Transmission of the Nipah virus. 1. Fruit bats acts as natural reservoir of Nipah viruses. Fruit bats with NiV feeds on date palm sap. Virus can survive in solutions that are rich in sugar, viz., fruit pulp. 2. Virus transmitted to human through the consumption of date palm sap. 3. Fruit bats of Pteropus spp. which are NiV reservoirs visited such fruit trees and got opportunity to naturally spill the drop containing virus in the farm to contaminate the farm soil and fruits. 4. Contaminated fruits are consumed by pigs and other animals. Pigs act as intermediate as well as amplifying host. Combination of close surroundings of fruiting trees, fruits-like date palm, fruit bats, pigs and human altogether form the basis of emergence and spread of new deadly zoonotic virus infection like Nipah. 5. Pork meat infected with NiV are exported to other parts. 6. Consumption of infected pork can act as a source of infection to human. 7. Close contact with NiV affected human can lead to spread of NiV to other persons.

Transmission of the Nipah virus. 1. Fruit bats acts as natural reservoir of Nipah viruses. Fruit bats with NiV feeds on date palm sap. Virus can survive in solutions that are rich in sugar, viz., fruit pulp. 2. Virus transmitted to human through the consumption of date palm sap. 3. Fruit bats of Pteropus spp. which are NiV reservoirs visited such fruit trees and got opportunity to naturally spill the drop containing virus in the farm to contaminate the farm soil and fruits. 4. Contaminated fruits are consumed by pigs and other animals. Pigs act as intermediate as well as amplifying host. Combination of close surroundings of fruiting trees, fruits-like date palm, fruit bats, pigs and human altogether form the basis of emergence and spread of new deadly zoonotic virus infection like Nipah. 5. Pork meat infected with NiV are exported to other parts. 6. Consumption of infected pork can act as a source of infection to human. 7. Close contact with NiV affected human can lead to spread of NiV to other persons.

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Nipah (Nee-pa) viral disease is a zoonotic infection caused by Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus belonging to the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is a biosafety level-4 pathogen, which is transmitted by specific types of fruit bats, mainly Pteropus spp. which are natural reservoir host. The disease was reported for the first ti...

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... is suggestive of the fact that the virus has undergone adaptation well enough to get transmitted among Pteropus bats. The modes of transmission of the Nipah virus are depicted in Figure 2. ...

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Background Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe encephalitis and respiratory disease with a high mortality rate in humans. During large outbreaks of the viral disease, serological testing of serum samples could be a useful diagnostic tool, which could provide information on not only the diagnosis of NiV disease...

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... This virus leads to the development of rapid progressive illness in the human respiratory tract and causes encephalitis in the brain. Initially, because of the encephalitis-related symptoms, scientists thought of this disease as Japanese encephalitis, but it was confirmed later that the Nipah virus causes a different disease (Singh et al., 2019). The main host reservoirs for Henipa viruses are fruit bat Pteropus. ...
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The zoonotic pathogen, Nipah virus, is considered a potential healthcare threat due to its high mortality rates and detrimental symptoms like encephalitis. Ribavirin, an antiviral drug helps in overcoming the number of casualties and reducing the mortality rate, but no long-lasting solution has been proposed yet putting global health security in jeopardy. Given the cognizance of mRNA-based vaccines as safe and efficacious preventative strategies against pathogens, the current study has utilized the reverse-vaccinology approach coupled with immunoinformatics to propose an mRNA-based vaccine candidate against the Nipah virus. To ensure the effectiveness of the vaccine candidate against all strains of Nipah and associated viruses, three fusion glycoproteins from Nipah and Hendra viruses were selected. A total of 30 potential epitopes, 10 B-cell-, 10 MHC-I-, and 10 MHC-II-specific, were screened for the construct. The finalized epitopes were highly antigenic with scores ranging from 0.75 to 1.7615 at a threshold of 0.4 for viruses and non-homologous to Homo sapiens eradicating any chance of immune tolerance. The construct, with a World population coverage of 97.2%, was structurally stable, thermo-stable, and hydrophilic with indices of 32.91, 93.62, and-0.002, respectively. The vaccine candidate's tertiary structure was predicted with a TM score of 0.131 and the refined model displayed superlative RAMA improvement (98.2) and MolProbity score (0.975). A quality factor of 93.5421% further validated the structural quality and stability. A prompt and stable immune response was also simulated, and the vaccine candidate was shown to eliminate from the body within the first five days of injection. Immune complexes count of 7000 mg/mL was predicted against the antigen with a small but non-significant danger signal, countered by the cytokines. Lastly, strong molecular interactions of the vaccine candidate with TLR-3 (331.09 kcal/mol) and TLR-4 (-333.31 kcal/mol) and molecular dynamics simulation analysis authenticated the immunogenic potential of the vaccine candidate. This vaccine candidate can serve as a foundation for future in-vitro and in-vivo trials to minimize or eradicate the diseases associated with the Nipah virus or the Henipaviral family.
... Furthermore, studies reporting co-infection did not reflect the geographic distribution of bat taxonomic diversity. A parsimonious explanation for this is the preference for studies on viruses of public health significance, such as coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses, in bats sampled in Asia, following the emergence of SARS-CoV-1 and the Nipah virus [154,155]. ...
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... The WHO priority pathogen, which caused multiple outbreaks with a high mortality rate of 40% to 75% in and around South and Southeast Asia (specially Singapore, Bangladesh, India, Cambodia, and the Philippines), was discovered for the first time in Malaysia in 1998 and persisted there until April 1999. 1 During this time, 105 people died as a result of the disease, and 1.1 million pigs were culled. 2 The virus was named Nipah virus (NiV) after the Malaysian hamlet of Sungai Nipah, where pigs infected humans with NiV. The novel virus was originally discovered by Malaysian researchers in the cerebral fluid of a patient in Nipah Township, Negeri Sembilan State, in March 1999. ...
... In severe situations, encephalitis may develop within 24 to 48 hours associated with seizures, which finally results in coma. 1 Diagnostic tests include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cell culture for virus isolation, serum neutralization, immunofluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and so on. 9 ...
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... Such cross-contamination was observed in Asia with Pteropus spp. bats and pigsties in the vicinity of orchards (Singh et al. 2019). The introduction of poultry in orchards may also aggravate the risk of enterobacteria transmission (Theofel et al. 2020). ...
... Nipah virus (NiV) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Henipavirus. It is classified as a Biosafety Level-4 pathogen and is characterized by high pathogenicity and mortality in humans (ranging from 40 to 100%) (Singh et al., 2019;Yu et al., 2018). NiV was first identified in Malaysia during 1998, and has since caused outbreaks almost every year in Southern and Southeast Asia including Bangladesh, Singapore, India and the Philippines (Alam, 2022;Whitmer et al., 2021). ...
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Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic pathogen with airborne transmission and high case fatality rates in humans. There is currently no treatment or vaccine against NiV infection approved for humans or animals, therefore early diagnosis is the key to control any potential outbreaks. In this study, we developed an optimized one-pot assay using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) coupled to CRISPR/Cas13a for the molecular detection of NiV. The one-pot RPA-CRISPR/Cas13a assay for NiV detection was specific and did not cross-react against other selected (re)-emerging pathogens. The sensitivity of the one-pot RPA-CRISPR/Cas13a assay for NiV detection can detect as little as 103 cp/μL of total synthetic NiV cDNA. The assay was then validated with simulated clinical samples. The results for the one-pot RPA-CRISPR/Cas13a assay could be visualized with either fluorescence or lateral flow strips for convenient clinical or field diagnostics, providing a useful supplement to the gold-standard qRT-PCR assay for detecting NiV detections.
... 1 -фруктовые летучие мыши питаются соком финиковой пальмы; 2 -сбор зараженного сока финиковой пальмы; 3 -передача вируса человеку через сок финиковой пальмы; 4 -зараженные летучие мыши питаются плодами фруктовых деревьев; 5 -употребление в пищу зараженных фруктовых плодов свиньями или другими животными; 6 -экспорт зараженной свинины в разные части мира; 7 -употребление в пищу зараженной вирусом нипах свинины; 8 -передача вируса нипах через тесные контакты между людьми. рисунок адаптирован из [22] ...
... 1 -fruit bats feed on date palm juice; 2 -collection of infected date palm juice; 3 -transmission of the virus to humans through date palm juice; 4 -infected bats feed on fruits of fruit trees; 5 -consumption of infected fruits by pigs or other animals; 6 -export of infected pork to different parts of the world; 7 -consumption of pork infected with the Nipah virus; 8 -transmission of the Nipah virus through close contact between people. Figure adapted from [22] вируса [26]. заболевание у человека характеризуется инкубационным периодом от 4 до 21 дня. ...
... методы индикации и идентификации вируса. диагностировать инфекционную болезнь, вызванную вирусом нипах, как и большинство вирусных инфекций, на основании клинических признаков достаточно проблематично, так как заболевание не имеет специфичных характерных симптомов, кроме того, латентная его форма может проявиться спустя месяцы и годы после первичного заражения [22]. индикацию и идентификацию вируса нипах в клиническом и биологическом материале, а также выявление специфических антител к нему проводят с использованием вирусологических, иммуносерологических и молекулярно-генетических методов. ...
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Nipah virus (Nipah virus, NiV) is a representative of the genus Henipavirus of the Paramyxoviridae family, the causative agent of a dangerous infectious disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations – from an asymptomatic (subclinical) form to severe encephalitis with fatal outcome. Despite the fact that the disease caused by this virus is registered only in the countries of Southeast Asia, the possibility of importing the pathogen to non-endemic territories is not excluded. Also, this pathogen is able to infect not only a large number of people, but also animals, causing serious diseases and significant economic damage, posing both, a medical and veterinary problem. This review presents the data available in the modern press on the structure and classification of the Nipah virus, possible cycles of its transmission, spread, methods of indication and identification in clinical and biological material, as well as the effectiveness of their use depending on the timing of the onset of the disease and available commercial diagnostic and preventive drugs.
... The Paramyxoviridae contains some of the most devastating human and animal pathogens, including measles virus (MeV), mumps virus (MuV), parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), Nipah virus (NiV) and NDV [1][2][3][4][5] . NDV causes Newcastle disease which is a highly lethal infectious disease that affects avian species, causing considerable losses for poultry industry worldwide 1,6 . ...
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... Initially observed as a porcine-human transmission, the natural reservoir for Nipah virus has been identified in the Pteropus genus of fruit bat. Since its initial emergence in 1998, there has been reported an alarming human case-fatality rate of 43-75% [21,22] and is therefore considered to be among the most lethal viruses to humans currently known [23]. Monitoring for Nipah virus and lyssaviruses in fruit bats in Pakistan has yet to be implemented [5,24]. ...
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... Genetic analysis from different geographical areas has identified at least two strains of NiV, known as Malaysia and Bangladesh, and the sequence analysis of NiV-India revealed 97% similarity to the NiV-Bangladesh lineage [2,3]. NiV has a threefold viral circulation between fruit bats, pigs, and human beings through transmission from bats to pigs, pigs to humans, and from date palm sap to humans but based on various outbreaks documented from different geographical parts of the globe, fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) have been associated as the main reservoir of NiV transmission and due to a large number of bats around the world, an infection carried long distances and cause a deadly pandemic [4,5]. Nipah virus is a species of the genus Henipaviruses that belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and is closely related to Hendra virus [6]. ...
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... Flying foxes are endemic to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, East Africa, the Australian continent and some oceanic islands and have been shown to be associated with NiV outbreaks [7,8]. Infected fruit bats are asymptomatic carriers and can transmit the disease to humans or other animals through close contact or contact with their bodily fluids and feces [9,10]. Nipah virus infection in humans ranges from asymptomatic infection (subclinical) to acute respiratory infection and fatal encephalitis, while death occurred in 40-70% of those infected during 2 of 11 documented outbreaks between 1998 and 2018 [11]. ...
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Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic RNA virus which infects humans and animals in Asian countries. Infection in humans occurs in different forms, from asymptomatic infection to fatal encephalitis, and death occurred in 40–70% of those infected in outbreaks that occurred between 1998 and 2018. Modern diagnostics is carried out by real-time PCR to identify pathogens or by ELISA to detect antibodies. Both technologies are labor-intensive and require the use of expensive stationary equipment. Thus, there is a need to develop alternative simple, fast and accurate test systems for virus detection. The aim of this study was to develop a highly specific and easily standardized system for the detection of Nipah virus RNA. In our work, we have developed a design for a Dz_NiV biosensor based on a split catalytic core of deoxyribozyme 10–23. It was shown that the assembly of active 10–23 DNAzymes occurred only in the presence of synthetic target Nipah virus RNA and that this was accompanied by stable fluorescence signals from the cleaved fluorescent substrates. This process was realized at 37 ◦C, pH 7.5, and in the presence of magnesium ions, with a 10 nM limit of detection achieved for the synthetic target RNA. Constructed via a simple and easily modifiable process, our biosensor may be used for the detection of other RNA viruses.