most pertinent by individuals with an intimate understanding of the dynamics of the esports context. Two workshops were held with a total of 64 participants, representing both academia and industry stakeholders. Interpretations of the sustainability of esports were thus recorded, developed, critiqued, and refined through social interaction with experts. The results indicate three critical themes to address regarding the development of sustainability of esports, namely a) health and inclusiveness, b) the incomplete industry structure, and c) the immature business logic. Conclusions: Sustainability refers to the ability of esports to survive or persist. We argue that sustainability is dependent on how well industry stakeholders can address the identified themes. Currently, social sustainability is the primary concern of both practitioners and researchers of esports. Economic sustainability mostly deals with securing business growth, while environmental sustainability is not yet perceived as a relevant topic (e.g., using sustainable technologies and energy-saving related to gaming and competitive events). Structures and processes within esports presently constitute the focus of sustainability in esports.
... Currently, there is limited empirical evidence on the associated benefits of participation in adolescent esports programs. However, research indicates that such programs have the potential to positively impact the development of communication, teamwork, and problem-solving skills (Rothwell and Shaffer, 2019), professional and academic skills, social and emotional learning (Reitman et al., 2020), social belonging and mental health (Tjønndal and Skauge, 2020). In addition, only a small proportion of students enrolled in these programs have report problematic gaming behaviours (e.g., gaming addiction; Ortiz de Gortari, 2019). ...
... The perception among adult e-athletes that PA is not important for performance may be due to the previous lack of developmental esports programs. Current research suggests that PA is becoming a normal part of high school esports program, with high schools in Austria, Norway and the USA including regular PA as part of their esports programs (Rothwell and Shaffer, 2019;Tjønndal and Skauge, 2020;Wimmer et al., 2021). This study seeks to build on the findings of previous literature by exploring the frequency of which e-athletes enrolled in a high school esports program are physically active and compare their PA levels with an aged-matched control group. ...
Article
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This study examined the influence of 7 high school esports developmental programs on student self-regulation, growth mindset, positive youth development (PYD), perceived general health and physical activity (PA), and sport behaviour. A total of 188 students (male n = 120; female n = 68) originally participated (89 enrolled in an esports program in their school and 99 acted as aged-matched controls), with 58 participants (n = 19 esports group; n = 39 controls) completing both pre-and post-program information. At baseline, no significant differences were found between youth e-athletes and their aged-matched controls. The analysis for the observation period showed a significant interaction effect for the PYD confidence scale, with post-hoc comparisons showing a significant decrease in the control group from pre-to post assessment whereas the esports group remained the same. Time main effects showed a decrease in the self-regulation motivation factor, PYD connection factor and PA for all participants. Overall, this study showed that students enrolled in their respective school esports program did not differ from those who did not in self-regulation, growth mindset, PYD, perceived health and PA, and sport behaviour. It was likely that all participants showed a decrease in motivation, connection, and PA due to COVID19 lockdown during the study period. This study is the first to investigate the longitudinal impact of student involvement in high school esports and showed that esports participation did not have a negative impact on any health or psychological factors.
... There is considerable potential in the 'deep learning culture' that exists in esports teams [23] should it be exploited in educational contexts. Particularly, in learning transferable skills desired by employers in many domains [115]. ...
... First, there could be an opportunity to use esports to train SRL skills that could then transfer to academic contexts. Existing work has already demonstrated that esports play can improve players' emotional regulation (Wu et al., 2021), fine motor skills (Toth et al., 2021), and academic performance (Rothwell and Shaffer, 2019). As such, esports have seen increased adoption as extracurricular activities in schools (Cho et al., 2019;Lee et al., 2020). ...
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Self-regulated learning (SRL) is a form of learning guided by the student's own meta-cognition, motivation, and strategic action, often in the absence of an educator. The use of SRL processes and skills has been demonstrated across numerous academic and non-academic contexts including athletics. However, manifestation of these processes within esports has not been studied. Similar to traditional athletes, esports players' performance is likely correlated with their ability to engage SRL skills as they train. Thus, the study of SRL in the context of esports would be valuable in supporting players' learning and mastery of play through specialized training and computational support. Further, an understanding of how SRL manifests in esports would highlight new opportunities to use esports in education. Existing work on SRL in games, however, predominantly focuses on educational games. In this work, we aim to take a first step in the study of SRL in esports by replicating Kitsantas and Zimmerman's (2002) volleyball study in the context of League of Legends. We compared the self-regulatory processes of expert, non-expert, and novice League of Legends players, and found that there were significant differences for processes in the forethought phase. We discuss three implications of these findings: what they mean for the development of future computational tools for esports players, implications that esports may be able to teach SRL skills that transfer to academics, and what educational technology can learn from esports to create more effective tools.
... But nowadays, with the emergence of live-streaming services like Twitch, esports has become a large-scale spectator sports which has proliferated throughout the world via the internet. Some competitions draw spectators ranging from 10,000-20,000 viewers, to over 70,000 viewers for some of the more popular games, such as Fortnite (Rothwell & Shaffer, 2019). The Internet of Things (IoT) has broken the traditional rules of watching sport events and can motivate massive numbers of spectators to enjoy online tournaments just like traditional sports events. ...
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The internet transcends time and space providing dynamic opportunities for communication during the COVID-19 pandemic, which bodes well for the practice of physical distancing in most countries worldwide. Sports fans and players, affected by the cancellation of physical tournaments started shifting to virtual gaming tournaments and esports as the most viable alternative. In this context, sports-related news media outlets in Indonesia have paid more attention to esports and its related events. This research aims to examine the different perspectives of esports as reported by three selected online news portals in Indonesia during the lockdown (social limitation) period, namely Indosport.com, Detik.com, and Viva.co.id. Based on Fairhurst and Sarr's Framing Theory and their seven tools, the researchers analysed news stories from these selected news portals using the qualitative content analysis method. The present study, focusing on PUBG Mobile Pro League Indonesia (PMPL ID) Season 1, reveals a high level of user engagement with video games and esports. The study identifies a neutral perspective whereby the news media outlets reported that the match can be watched through online streaming platforms during the lockdown period. Additionally, the constructive perspective focused on the stimulation and awareness of the public to watch livestreams and support via donations. Conversely, the deconstructive perspective highlighted the unfulfilled expectations of public by the organisers.
... Supporting traditional sports is a well-known practice, but there is a rising trend of providing sponsorships to eSport teams [16,17]. The popularity of tournaments that are considered to be eSports is drastically raising in the abovementioned age groups [18]. In 2017, Twitch, a live streaming platform for gamers, had a higher viewership when compared to CNN and MSNBC, and had a viewership that was to similar to ESPN at any given time [19]. ...
Article
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The rise in energy drink (ED) intake in the general population and athletes has been achieved with smart and effective marketing strategies. There is a robust base of evidence showing that adolescents are the main consumers of EDs. The prevalence of ED usage in this group ranges from 52% to 68%, whilst in adults is estimated at 32%. The compositions of EDs vary widely. Caffeine content can range from 75 to 240 mg, whereas the average taurine quantity is 342.28 mg/100 mL. Unfortunately, exact amounts of the other ED elements are often not disclosed by manufacturers. Caffeine and taurine in doses 3–6 mg/kg and 1–6 g, respectively, appear to be the main ergogenic elements. However, additive or synergic properties between them seem to be implausible. Because of non-unified protocol design, presented studies show inconsistency between ED ingestion and improved physical performance. Potential side effects caused by abusive consumption or missed contraindications are the aspects that are the most often overlooked by consumers and not fully elucidated by ED producers. In this review, the authors aimed to present the latest scientific information on ED components and their possible impact on improving physical performance as well as to bring emphasis to the danger of inordinate consumption.
... One area of esports research that has received increased attention in recent years is esports programming in schools and educational environments. Rothwell and Shaffer (2019) examined note that esports programs help students develop a variety of valuable skills. They note that as students work with one another, coordinate actions, and develop and implement strategies, players utilize and develop skills including communication, teamwork, and high- While scholars have examined esports in a variety of ways (Reitman et al., 2020), there is limited research that examines esports from a literacy perspective (Gerber, 2017). ...
... These findings complement the work of scholars such as Rothwell and Shaffer (2019) who found that esports can help people develop important skills such as communication, teamwork, and high-pressure problem-solving. Further research examining the intricacies and types of cooperative and prosocial behavior in esports and game environments would be a valuable addition to digital literacies literature. ...
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While scholars have examined various ways that video games can promote learning and influence communication, limited research has examined the literacy and communication practices of esports teams. This study utilizes a content analysis methodology to examine the literacy and communication patterns of two esports teams who competitively play the popular video game Rocket League, a soccer-like game in which players control vehicles and try to hit a ball into their opponents' goal. Findings demonstrate that the esports teams utilize both oral and written communication in a variety of ways in their esports endeavors. The primary types of oral communication the teams used related to strategy, encouragement, and general commentary, and the primary types of written language included pre-game schedules, in-game and post-game chat, and post-game stats. Ultimately, this study demonstrates how esports teams engage in communication and literacy practices as they cooperate with their teammates and compete against their opponents.