Transaction flow in a Blockchain

Transaction flow in a Blockchain

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Blockchain is the new disruptive technology which is gaining momentum in several domains of real-world applications such as Bitcoin—the most well-known example, and primarily in the financial sector. Distributed ledger system which is the main feature of blockchain technology protected across harmful updates using cryptographic techniques, e.g. has...

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... Due to its greatest significance, key agreement protocols have been employed to generate encryption keys in today's IT applications such as IoT applications [1], healthcare systems [2], vehicular communications [3], smart networks [4], satellite communications [5], cloud applications [6], and others. To resist quantum attacks, several security protocols have been proposed based on the principles of quantum physics for addressing various security problems [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. ...
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... Tables III and IV, a systematic data analysis assisted in the formalisation of specific categories related to the description of problems and solutions. 3 Network Layer [37], [38], [47], [39]- [46] 4 Data Layer [48], [49], [58]- [65], [50]- [57] 5 ...
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Full-text available
Blockchain is one of the most discussed and highly accepted technologies, primarily due to its application in almost every field where third parties are needed for trust. Blockchain technology relies on distributed consensus for trust, which is accomplished using hash functions and public-key cryptography. Most of the cryptographic algorithms in use today are vulnerable to quantum attacks. In this work, a systematic literature review is done so that it can be repeated, starting with identifying the research questions. Focusing on these research questions, literature is analysed to find the answers to these questions. The survey is completed by answering the research questions and identification of the research gaps. It is found in the literature that 30% of the research solutions are applicable for the data layer, 24% for the application and presentation layer, 23% for the network layer, 16% for the consensus layer and only 1% for hardware and infrastructure layer. We also found that 6% of the solutions are not blockchain-based but present different distributed ledger technology.
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