Figure 1 - uploaded by M. Arif
Content may be subject to copyright.
Types of off-site construction 

Types of off-site construction 

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to establish manufactured construction as a good potential alternative to meet the growing housing needs of China. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses literature review and case study as research methodologies. Literature review is used to identify the need for housing and establish the manufacturing...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... philosophy behind manufactured construction is that the amount of effort needed to achieve the same result would be significantly less if some activities are moved to a manufacturing Offsite construction in China facility rather than being performed on a construction site where the workers will be exposed to the elements. Gibb and Isack (2003) classify manufactured construction into four categories as depicted in Figure 1. ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Purpose This research aims to investigate how preference for marketing research methodology (quantitative vs qualitative) is contingent on the thinking orientation (analytic vs holistic) of the researchers. Design/methodology/approach Thinking orientation was measured and then manipulated in laboratory experiments. Cross-cultural evidence was soug...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Purpose This paper aims to develop a framework to incorporate Risk Management (RM) into the design process as an approach towards reducing risks associated with building adaptive reuse. Design/methodology/approach To achieve this aim, a research methodology is designed to achieve four objectives.  Reviewing literature related to the design process...

Citations

... Although existing research efforts have provided important knowledge on factors affecting labor productivity in stick-built construction methods, many studies have substantiated that there are major differences between traditional on-site construction and offsite construction methods, including design, production, transportation, and construction aspects (Chen and Samarasinghe 2020;Durdyev and Ismail 2019). These differences have been attributed to the fact that many of the activities performed by the workforce in offsite construction facilities are different from those performed in traditional construction, including the nature of the performed works by the workforce, because offsite construction bears more resemblance to manufacturing production lines (John et al. 2022); equipment and tools used by the labor force (Pahuja and Shahzad 2022), because many offsite construction tasks are semi-or fully automated (Zhang et al. 2016); working conditions of the workforce, because offsite construction laborers operate in a controlled environment or facility (Arif and Egbu 2010); the type of skills required by the workforce, because offsite construction labor does not necessitate skill-intensive profiles or trades but rather more digitalized skills (Ginigaddara et al. 2021a); and safety threats and accidents affecting construction works, because the nature of safety hazards and incidents in offsite construction is different than it is in traditional construction (Fard et al. 2017). All the aforementioned factors substantiate the fact that offsite construction redefines the relationship between construction methods and the quantification or ranking of factors affecting labor productivity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Offsite construction has been shown to possess many advantages and benefits in dealing with the construction industry's challenges, which include poor labor productivity. Nevertheless, all previous productivity-related research studies have focused mainly on factors impacting labor productivity in traditional stick-built construction methods. This paper filled this knowledge gap by following a multistep interrelated research methodology. First, a research team of 19 construction professionals and academics developed and distributed an industry survey to (1) quantify the likelihood of occurrence and relative impact of risk factors that adversely impact labor productivity in offsite construction projects; (2) identify and prioritize key risk factors that adversely affect labor productivity in offsite construction operations ; and (3) examine how labor productivity risk factors are perceived by various project stakeholders. Second, different statistical analysis tests and methods (i.e., internal and external reliability, statistically significant differences, clustering analysis, and concordance analysis) were used to critically analyze the results and draw conclusions. Based on a total of 100 responses and 20 labor productivity risk factors, the findings reflected that the top five risk factors adversely affecting labor productivity in offsite construction projects included (1) unskilled labor and improper workforce training and development; (2) poor logistics; (3) errors, omissions, and rework; (4) work area congestion and overcrowding; and (5) insufficient coordination. Also, the findings indicated that labor productivity factors can be clustered into two groups: factors with high overall risk and factors with low overall risk on offsite construction labor productivity; 80% of the risk factors were found to fall into the first category. The results of this study also reflected the need for offsite construction companies and industry practitioners to carefully establish mitigation plans and corrective actions for the identified key risk factors adversely affecting offsite construction labor productivity. This study adds to the body of knowledge by exploring and ranking productivity factors in offsite construction projects. Ultimately, this study will help the industry and research communities better understand factors affecting offsite construction labor productivity, more effectively direct future efforts to enhance labor performance, and devise productivity improvement strategies.
... Offsite construction (OSC) is the manufacturing of buildings or functional elements of buildings to be transported and erected onsite. From the pyramid construction in prehistoric ages (Arif and Egbu, 2010) to assembling multi-storey buildings within hours, OSC has evolved up to greater extents (Bendi et al., 2022). Among the plethora of research that has been conducted on OSC, people, process and technological improvements have received special attention (Goulding and Pour Rahimian, 2020). ...
... Components (e.g. trusses and light fittings) are non-volumetric elements of any shape or size and will never be considered to construct onsite (Arif and Egbu, 2010). Panels (e.g. ...
... Qualitative research based on case studies allows in-depth evaluation of a specific subject area (Arif and Egbu, 2010;Bendi et al., 2022). The research methodology constitutes of case studies, and Figure 1 presents the research methodology followed in the current study. ...
Article
Purpose: Industry 4.0 is exacerbating the need for offsite construction (OSC) adoption, and this rapid transformation is pushing the boundaries of construction skills towards extensive modernisation. The adoption of this modern production strategy by the construction industry would redefine the position of OSC. This study aims to examine whether the existing skills are capable of satisfying the needs of different OSC types. Design/methodology/approach: A critical literature review evaluated the impact of transformative technology on OSC skills. An existing industry standard OSC skill classification was used as the basis to develop a master list that recognises emerging and diminishing OSC skills. The master list recognises 67 OSC skills under six skill categories: managers, professionals, technicians and trade workers, clerical and administrative workers, machinery operators and drivers and labourers. The skills data was extracted from a series of 13 case studies using document reviews and semi-structured interviews with project stakeholders. Findings: The multiple case study evaluation recognised 13 redundant skills and 16 emerging OSC skills such as architects with building information modelling and design for manufacture and assembly knowledge, architects specialised in design and logistics integration, advanced OSC technical skills, factory operators, OSC estimators, technicians for three dimensional visualisation and computer numeric control operators. Interview findings assessed the current state and future directions for OSC skills development. Findings indicate that the prevailing skills are not adequate to readily relocate construction activities from onsite to offsite. Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research is one of the first studies that recognises the major differences in skill requirements for non-volumetric and volumetric OSC types.
... Prefabrication is an innovative construction method designed to minimize the construction activities on-site and transfer many activities to the factory to ensure about the development of a product with higher quality, safety, and a shorter project delivery time [37]. The major difference between a prefabricated system and a conventional building system is that a large part of the building components is produced outside the construction site in the prefabricated system [38][39], and prefabrication is also safer and more environment-friendly compared to conventional construction, so This technology suits different types of construction projects [40]. Prefabrication is a highly beneficial approach with numerous advantages such as the short project delivery time, higher quality, higher control over the construction activities, workers' safety and improvement, environment-friendliness, and lower project costs [41]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prefabrication in construction industry can probably reduce the cost of waste. In this research, the advantages and disadvantages of prefabrication and its eco-efficiency were identified; then the development strategies of this industry were reviewed. For this purpose, the questionnaires were used to select the proper sub-systems for prefabrication. The Delphi Snowball method was applied according to experts 'opinion, and these questionnaires were identified and adopted. Then the effect of prefabrication on nonstructural components was examined on the extent of waste reduction. Consequently, the results revealed that prefabrication may reduce the cost of waste by 97.54% and the total cost of the project by 5.06%, and environmental efficiency was estimated as 99.2%.
... OSC is the manufacturing of buildings or functional elements of buildings in a factory to be transported and assembled onsite (Blismas, et al., 2009;Goh and Loosemore, 2016). OSC has always been a part of traditional construction as some building elements such as doors, windows and light fittings are not constructed onsite by any means (Arif and Egbu, 2010;Gibb, 2001). However, Industry 4.0 and its technological advancements have influenced OSC to the extent that the entire building may be manufactured in a factory to be simply transported and fixed onsite (Ginigaddara, et al., 2019;MADI, 2021). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Industry 4.0 driven technological advancements have accelerated the uptake of Offsite Construction (OSC), causing the need for re-skilling, up-skilling, and multi-skilling traditional onsite construction skills and competencies. The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that predicts OSC skills as a response to the OSC demand. The paper is a theoretical presentation of a skill profile prediction model which introduces the key concepts, OSC typology, OSC skill classification and their relationships. Components, panels, pods, modules, and complete buildings represent the OSC typology. Managers, professionals, technicians, and trade workers, clerical and administration workers, machine operators and drivers, and labourers constitute the OSC skill classification. The conceptual model takes the OSC project parameters: gross floor area, OSC value percentage and skill quantities as input and provides predicted skill variations as the output. The skills are quantified in "manhours/m2" under six skill categories, for five distinct OSC types. As such, the research presents a comprehensive conceptual model for the development of an OSC skills predictor to capture the skill variations and demand in a construction market moving towards rapid industrialisation. The research contributes to the existing body of knowledge by identifying the key concepts, parameters, and mutual relationships of those parameters that are needed to develop a realistic prediction of future trends of OSC skills.
... Such improved productivity is, in turn, associated with reduced weather-related impacts and less exposure to onsite hazards (O'Connor et al. 2015). Other reasons may include reduced delays related to onsite commissioning and testing (Arif and Egbu 2010), decreased workplace congestion (CII 2011), less interference among the various activities (Choi and Song 2014), less rework (Hwang et al. 2018), and minimized onsite plastering, tiling, and scaffolding work in modular projects (Tam and Hao 2014). In addition, the easier incorporation of advanced and modern technologies is perceived to promote further the schedule benefits of modularization in construction projects (Altaf et al. 2018). ...
Article
Various studies developed models and decision support tools to assess the feasibility and optimize the use of modularization. However, none has explored the schedule benefits of modular construction. This paper fills this knowledge gap. To this end, the authors completed the following: (1) analyzed the criticalities of the various modular risk factors on potential schedule savings using data collected from 48 industry professionals, (2) investigated the schedule savings associated with the use of modularization using data collected from 68 modular construction projects, and (3) developed an interrelated assessment model to calculate the schedule savings of using modularization. The provided model was verified using extreme conditions, surprised behavior tests, and sensitivity analysis. Also, it was validated by industry experts. The results show that design and engineering issues, regulatory and organizational matters, and resources and technology aspects are among the top parameters affecting schedule savings of modularized construction projects. This research adds to the body of knowledge by developing a decision-making benchmark that can assist project stakeholders in making proactive decisions, suitable mitigating strategies, and early corrective actions to ensure maximized capitalization on the schedule benefits of modularization in the construction industry.
... The high energy consumption of the construction industry is a global problem. Furthermore, in China, the energy consumption of buildings accounts for 25-27% [2][3][4] of the total energy consumption. The energy consumption per unit area is more than twice that of developed countries. ...
Article
Full-text available
With prefabricated construction method deemed as an effective way to improve the environmental performance and sustainable development of the building industry, it is inevitably adopted in the scaled residence in the process of residential industrialization. However, the development of prefabricated residential buildings is still immature under the current market economy system, because the stakeholders involved in the process are not yet able to form a good cooperation mechanism and they are more inclined to keep their own interests. As a result, the market share of prefabricated residential buildings is relatively low. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the stakeholders involved. By analyzing their costs and benefits, the reasons that really impede the population of prefabricated residential buildings can be found. In this paper, incremental cost allocation coefficient is introduced, the incremental cost difference under different assembly rates is considered, and the allocation ratio of the incremental cost input of the prefabricated building is analyzed based on game theory. The evolutionary game theory for government and real estate companies is established under the condition of bounded rationality with consumer participation. Then the effectiveness of the game theory is verified using empirical analysis, so as to provide reference for the authorities to promote the large-scale development of prefabricated residential buildings.
... The challenges associated with past practices made OSC unattractive to the construction industry and clients (Pan and Hon, 2018). However, the last few decades have witnessed a renaissance and reinvigorated effort at promoting OSC as viable project delivery mechanism for remedying the increasingly poor performance of the construction industry (Arif and Egbu, 2015;Gibb and Isack, 2003). The drive for greater productivity and higher performance of the construction industry (Wuni and Shen, 2019b), coupled with the lessons learnt from past failures has fueled the resurgence of OSC in mainstream construction methods with a surging market share. ...
... Amid increasing competition, construction companies are expected to be able to meet or surpass timelines to gain competitive edge. Also, to alleviate the housing issue, housing authorities want homes delivered quickly (Arif and Egbu, 2015). In addition, cost overrun constitutes a significant project management constraint in which many projects employing the traditional cast-in-situ approach continue to exceed budgets (Bertram et al., 2019). ...
... Reduced The rapid wave of population growth and urbanization in the world comes along with a concomitant rise in the demand for infrastructure and built environment services (Arif and Egbu, 2015;Jiang et al., 2018). The existing demand pressure on the construction sector is overwhelming and overpowering the responsive capability of the traditional construction approach (Wuni and Shen, 2019b). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The construction sector suffers significant challenges which are intertwined with processes and products of the traditional onsite construction approach. The quest for a lasting solution to these problems is heralding the change toward offsite construction. Amid the scaling drive, to date there are no official reports and contribution to knowledge on the drivers of offsite construction in Ghana. This study models the structural paths of the critical drivers of offsite construction in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected through a questionnaire from 95 respondents in the Ghanaian construction industry. Exploratory factor analysis and Partial least squares structural equation modeling were employed to analyze the data. Findings The results revealed that industry dynamics are the governing drivers of offsite construction in Ghana. As such, factors such as the rocketing housing deficits, high cost of acquiring land permanently, high cost of cast-in-situ construction, the utilization of prefabricated shipping containers for construction and construction market demand constitute the governing drivers of offsite construction in Ghana. Similarly, concern for higher productivity is a critical driver of offsite construction in the Ghanaian construction industry. On the contrary, findings show that performance-related drivers, government policy and regulation, and technological innovation exert little influence in driving offsite construction in Ghana. Practical implications The appreciation of the drivers may help stakeholders to understand the important mechanisms underlying offsite construction in Ghana, and thereafter help them to make more informed decisions regarding its implementation. Originality/value The findings contribute some interesting dimensions to the global debate on offsite construction by discovering and adding two drivers of offsite construction peculiar to developing countries (high cost of acquiring land permanently, and the utilization of shipping containers for construction) to the literature.
... OSC classifications have been transformed to include "hybrid" as an OSC type [27][28][29][30][31]. However, any construction project is bound to be hybrid if it has various prefab products that fall under different OSC types [32]. Nguyen, et al. [33] replaced non-volumetric with 2D and volumetric with 3D in their OSC classification. ...
... These classifications also portray the influence of industry practices where multiple terms are used to refer to similar OSC products without a clear distinction between their features and the definitions. For example, as per Figure 1, the terms volumetric [27,29,72], volumetric and modular [30], volumetric pre-assembly [8,11,26,32], volumetric offsite prefabrication [25], modular [11,26,27,72], modular building [8,25,28], modular construction [33], modules [38], 3D volumetric modules [33], complete modular [36], pods [36], volumetric pods [72], structural volumetric spaces [37], volumetric modular system [31], complete building [11,26], complete building systems [44,44], and modular and mixed construction systems [44] have been used to refer to any volumetric element. Similar complexities are evidenced for nonvolumetric elements as well. ...
... These classifications also portray the influence of industry practices where multiple terms are used to refer to similar OSC products without a clear distinction between their features and the definitions. For example, as per Figure 1, the terms volumetric [27,29,72], volumetric and modular [30], volumetric pre-assembly [8,11,26,32], volumetric offsite prefabrication [25], modular [11,26,27,72], modular building [8,25,28], modular construction [33], modules [38], 3D volumetric modules [33], complete modular [36], pods [36], volumetric pods [72], structural volumetric spaces [37], volumetric modular system [31], complete building [11,26], complete building systems [44,44], and modular and mixed construction systems [44] have been used to refer to any volumetric element. Similar complexities are evidenced for non-volumetric elements as well. ...
Article
Full-text available
Offsite construction (OSC) delivers multiple products that vary in design and building complexity. Considering the growing prevalence of OSC, a systematic categorization of OSC types can offer operational and macroeconomic benefits to the construction industry. The purpose of this study is to develop an OSC typology through a systematic process, as existing studies do not present a rigorously evaluated typology that suits the modern OSC context. The research addresses the following research question: what are the distinct characteristics of unique OSC types that have emerged through the adoption of Industry 4.0-based technological advancements? Due to the rapid advancement of production and construction technologies, the existing OSC classifications are becoming outdated. As such, a detailed review of OSC technologies was conducted which enabled the identification of OSC categories: components, panels, pods, modules, complete buildings, and flat-pack (foldable structure). A series of case studies was then reviewed to explore and analyze the relevance of these OSC types in practice. It was then subjected to a Delphi-based multi-level expert forum to develop a modern and future-proof OSC typology. The rigorous process validated, defined, and delineated the boundaries between the OSC types. The research confirmed that OSC types can be broadly categorized as volumetric (pods, modules, complete buildings) and non-volumetric (components, panels, foldable structure). The results indicated that OSC skills vary with the complexity of OSC types, and that lightweight steel and timber are the most common materials.
... Manufactured construction, offsite manufacturing, offsite production, offsite construction, modern methods of construction, prefabricated construction and the industrialized construction are used interchangeably in the literature to describe a similar phenomenon (Goulding et al., 2015) and all these terms share a common standpoint in production methods and prefabrication (Lessing et al., 2015). Primarily, the focus of IC is associated with manufacturing or factorybased production which creates a controlled environment in the onsite assembly phase (Arif & Egbu, 2010). The IC process consists of three phases: prefabrication; logistics; and on-site assembly , each of which is serviced by its supply chain. ...
Thesis
A highly volatile and interconnected global market, the ever-changing demands of clients and fierce competition amongst major suppliers necessitate a strategic shift towards a modern supply chain management strategy that prioritizes Supply Chain Resilience (SCR). This is because organizational supply chains are increasingly fragile; hence, more susceptible to unforeseen crises, as vividly demonstrated by catastrophic disruptions to global supply chains by COVID-19 as this thesis is being compiled. Organizations face disruptions even under normal conditions. All these disruptions endanger an organization’s ability to perform effectively. Moreover, the growing complexity of the global supply chains and their increased vulnerability to disruptions have threatened the long-term success and survival of organizations and sometimes their parent industries too. In response, SCR enables organizations to respond effectively during disruptions with the swift and stable restoration of supply chains following disruptions. Besides, resilient supply chains are less vulnerable to disruptions and are also more capable of handling any vulnerabilities that do trigger problems. Focusing on the construction industry in Hong Kong, construction supply chains have weathered various disruptions over the years. Further, the construction industry is unique, and the supply chain configurations of most construction projects are distinctive. Although Industrialized Construction (IC) practices in Hong Kong have introduced innovations through safe, clean and efficient construction methods for the construction industry, IC supply chains are still drastically affected by the inherent supply chain disruptions. Since IC is developed by incorporating advances in offsite manufacturing practices, IC supply chains are more complicated than in traditional construction and IC straddles the supply chain phases of manufacturing-factory, logistics and onsite assembly. Especially in Hong Kong, all the prefabricated units are transported from Mainland China. Hence, the supply chains are widely affected by transportation and cross border logistics-related vulnerabilities compared to the other countries. In this regard, SCR prioritization can be introduced as a game-changing supply chain management strategy, which by directing addressing specific resilience issues, should surpass or out-perform traditional risk management practices by opening up robust pathways to withstanding important Supply Chain Vulnerabilities (SCV) of IC in Hong Kong. Further, it is crucial for IC organizations to build more resilient supply chains through enhanced Supply Chain Capabilities (SCC) to effectively respond to escalating threats since the construction industry is a key economic driver. Moreover, supply chain networks vary according to their geographical context in different ways that can shape their types and levels of vulnerability. Recent Government initiatives for increasing IC in Hong Kong accentuated the need for a focused study to investigate: (a) IC supply chain behavior, strengths and weaknesses in Hong Kong and (b) how to enhance the resilience capabilities of IC supply chains to address the current performance conundrum faced by the Hong Kong industry. These foregoing needs, taken together, establish the imperative for enhancing SCR practice in IC in Hong Kong, although not yet even explored in the international IC literature to which these research outcomes would also, therefore, contribute. Given this background and rapidly changing conditions, this study aimed to develop and propose strategies to enhance supply chain resilience in IC through developing a dynamic model to assess SCR in IC in Hong Kong. Further, four research objectives were established to achieve the research aim as (i) to identify supply chain vulnerabilities and capabilities as critical measures of supply chain resilience in industrialized construction, (ii) to develop mathematical models to assess supply chain vulnerabilities, supply chain capabilities and their correlational impacts, (iii) to develop a dynamic SCR evaluation model for IC in Hong Kong via probing and assessing relevant supply chain vulnerabilities and capabilities, and (iv) to propose strategies to enhance supply chain resilience in IC in Hong Kong. To achieve research Objective 1, this study first conducted two comprehensive and systematic literature reviews on SCC and SCV targeting SCR in IC. These reviews enabled the identification of 37 vulnerabilities and 58 capability measurement items in the IC context. A questionnaire was developed to further probe these identified SCV and SCC, and thereby, to achieve Objective 2. In addition, semi-structured interviews, frequent site visits to the construction sites and document reviews were conducted to gather additional related data. Subsequent factor analysis facilitated the grouping of the identified SCV under five underlying categories and SCC measurement items under nine capability components. Twenty-four SCV and forty-one supply chain capability measurement items that remained after the factor analysis were regarded as critical measures in realizing SCR in IC in Hong Kong. This study next proceeded with developing mathematical models to assess SCV and SCC separately as specific to the IC in Hong Kong using fuzzy synthetic evaluation. Besides, the correlational impacts of SCV and SCC were modeled using the partial least squares structural equation modeling to explore their interactions under the phenomena of SCR. These models are the first known mathematical evaluation models developed for assessing SCR in the construction industry. Following these foregoing outcomes, a dynamic model to assess SCR in IC in Hong Kong was developed with the use of the system dynamics modeling technique. It is the first known system dynamics model in the relevant literature on this topic. Having thereby realized study Objective 3, the vulnerability levels of each supply chain phase were modeled and evaluated by applying social network analysis technique. This is the first known initiative to apply this social network analysis technique to assess the dynamics of IC supply chains in the pursuit of resilience. The developed system dynamics model for achieving SCR in IC was further verified and analyzed using two-comparative case studies, after which useful strategies to boost SCR in IC in Hong Kong were proposed as the key research outcomes of this significant study, thereby achieving research Objective 4 and fulfilling the overall research aim. Moreover, this study contributed to improving IC practices not only by initiating SCR assessment models but also by proposing useful strategies for the effective uptake of SCR practices in Hong Kong. In addition to this contribution to practice, supply chain management and related theories were enriched by unveiling how the several research methods deployed in this study, such as fuzzy synthetic evaluation, partial least squares-structural equation modeling, system dynamics modeling, and the social network analysis, could be effectively applied to analyze SCR imperatives in the construction research domain. These key research contributions would inform both industry practitioners and researchers on how to deploy and improve SCR in IC practices in Hong Kong, thereby also helping to address the acute disruptions as well as the general performance conundrums debilitating the industry. Finally, these synergistic theory-practice thrusts could help develop resilient and sustainable construction supply chains in IC processes, which could, in turn, drive value-enhanced performance in IC in Hong Kong.
... Also, the entire lifecycle can be easily managed from design, construction, post-occupancy and demolition. The overall cost of production and maintenance is reduced due to the machine production process and industrial manufacturing which make the whole process easily managed (Arif and Egbu, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The urban environment in Nigeria accounts for over 51.16% of the population and is the main source of economic development within the country. With the increase in population as a result of rural-urban migration, population growth, urban development, decrease in mortality rate amongst others, there is a need for affordable housing provision. It is has been argued based on extensive research, that the development of good housing and infrastructure, can increase the average life expectancy of people, quality of life, increase the health standard and also attract investment and thus, further develop the economy. Unfortunately, the discourse on affordable housing has not developed a model that meets the Nigerian urban populace that is in desperate need of housing. With a larger percentage of Nigerians living in these areas, coupled with the continual rise in rural-urban migration, it is imperative to ensure that focus should be placed on the developing modern methods of construction (MMC) that can meet housing needs. Modern methods of construction is a broad terminology that embraces a variety of offsite manufacturing and onsite practices that provides a range of options to traditional house buildings. It is in light of these facts, this paper analyses the effects of affordable housing in the urban environment and the role MMC plays in its development. This qualitative study is based on current knowledge from preliminary research, analysing how affordable housing can be achieved with MMC. The conclusion of this research will suggest the benefits of MMC practices and create an avenue for further research on affordable housing.