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Types of prepregs-fibers and specifications of composites

Types of prepregs-fibers and specifications of composites

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Nowadays, glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites are broadly used so it is essential their properties to be explored in depth. In this study, GFRPs and CFRPs were produced by vacuum bag oven method and their viscoelastic behaviour at elevated temperatures was investigated. In particular, by Dynam...

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In this study, tensile tests are performed under quasi-static loading on neat epoxy and for different laminate configurations [(0/90), (0/90/30/–60), (0/90/45/–45) and (30/–60/60/–30)] of glass/epoxy, carbon/epoxy and cross ply interply hybrid (glass/carbon/epoxy) composites. A camera-based advanced image processing technique called as digital imag...

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... Using DMS6100 DMA machine (SII nanotechnology, Japan) we find the mechanical properties [storage modulus, loss modulus etc] of the CFRP samples [17][18]. iv. ...
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Icing is one of the critical factors that affects the flight of the aircraft in ways of drag. In this study, the rate of de-icing was experimented with the composite material using Boron Nitride Nano Powder (BNNP) and Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO). Boron Nitride are highly thermal conductive and lesser toxic, and Graphene allows to be a good conductor of heat and electricity and thereby, these nanomaterials are used as a filler for de-icing application. The filler is mixed in Epoxy Resin using ultrasonicator. In order to get better specimen surface of composite, ultrasonic mixing method is used instead of hand-mixing. To fabricate Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Hand Lay-up Method is carried out. The material characterization is done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Mechanical properties are studied with Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Water Droplet test. Moreover, the Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer surface shows extraordinary de-icing effect contrasted with the non-functionalized surface. This study has proved that the de-icing property is very much effective with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer where Graphene and Boron Nitride as the filler.
... In the author's previous research work [14], the effect of the orientation of unidirectional glass fibers in the longitudinal or transverse direction and woven glass fibers at 0°(fibers at 0°/90°) or at 45°(fibers at −45°/ +45°) in epoxy matrix composites was investigated. In this study, through the vacuum bag oven method and by using prepreg materials, ten kinds of glass or carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites were fabricated. ...
... In this study, through the vacuum bag oven method and by using prepreg materials, ten kinds of glass or carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites were fabricated. The results revealed that the unidirectional glass fibers when they are placed in the longitudinal direction contribute toward the epoxy matrix composite to exhibit higher storage modulus and loss modulus than if they are placed in the transverse direction, and that as the volume fraction of glass fibers in an epoxy matrix composite increases, these composites exhibit higher storage and loss modulus [14]. ...
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In this study, aramid fiber-reinforced polymer (AFRP) composites were prepared and then postcured under specific heating/cooling rates. By dynamic mechanical analysis, the viscoelastic properties of the AFRP composites at elevated temperatures and under various frequencies were determined. Thermomechanical analysis (TMA), in the modes of creep-recovery and stress–relaxation tests, was also performed. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry was also used, and the decomposition of the AFRP composites, aramid fibers, and pure postcured epoxy, in two different atmospheres, namely, air atmosphere and nitrogen (N 2 ) atmosphere, was explored by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). From this point of view, the aramid fibers showed remarkably thermal resistance, in N 2 atmosphere, and the volume fraction of fibers (Φ f ) was calculated to be Φ f = 51%. In the TGA experiments, the postcured AFRP composites showed very good thermal resistance, both in air and N 2 atmosphere, and this characteristic in conjunction with their relatively high T g , which is in the range of 85–95°C, depending on the frequency and the determination method, classifies these composites as potential materials in applications where the resistance in high temperatures is a required characteristic.
... Since the shift factor obtained in the previous acceleration test was mainly due to the post-curing of the polymer matrix, it was necessary to confirm whether this shift factor can be applied to different orientations with the same fiber volume fraction. For this reason, the storage modulus obtained from validation tests was lower than that from acceleration test and the glass transition temperature was also decreased, as reported in a literature [56]. It was confirmed that the prediction model based on acceleration test can be applied to polymer composite regardless of fiber orientation because there was no significant difference the five validation sets. ...
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The design and fabrication of lightweight polymer composites with improved thermal and mechanical properties have been a good research focus in the recent years. In comparison with conventional materials, the composite materials have high strength and stiffness. Low‐density polyethylene composites (LDPE) were prepared using carbon fiber, Kevlar fiber, and glass fiber as reinforcements via compression molding. The physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the fabricated composites were investigated to find the effects of fibers on the properties of the composites. It was observed that the carbon fiber‐reinforced composites had the highest mechanical properties in comparison with other composites. This was due to the stronger interface bonding between the bidirectional layer of fibers and polymer matrix. In water absorption study, a significant increase in weight was observed for the Kevlar fiber‐reinforced composites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed the thermal stability of the fabricated polymer composites. In conclusion, the studies provide experimental evidence for making use of the composite technology toward the development of high impact and more efficient smart materials for advanced sustainable applications in automobile, construction, and many other engineering sectors.
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The environmental awareness and rapid development in the area of material science attracted the researchers into natural based materials on account of their chemical resistance, ease of fabrication, low density, specific strength, inexpensiveness and favourable mechanical properties. However, some cellulose fibres extracted from natural sources have somewhat high mechanical properties nearer to those of synthetic fibres. Composites using natural fibres as reinforcement have shown favourable results. These natural fiber reinforced composites often considered as high performance reinforcements in polymer composites. DMA had become important for both industry and academia. DMA is an effective thermal analysis tool for the determination of elastic nature of a composite material with respect to of time, frequency, temperature and combination of these. A dynamic mechanical analysis utilizes applied force and deformation data to evaluate the stiffness changes in a material under varied temperatures. DMA measures elastic nature with reference to storage modulus (E’), loss modulus (E”), damping factor (Tan delta) and glass transition temperature (Tg). These properties will be very helpful to measure the performance characteristics of polymer composite materials including both thermosets and thermoplastics. Now a days, most effective and flexible DMA instruments under different modes are available. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) is currently used by rubber manufacturers to study the performance of their materials. For the purposes of industrial testing as well as for research and development, DMA is recognized as a highly informative characterisation technique. DMA curves depicts variation of dynamic moduli and damping in glassy or rubbery regions. The current review studies the effect of natural fibres on dynamic mechanical properties of polymer composites. Many results exhibited that inclusion of natural fibres with polymers tends to increase the elastic nature of the polymer matrix.
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This paper presents Dynamic mechanical behaviour of polymer Nano composites reinforced with various weight percentages of polymer and Nano particles and effect of Nano particles with polymer. The Graphene and Nano silica were used as fillers with epoxy resin. The Nano composite plates were prepared using cold compression moulding technique. Finally, the prepared composite plates were sized in laser cutting according to ASTM standards and subjected to DMA test. A series of dynamic mechanical tests were performed for prepared composites over a range of testing temperatures. Test frequency was kept constant. The dynamic mechanical properties of prepared Nano composites were studied by recording storage modulus, loss modulus, tan δ and glass transition temperature (Tg). It was found that the storage modulus (E’) recorded was decreasing with increasing temperature. The loss modulus (E”) and damping peaks (Tan δ) values were found to be increased with increasing in temperature up to certain value and beyond certain temperature it was found to be decreased. Also, the loss modulus (E”) and damping peaks (Tan δ) values were found to be reduced with increasing reinforcements whereas Tg decreases as reinforcements increase.
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The curing kinetics can influence the final macroscopic properties, particularly the three-point bending of the fiber-reinforced composite materials. In this research, the curing kinetics of commercially available glass fiber/epoxy resin prepregs were studied by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The curing kinetic parameters were obtained by fitting and the apparent activation energy Ea of the prepreg, the pre-exponent factor, and the reaction order value obtained. A phenomenological nth-order curing reaction kinetic model was established according to Kissinger equation and Crane equation. Furthermore, the optimal curing temperature of the prepregs was obtained by the T-β extrapolation method. A vacuum hot pressing technique was applied to prepare composite laminates. The pre-curing, curing, and post-curing temperatures were 116, 130, and 153 °C respectively. In addition, three-point bending was used to test the specimens’ fracture behavior, and the surface morphology was analyzed. The results show that the differences in the mechanical properties of the samples are relatively small, indicating that the process settings are reasonable.
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An investigation of the effect of simultaneous thermal and mechanical loads on the compaction-creep-thickness recovery response of uncured prepreg system is essential to have a better understanding of the conditions applied during autoclave and out-of-autoclave processes. Compaction response mimics the mold closure effect, creep response mimics the dwell effect and thickness recovery response of the prepregs mimics the spring-back effect. However, there are almost no studies available to compare the void transport within prepregs for pristine (before compaction) and compacted (after spring-back) states using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) aided geometrical models. This study aims to analyze the thermo-mechanical compaction-creep-recovery response of 4- and 8-layers glass fiber uncured prepreg system. The target compaction pressures used were 0.1 and 0.3 MPa, applied at four different temperatures (25, 50, 80 and 100°C). The thickness of the specimens was measured at different time and based on these values, percentage of compaction, creep and permanent deformation were determined. XCT aided geometrical models were generated for the pristine and tested states to determine the void volume ratio and void counts. The decrease in thickness values at the target load is observed to be lower at 25°C than at 100°C, which confirms the higher initial compaction occurs at high temperatures. At room temperature, 4-layer specimens showed higher creep percentage at both pressures and offered more fibrous level changes compared to 8-layers. The creep percentage was found to decrease as the number of layers increased at low temperatures whereas the opposite trend was found at higher temperatures. Void maps indicated that friction between the fabric layers increases at higher temperatures (80 and 100°C) during resin bleed out which leads to low creep percentage in the 4-layer specimens as compared to 8-layer specimens.