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Types of collagen and their locations in the body 

Types of collagen and their locations in the body 

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The use of polymeric-based nanofibers has gained more and more attention during the past decade in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields and as a result, nanotoxicology research is inevitable to satisfy the requirements of regulating agencies such as FDA as well as biosafety needs. Recent advances have witnessed the emergence of an increasing nu...

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... polymer-based nanofibers Table 6 summarizes the different types of collagen and their body location. [183][184][185] Electrospinning of collagen was rst reported with the use of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in 2001. ...

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... The architectural topography and suitable mechanical resilience and stiffness of the electrospun scaffold play a critical role in regulating cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration into it and thus influencing cell phenotype in course of bone tissues regeneration [125]. The irregular nanofibrous structures in electrospun scaffolds can promote high cell attachment, adhesion, and penetration into the scaffold [126]. Therefore, the nanofibrous structure of the scaffold is one of the necessary considerations in scaffold fabrication for BTE applications. ...
... Fisher et al. [210] demonstrated the influence of nanofiber orientation on directing cell arrangement. Stem cells or vascular endothelial cells exhibited better alignment on oriented nanofiber than on non-oriented nanofibers scaffolds after a long time of culture in-vitro [126]. Recent examples of scaffold micro-topology regulated cellular behaviors including alignment and proliferation of cardiac myocytes, tissue regeneration, and modulating myofibroblast differentiation [209,211,212]. ...
Article
The rebuilding of the normal functioning of the damaged human body bone tissue is one of the main objectives of bone tissue engineering (BTE). Fabricated scaffolds are mostly treated as artificial supports and as materials for regeneration of neo bone tissues and must closely biomimetic the native extracellular matrix of bone. The materials used for developing scaffolds should be biodegradable, nontoxic, and biocompatible. For the resurrection of bone disorder, specifically natural and synthetic polymers such as chitosan, PCL, gelatin, PGA, PLA, PLGA, etc. meet the requirements for serving their functions as artificial bone substitute materials. Gelatin is one of the potential candidates which could be blended with other polymers or composites to improve its physicochemical, mechanical, and biological performances as a bone graft. Scaffolds are produced by several methods including electrospinning, self-assembly, freeze-drying, phase separation, fiber drawing, template synthesis, etc. Among them, freeze-drying and electrospinning are among the popular, simplest, versatile, and cost-effective techniques. The design and preparation of freeze-dried and electrospun scaffolds are of intense research over the last two decades. Freeze-dried and electrospun scaffolds offer a distinctive architecture at the micro to nano range with desired porosity and pore interconnectivity for selective movement of small biomolecules and play its role as an appropriate matrix very similar to the natural bone extracellular matrix. This review focuses on the properties and functionalization of gelatin-based polymer and its composite in the form of bone scaffolds fabricated primarily using lyophilization and electrospinning technique and their applications in BTE.
... One of the most important requirements of miniaturized nanobioreactors for tissue engineering applications in situ is their cytocompatibility and cytotoxicity [54]. To address this issue, next a rapid cytotoxicity test for the cells being in contact with the ALG-based nanoreactor for 24 h was performed. ...
Article
This study describes the development of a one-pot electrochemical miniaturized system for simultaneous cultivation and monitoring of the oxidative status of living cells. This system consisted of screen-printed electrodes modified by electroplated Pd-NPs as an electrocatalyst (i) and living yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (ii) immobilized on the cytocompatible alginate layer (iii). Briefly, during the course of electrochemical investigations a novel electroactive compound methylhydrazine derivative as a secondary metabolite and result of microbial activity was found in yeast cells and used as a signaling molecule for their biochemical profiling. Under the optimized experimental conditions the signal corresponding to the found electroactive secondary metabolite formed in medium of living cells was measured without sample collecting, transport, storage or pre-treatment steps (i.e. extraction, pre-concentration, chemical derivatization or labeling). The electrochemical dependencies, which were derived by a miniaturized electroanalytical system, were fully validated in a conventional three-electrode system under inert atmosphere (Ar) and in the presence of oxygen (air, O2). It is believed that the proposed one-pot nanoreactors serving simultaneously as nanofermenters and amperometric detectors for the quantification of secondary metabolites formed in medium of living cells can significantly enhance the understanding of ongoing fermentation processes in the future and our knowledge on the biochemistry of yeasts.
... Moreover, PEO is FDA approved as safe food contact material [42]. Preliminary studies have also reported that nanofibers do not cause cellular toxicity, inflammatory response or loss of cellular integrity [43]. ...
Article
Connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein, also acts as a tumor suppressor, which reduces tumorigenicity. Cx43 expression sensitizes cancer cells towards anticancer drugs mainly due to the formation of functional gap junctions. 4-phenyl butyrate (4-PB), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), has antitumor potential that is also reported to increase Cx43 expression and gap junction communication. In the present work, we have developed a core-shell nanofibrous scaffold loaded with the Cx43 gene and 4-PB. The nanofibrous scaffold has been characterized by spectroscopic and electron microscopic techniques. The nanofibrous scaffold mediated transfection of the Cx43 gene into Cx43 deficient breast cancer cells (MCF-7), followed by controlled and sustained release of 4-PB, exhibited anti-cell proliferative activity. The anticancer effects have been ascertained by cell staining, cell viability and flow cytometry-based assays. Thus, the novel core-shell nanofiber scaffold has shown enormous therapeutic translation ability via Cx-based enhancement of anticancer potential of HDACi.
... A unified assessment method based on an ISO modified procedure, considering the ratio between BG mass and SBF solution, has been recently proposed. 122 3.2. Cytocompatibilty. ...
... The cell lines selected for these assays are then typically chosen to model the response likely observed in vivo upon the surgical implant of BGs. 122,124 Accordingly, the cell types commonly employed to assess the cytocompatibility of BGs have a role in wound healing (fibroblasts), 81,93,115,125,126 bone structure (osteocytes), 96,127,128 and bone maintenance and formation (osteoclasts and osteoblasts). 108,111,116,129 As cell cultures are sensitive to changes in variables such as temperature, pH, and nutrient concentration, careful control of the experimental conditions is crucial in correlating cell death to toxicity of the biomaterial rather than to changes in the culture conditions. ...
... 108,111,116,129 As cell cultures are sensitive to changes in variables such as temperature, pH, and nutrient concentration, careful control of the experimental conditions is crucial in correlating cell death to toxicity of the biomaterial rather than to changes in the culture conditions. 122 The assessment of cellular response to BGs, and their cytotoxicity in particular is performed by direct tests, carried out in the presence of the BGs, and indirect ones, in which filtered extracts of BGs are added to the cell culture. 130 Among the latter, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test (MTT) is the method of choice for the quantification of metabolically active cells upon incubation with BG eluates. ...
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Bioactive glasses (BGs) for biomedical applications are doped with therapeutic inorganic ions (TIIs) in order to improve their performance and reduce the side effects related to the surgical implant. Recent literature in the field shows a rekindled interest toward rare earth elements, in particular cerium, and their catalytic properties. Cerium-doped bioactive glasses (Ce-BGs) differ in compositions, synthetic methods, features, and in vitro assessment. This review provides an overview on the recent development of Ce-BGs for biomedical applications and on the evaluation of their bioactivity, cytocompatibility, antibacterial, antioxidant, and osteogenic and angiogenic properties as a function of their composition and physicochemical parameters.
... Many studies produced significant progress in SDVG tissue engineering by obtaining materials imitating the mechanical behavior of arteries, which are prone to rapid endothelialization, and resistant to thrombosis. However, only a few polyurethane SDVGs are available on the market for hemodialysis access only [31][32][33]. Thus, enhancing the resistance of SVDGs to thrombosis, stenosis, calcification, or infection is still required. ...
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We examined the physicochemical properties and the biocompatibility and hemocompatibility of electrospun 3D matrices produced using polyurethane Pellethane 2363-80A (Pel-80A) blends Pel-80A with gelatin or/and bivalirudin. Two layers of vascular grafts of 1.8 mm in diameter were manufactured and studied for hemocompatibility ex vivo and functioning in the infrarenal position of Wistar rat abdominal aorta in vivo (n = 18). Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts of similar diameter were implanted as a control (n = 18). Scaffolds produced from Pel-80A with Gel showed high stiffness with a long proportional limit and limited influence of wetting on mechanical characteristics. The electrospun matrices with gelatin have moderate capacity to support cell adhesion and proliferation (~30–47%), whereas vascular grafts with bivalirudin in the inner layer have good hemocompatibility ex vivo. The introduction of bivalirudin into grafts inhibited platelet adhesion and does not lead to a change hemolysis and D-dimers concentration. Study in vivo indicates the advantages of Pel-80A grafts over ePTFE in terms of graft occlusion, calcification level, and blood velocity after 6 months of implantation. The thickness of neointima in Pel-80A–based grafts stabilizes after three months (41.84 ± 20.21 µm) and does not increase until six months, demonstrating potential for long-term functioning without stenosis and as a suitable candidate for subsequent preclinical studies in large animals.
... Currently, most of the studies limit the biological characterization of the scaffolds to the pre-clinical phase. Despite many works describe significant results in in vitro or in vivo models, the translation to patients is still very limited [172]. ...
Article
Drug delivery devices are promising tools in the pharmaceutical field, as they are able to maximize the therapeutic effects of the delivered drug while minimizing the undesired side effects. In the past years, electrospun nanofibers attracted rising attention due to their unique features, like bio-compatibility and broad flexibility. Incorporation of active principles in nanofibrous meshes proved to be an efficient method for in-situ delivery of a wide range of drugs, expanding the possibility and applicability of those devices. In this review, the principle of electrospinning and different fields of applications are treated to give an overview of the recent literature, underlining the easy tuning and endless combination of this technique, that in the future could be the new frontier of personalized medicine.
... Cytotoxicity considers the substances that leach out of the particles (e.g., degradation products) on performing biochemical tests. It is noteworthy that biocompatibility is highly anatomically dependent; thus, particles can be affected in different ways (Goonoo et al. 2014). In general, biocompatibility tests include two levels: (i) biosafety testing, which can evaluate particle toxicity in cultured cells, hemolysis, allergic responses, and genetic alterations or tissue necrosis after animal implantation, and (ii) biofunctional testing, which focuses on the specific functions of particles being evaluated, preferably in vitro and in vivo, and on the responses of all of the cells and tissues in contact with the particles (Zhang et al. 2003). ...
Chapter
The use of natural polymers for the release of drugs is attractive due to biodegradability, biocompatibility, inexpensive, chemically modifiable, in addition to secondary properties such as high swelling capacity, bioadhesion, offering positive electric charges, and stimulus-sensitive factors such as pH and temperature. The present work proposes a critical approach to the state of the art on the applications of natural polymers for the release of drugs, and the manufacture of nanoparticles, including advantages and limitations. We also address the vectorization analysis of nanoparticles elaborated with natural polymers, and we emphasize the application of nanoparticles for gene therapy. Finally, due to the nature of nanoparticle fabrication and disposition, we included a section called “Special requirements in the characterization of excipients and nanoparticles fabricated with natural polymers” aimed to recommend a physicochemical characterization that guarantees the adequate reproducibility of the formulations, one of the great paradigms in the development of nanoparticles elaborated with natural polymers. Finally, we present a section denominated “Nanotoxicology of natural polymers used in the pharmaceutical area.” We mention specific cases of the limitations in this type of excipient, although we also highlight new and better properties that can be exploited.
... Cytotoxicity considers the substances that leach out of the particles (e.g., degradation products) on performing biochemical tests. It is noteworthy that biocompatibility is highly anatomically dependent; thus, particles can be affected in different ways (Goonoo et al. 2014). In general, biocompatibility tests include two levels: (i) biosafety testing, which can evaluate particle toxicity in cultured cells, hemolysis, allergic responses, and genetic alterations or tissue necrosis after animal implantation, and (ii) biofunctional testing, which focuses on the specific functions of particles being evaluated, preferably in vitro and in vivo, and on the responses of all of the cells and tissues in contact with the particles ). ...
Chapter
The research and development of graphene-based materials are happening at an intense pace due to their extraordinary physical and chemical properties. Their high electronic mobility, high thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, photoluminescence, among others, made them a wonder material in several research fields. The textile community is aware of this evolution and, therefore, is also taking advantage of the properties of these graphene-based materials for the development of textiles with functionalities that include UV protection, antistatic, antibacterial, photoluminescent finishes, improvement of mechanical properties, flexible supercapacitors, sensors, etc. In this context, this chapter aims to address the main concepts, applications, and perspectives on the application of graphene-based material in the textile area. We will mainly focus on the progressing research using graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and graphene quantum dots (GQDs).
... Biocompatibility comprises of both cytocompatibility and cytotoxicity. Cytocompatibility encompasses testing of the material which has a physical connection with cells that are assessed through morphological changes of the cells (Goonoo et al. 2014). Here, the cytotoxicity of SeNPs was tested on HaCaT cells by MTT assay and cytocompatibility was evaluated with cell adhesion test. ...
Article
This present study reports a one-pot environmentally friendly synthesis and characterizations of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) from Lysinibacillus sp. NOSK and their applications. SeNPs were subjected to microscopic and spectrophotometric analysis by uses UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscope, dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The SEM analysis has revealed the spherical shape of SeNPs with a size approximately of 130 nm with a good polydispersity index. Moreover, SeNPs have been evaluated for their effect on the growth of pathogen bacteria. Results revealed that SeNPs significantly have an inhibitory effect on the tested bacteria. In addition to antimicrobial activity, SeNPs anti-biofilm activity was also investigated. Results from anti-biofilm analysis showed that SeNPs inhibited the biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to non-treated samples. Besides, cytotoxicity analysis showed that the synthesized SeNPs had no severe side effects on healthy cells even if the concentration was high. Finally, cell attachment studies which was used fabricated SeNPs doped cellulose acetate electrospun nanofibers and cytocompatibility assay demonstrated that SeNPs contributed cell growth and adhesion that is SeNPs provided a favorable environment to attach and proliferate and was bioactive. Considering all the outcomes of the studies together, our findings introduces the possibility of using SeNPs for biomedical applications.
... This observation was similar with previous reports involving hydrophilic polymer-based fibers that were found to be suitable carriers of bioactive molecules or cells. 28,29 In this study, the electrospun nanofiber membranes were found to be noncytotoxic and rBMSC attached and proliferated well on the membranes (Figure 4(a) and (b)). In addition, after 7 days of osteogenic pre-conditioning, rBMSC on the membranes highly expressed OPN relative to tissue culture plate control (Figure 4(c)). ...
Article
In this study, we prepared an electrospun nanofiber membrane from soya protein isolate (SPI) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) loaded with rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSC), as a cell-scaffold approach to enhance bone regeneration. Different ratios of SPI:PEO (7:0, 7:1, 7:3, 7:5, and 0:7) was investigated to obtain uniform nanofibers, and crosslinked with EDC/NHS to stabilize the membranes. SPI/PEO membrane (7:3) was found to create more uniform and stable nanofibers at a flow rate of 9 µL/min, spun in a cylindrical collector rotating at 350 r/min, 23 kV DC voltage, and needle tip to collector distance of 13 cm. The loaded rBMSC were pre-differentiated to ensure commitment towards osteoblastic lineage. The SPI/PEO electrospun nanofiber membranes were successful in allowing for cell attachment and growth of the rBMSC and was further investigated in vivo using a rat skull defect model. New bone formation was observed for the optimized SPI/PEO electrospun nanofiber membrane (7:3) with and without rBMSC, but with faster new bone formation for SPI/PEO electrospun nanofiber membrane loaded with rBMSC as compared to SPI/PEO electrospun nanofiber membrane only and control (defect only).