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UCSB's Open Data instance 27 leverages ArcGIS Online

UCSB's Open Data instance 27 leverages ArcGIS Online

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Article
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Academic libraries have always supported research across disciplines by integrating access to diverse contents and resources. They now have the opportunity to reinvent their role in facilitating interdisciplinary work by offering researchers new ways of sharing, curating, discovering, and linking research data. Spatial data and metadata support thi...

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... In the last few decades, demand and production of spatial data such as maps, images, and other geographically referenced data have been increasing continuously among different government and private agencies (Klinkenberg 2003). For efficacious discovery and access of spatial data, it is necessary to develop metadata documentation (Brovelli et al. 2019;Lafia et al. 2016;Wohner et al. 2019) which will also promote the sharing of spatial data between organizations (Greenberg 2005;Ma 2006;Foresman 2008). Metadata refers to "data about data" (Vaduva and Dittrich 2001) and the metadata related to spatial data contains information like projection, scale, resolution, reliability, data provider, and distribution policy (Leyk et al. 2019). ...
Article
Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is a framework of geospatial data, metadata, and users that primarily function for the production and sharing of large geospatial data. Metadata refers to “data about data” and the metadata related to spatial data contains information like projection, scale, resolution, reliability, data provider, and distribution policy. Metadata is a key component of National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) of all nations as this aims to provide data discovery and access. The metadata standard of Indian NSDI is based upon standards taken from existing international standards like FGDC, ANZLIC, Dublin Core, and CSDGM. The drawbacks faced by Indian NSDI include duplication of metadata elements; non-availability of automatic metadata generation capability and metadata standard template; duplication of effort and time in the generation of metadata over the data server and catalogue server separately; and catalogue repository updates in future. To address challenges faced in Indian NSDI and the existing research gap, the present study is undertaken to develop novel metadata standard and framework for modifying and generation of metadata elements automatically using Open Source Software (OSS) for Indian NSDI. The proposed Indian NSDI metadata standard is more efficient as well as the modified metadata elements are more compatible with the other metadata standards. The developed framework for automatic metadata generation is based on the principle of three tier client–server architecture. These concepts are then implemented efficaciously for developing a prototype model of public health SDI for Prayagraj city (acronym GeoMeta4Health) using OSS. The functionality of GeoMeta4Health will help in the search, discovery, access, and visualization of geospatial data and metadata. This research will help geospatial communities not only to generate metadata automatically but also to expand and exchange their geospatial data in a wider domain.
... The ability to automatically extract and spatially represent this geographic information would enable researchers to organize and find information using not just keywords but also spatial criteria, as is done for other types of text using Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR) techniques [10]. Organizing and visualizing scientific corpora by space would facilitate geographically-aware meta-analyses [11], enable studies to be cross-referenced by location [12,13], and allow for the discovery of geographical research gaps such as understudied regions in a particular scientific discipline [14,15]. Though scientific articles have become a frequent object of study for researchers, common research objectives are to analyze and visualize (often large) article collections [16][17][18], and to extract or summarize specific information from publications through text mining, usually in a particular domain such as biomedical research [19,20]. ...
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Scientific articles often contain relevant geographic information such as where field work was performed or where patients were treated. Most often, this information appears in the full-text article contents as a description in natural language including place names, with no accompanying machine-readable geographic metadata. Automatically extracting this geographic information could help conduct meta-analyses, find geographical research gaps, and retrieve articles using spatial search criteria. Research on this problem is still in its infancy, with many works manually processing corpora for locations and few cross-domain studies. In this paper, we develop a fully automatic pipeline to extract and represent relevant locations from scientific articles, applying it to two varied corpora. We obtain good performance, with full pipeline precision of 0.84 for an environmental corpus, and 0.78 for a biomedical corpus. Our results can be visualized as simple global maps, allowing human annotators to both explore corpus patterns in space and triage results for downstream analysis. Future work should not only focus on improving individual pipeline components, but also be informed by user needs derived from the potential spatial analysis and exploration of such corpora.
... However, the growth of the spatial humanities, the spatial turn in digital humanities and the history of sciences, has led to efforts to create large-scale databases of geographic references in historical documents [18,54,23]. Furthermore, spatial search has been proposed as a way of organizing and discovering scientific research objects [28]. A significant body of research has also focused on modeling locations with web text data, especially shorter microblog text, and ranking locations given a query [45,53,27,3]. ...
Article
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Domain-based learning and research are important applications driving the development of exploratory search systems. A wealth of historical information about events from around the world resides within documents on the web, yet contemporary search engines do not take advantage of the closely integrated temporal and spatial information found within these web pages for indexing and design of search user interfaces. This gap limits the use of the web as a resource for historical and geohistorical information seeking. In this paper we propose chronotopic information interaction as a new interaction concept for web search that explicitly links temporal and spatial entities to keywords using a space-time grid index and a paired search user interface. The space-time grid index allows different modes of interaction between spatial, temporal, and keyword-based views in the search user interface. We demonstrate use of the space-time grid index and chronotopic information interaction concept with the development of Pteraform, a prototype of a search engine that enables users to explore information in the English version of Wikipedia through a geo-historical lens.
... While libraries have long been the traditional brokers of knowledge, today's queries are largely mediated by commercial digital search engines [12]. Yet, libraries are taking on new roles, facilitating discovery, and often co-production, of knowledge [8]. Semantically annotated data can be more easily discovered and retrieved via queries that traverse knowledge graphs, regardless of the endpoints where they are hosted. ...
Conference Paper
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We describe a method and system design for improved data discovery in an integrated network of open geospatial data that supports collaborative policy development between governments and local constituents. Metadata about civic data (such as thematic categories, user-generated tags, geo-references, or attribute schemata) primarily rely on technical vocabularies that reflect scientific or organizational hierarchies. By contrast, public consumers of data often search for information using colloquial terminology that does not align with official metadata vocabularies. For example, citizens searching for data about bicycle collisions in an area are unlikely to use the search terms with which organizations like Departments of Transportation describe relevant data. Users may also search with broad terms, such as “traffic safety”, and will then not discover data tagged with narrower official terms, such as “vehicular crash”. This mismatch raises the question of how to bridge the users’ ways of talking and searching with the language of technical metadata. In similar situations, it has been beneficial to augment official metadata with semantic annotations that expand the discoverability and relevance recommendations of data, supporting more inclusive access. Adopting this strategy, we develop a method for automated semantic annotation, which aggregates similar thematic and geographic information. A novelty of our approach is the development and application of a crosscutting base vocabulary that supports the description of geospatial themes. The resulting annotation method is integrated into a novel open access collaboration platform (Esri’s ArcGIS Hub) that supports public dissemination of civic data and is in use by thousands of government agencies. Our semantic annotation method improves data discovery for users across organizational repositories and has the potential to facilitate the coordination of community and organizational work, improving the transparency and efficacy of government policies.
... Lafia, S., Jablonski, J., Kuhn, W., Cooley, S., & Medrano, F. A. (2016). Spatial discovery and the research library. ...
Article
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It has been a decade since Tim Berners-Lee coined Linked Data in 2006. More and more Linked Data datasets have been made available for information retrieval on the Web. It is essential for librarians, especially academic librarians, to keep up with the state of Linked Data. There is so much information about Linked Data that one may wonder where to begin when they want to join the Linked Data community. With this in mind, the author compiled this annotated bibliography as a starter kit. Due to the many resources available, this list focuses on literature in English only and of specific projects, case studies, research studies, and tools that may be helpful to academic librarians, in addition to the overview of Linked Data concept and the current state of Linked Data evolution and adoption.
... INSPIRE, NSDI), discovery (e.g. SPIRIT (Jones et al. 2004) and the Alexandria Digital Library (Lafia et al. 2016)), and commercial cartography (e.g. Mapbox ™ , Cartodb ™ , Mapzen ™ , and Stamen ™ ). ...
Article
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Location data from social network posts are attractive for answering all sorts of questions by spatial analysis. However, it is often unclear what this information locates. Is it a point of interest (POI), the device at the time of posting, or something else? As a result, locational references in posts may get misinterpreted. For example, a restaurant check-in on Facebook only locates that POI. But, check-ins have been used to locate their poster, their poster’s home, or where the posting event occurred. Furthermore, post metadata terms like place and location are ambiguous, making information integration difficult. Consequently, analysts may not be using the correct locational references pertinent to their questions. In this paper, we attempt to clarify and systematize what can be located within social network post metadata. We examine locational references in post metadata documentation from several social networks. We identify three common groups of locatable things: places recorded in a poster’s profile, devices, and points of interest. We posit that these groups can be described using The World Wide Web Consortium’s (W3C) provenance ontology (PROV) – in particular, PROV’s agent, activity, and entity concepts. Next, we encode example post metadata with these descriptions, and show how they support answering questions such as which country’s citizens take the most Flickr photos of the Eiffel Tower? The theoretical contribution of this work is a taxonomy of locatable things derived from social network posts, and a tool-supported method for describing them to users.
... networks provide a suitable conceptual infrastructure to organize, integrate, and search geographic information (Kuhn, 2012). Geospatial information has also been proposed as a facilitator for discovery and interdisciplinary collaboration in the context of scientific libraries (Lafia, Jablonski, Kuhn, Cooley, & Medrano, 2016). ...
Article
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Searching for information is a ubiquitous activity, performed in a variety of contexts and supported by rapidly evolving technologies. As a process, information search often has a spatial aspect: spatial metaphors help users refer to abstract contents, and geo-referenced information grounds entities in physical space. While information search is a major research topic in computer science, GIScience and cognitive psychology, this intrinsic spatiality has not received enough attention. This article reviews research opportunities at the crossroad of three research strands, which are (1) computational, (2) geospatial, and (3) cognitive. The articles in this special issue focus on interface design for spatio-temporal information, on the search for qualitative spatial configurations, and on a big-data analysis of the spatial relation “near”.
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This scientific review paper aims at challenging a common point of view on metadata as a necessary evil and something mandatory to the data creating and dataset publishing process. Metadata are instead presented as a crucial element to ensure the findability of data services and repositories. This paper describes a way through four levels of metadata management and publication, from default unstructured data, through schema-based metadata with literal values and/or URIs, towards linked open (meta)data providing explicit linkage between reliable data resources. Such research was conducted within the European Union's project PoliVisu. Special attention is given to the following: (1) guidance on publication aimed at the broad audience of search engine users and (2) the publication of geo (meta)data not only via standard technologies, such as the OGC Catalogue Service for Web and open data portals, but also through leading search engines (that are Schema.org-based).
Article
Where does one look to study cities around the world? How does a librarian build a collection that moves beyond a limited Western focus to incorporate post-colonial and indigenous experiences? And how can such analysis be automated to allow practitioners at disparate institutions to diversify their own collections? These questions are important as Urban Planning tries to incorporate a variety of practices in human settlement from across the world. Building on previous research related to an Urban Planning book collection, this study uses GIS analysis to address DEI questions on a global scale by highlighting disparities in scholarly focus. By analyzing the geographic subject content of top journal articles in the field of Urban Planning in comparison to books within the library, the study examines ways that a collection can address gaps in analysis of human settlements around the world, especially in the global south. These analyses are then used to guide collection development, building a global focus in the book collection, filling in gaps that may arise from limits in the current journal coverage. Material is analyzed both in the specific collection, but also in the larger scholarly community, comparing the specific gaps in the collection to larger gaps in the scholarship of Urban Planning. In addition to the primary study, this article includes details about using Excel macros for textual analysis of a corpus of metadata, with instructions for how to use these open-source macros to do analysis at a variety of institutions.