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Types of composites.

Types of composites.

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Phenol-formaldehyde resin was mixed with epoxy resin in different proportions to form a hybrid mixture of composite materials. It was reinforced with carbon fibers, glass fibers, Kevlar fibers, magnesium oxide and zirconia nanoparticle particles. This research investigates the effect of fibers and nanoparticles on the behavior of hybrid composites,...

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... composite material consists of a combination of two or more substances that often have very different properties than the original materials, which work together to give the unique properties of composite materials [3,4]. Figure 1 shows the classification of composite materials. Composite materials are used not only for their mechanical properties but also for electrical, thermal, technological, environmental and other applications. ...
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... for the hardness characteristics of the mixtures, the resin is a low-hardening material, but when reinforced with fibers, the hardness properties of the compound material are clearly improved because they occupy more space within the resin, allowing better distribution of the load. Figure (10) shows the hardness of composite materials by the type of fibers, where it is observed to be fairly close, and the highest values of the hardness were composite materials supported by carbon fibers followed by glass fibers and then Kevlar fibers [9]. The nature of fibers has a great role in determining the values of hardness because the hardness of these fibers vary by type. ...
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... total volumetric volume increases the hardness value with the increasing number of layers of reinforcement, which confirms the positive effect of the arming process with these fibers [10]. Figure 11 illustrates the impact of fibers on impact resistance. Kevlar fibers gave the highest impact values of glass fibers and carbon fibers. ...
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... cracks grow and multiply rapidly towards the interfaces between the polymer fibers because the forces between these fibers are (Van der Waals), which require a small amount of energy to overcome them, and the cracks extend in a direction perpendicular to the direction of polymer fibers to break these fibers during the propagation process, it is worth mentioning that this requires more energy to overcome covalent bonding. Figure 12 shows the tensile relationship of the stress curve of the composite material to the epoxy resin with phenol-formaldehyde resin by (5%) and the reinforcement of the various nanoparticles (Magnesia and Zirconia Oxide) resulted in improved properties. Zirconia oxide particles gave the best resistance to stress through the stress curve compared to the magnesium oxide and composites without addition, because polymer nanoparticles as an interactive mixture of polymer with nanoparticles are characterized with a small size of fillings leading to a widening of the interstitial area, thus creating a large part of the polymer's interaction with nanoparticles in the structure of polymeric molecules, which play an important role in enhancing the strength of the polymer structure, polymeric nanomaterials improve the mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties clearly, without increasing the density [12]. ...
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... oxide particles gave the best resistance to stress through the stress curve compared to the magnesium oxide and composites without addition, because polymer nanoparticles as an interactive mixture of polymer with nanoparticles are characterized with a small size of fillings leading to a widening of the interstitial area, thus creating a large part of the polymer's interaction with nanoparticles in the structure of polymeric molecules, which play an important role in enhancing the strength of the polymer structure, polymeric nanomaterials improve the mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties clearly, without increasing the density [12]. Figure 12. The tensile stress-strain curve of compound materials by nanoparticle type. ...
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... tensile stress-strain curve of compound materials by nanoparticle type. Figure 13 shows the relationship of the stress-stress curve to the composite material contained on epoxy resins with phenol-formaldehyde by (5%) and the reinforcement of various nanoparticles (magnesium oxide and zirconia oxide). Zirconium oxide nanoparticles gave better bending resistance than magnesium oxide particles and composite matter without addition, assuming that the properties of the material were uniform by uniformly distributed power. ...

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