Transmission of the Nipah virus. 1. Fruit bats acts as natural reservoir of Nipah viruses. Fruit bats with NiV feeds on date palm sap. Virus can survive in solutions that are rich in sugar, viz., fruit pulp. 2. Virus transmitted to human through the consumption of date palm sap. 3. Fruit bats of Pteropus spp. which are NiV reservoirs visited such fruit trees and got opportunity to naturally spill the drop containing virus in the farm to contaminate the farm soil and fruits. 4. Contaminated fruits are consumed by pigs and other animals. Pigs act as intermediate as well as amplifying host. Combination of close surroundings of fruiting trees, fruits-like date palm, fruit bats, pigs and human altogether form the basis of emergence and spread of new deadly zoonotic virus infection like Nipah. 5. Pork meat infected with NiV are exported to other parts. 6. Consumption of infected pork can act as a source of infection to human. 7. Close contact with NiV affected human can lead to spread of NiV to other persons.

Transmission of the Nipah virus. 1. Fruit bats acts as natural reservoir of Nipah viruses. Fruit bats with NiV feeds on date palm sap. Virus can survive in solutions that are rich in sugar, viz., fruit pulp. 2. Virus transmitted to human through the consumption of date palm sap. 3. Fruit bats of Pteropus spp. which are NiV reservoirs visited such fruit trees and got opportunity to naturally spill the drop containing virus in the farm to contaminate the farm soil and fruits. 4. Contaminated fruits are consumed by pigs and other animals. Pigs act as intermediate as well as amplifying host. Combination of close surroundings of fruiting trees, fruits-like date palm, fruit bats, pigs and human altogether form the basis of emergence and spread of new deadly zoonotic virus infection like Nipah. 5. Pork meat infected with NiV are exported to other parts. 6. Consumption of infected pork can act as a source of infection to human. 7. Close contact with NiV affected human can lead to spread of NiV to other persons.

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Nipah (Nee-pa) viral disease is a zoonotic infection caused by Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus belonging to the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is a biosafety level-4 pathogen, which is transmitted by specific types of fruit bats, mainly Pteropus spp. which are natural reservoir host. The disease was reported for the first ti...

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... is suggestive of the fact that the virus has undergone adaptation well enough to get transmitted among Pteropus bats. The modes of transmission of the Nipah virus are depicted in Figure 2. ...

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... Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic RNA virus of the Paramyxoviradae family (119), which includes measles and mumps. Following an incubation period of 5 to 14 days, NiV presents with fever, headache, and confusion, and then may progress to acute respiratory distress and encephalitis (120). Mortality rates range from 40-90%, making Nipah one of the deadliest viruses identified (121). ...
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... NiV, a declared global health priority pathogen by the World Health Organization (WHO), has the potential to cause a pandemic due to its zoonotic nature, rapid transmissibility, distribution of the reservoir species (bat) over wide geographic locations, high case fatality along with the unavailability of a vaccine or any other therapeutic agent. Furthermore, mortality rate is high among the infected individuals due to encephalitis and severe respiratory illness (viral pneumonia) (Chua et al., 2000;Satterfield et al., 2016;Luby and Gurley, 2012;Singh et al., 2019). NiV infections in humans have been identified in Malaysia, Singapore, India, Bangladesh, and the Philippines (Hassan et al., 2020;Hauser et al., 2021;Rahman et al., 2021). ...
... However, later it was confirmed that human-to-human transmission can occur equally. Recently, outbreaks in India and Bangladesh have occurred due to eating fruits or drinking unboiled juice of date palm trees contaminated by bats with >75% mortality (Singh et al., 2019;Broder et al., 2013;Luby et al., 2009;Epstein et al., 2020;Rahman et al., 2021). From 2001 to 2014, 248 collective NiV infections were reported in Bangladesh and most of these cases happened from person-to-person transmission Hegde et al., 2016;Nikolay et al., 2019). ...
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Among the diseases that pose a serious threat to public health, those caused by viruses are of great importance. The Nipah virus (NiV) belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family was reported in Malaysia in 1998/1999. Due to its high mortality in humans, its zoonotic nature, the possibility of human-to-human transmission, and the lack of an available vaccine, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized it as a global health problem. Depending on strain specificity, neurological symptoms and severe respiratory disorders are observed in NiV infection. In most confirmed cases of NiV epidemics, the appearance of the virus in humans was associated with the presence of various animal species, but generally, bats of Pteropus species are considered the most important natural animal NiV reservoir and vector. Consumption of contaminated food, contact with animals, and “human-to-human” direct contact were identified as NiV transmission routes. Due to the lack of vaccines and drugs with proven effectiveness against NiV, treatment of patients is limited to supportive and prophylactic.