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Total metal content for plants of Prosopis glandulosa under different soil and sewage sludge mixtures: (T1) (control, 100% soil), (T2) (80% soil+20% sewage sludge), (T3) (60% soil+40% sewage sludge), (T4) (40% soil+60% sewage sludge), (T5) (20% soil+80% sewage sludge), and (T6) (100% sewage sludge). Different letters indicate significant differences between treatments (ANOVA, P < 0.05; HSD-test, P < 0.05).

Total metal content for plants of Prosopis glandulosa under different soil and sewage sludge mixtures: (T1) (control, 100% soil), (T2) (80% soil+20% sewage sludge), (T3) (60% soil+40% sewage sludge), (T4) (40% soil+60% sewage sludge), (T5) (20% soil+80% sewage sludge), and (T6) (100% sewage sludge). Different letters indicate significant differences between treatments (ANOVA, P < 0.05; HSD-test, P < 0.05).

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Sewage sludge improves agricultural soil and plant growth, but there are hazards associated with its use, including high metal(loid) contents. An experimental study was conducted under greenhouse conditions to examine the effects of sewage sludge on growth of the invasive tree Prosopis glandulosa, as well as to determine its phytoremediation capaci...

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... metal accumulation under T6 was more than 3000-times that for Cu, 2000-times that for Cd, 1000-times that for Zn, and 600-times that for Fe when compared with T1. The other elements increased between 265-and 413-times under T6 when compared to T1 (Figure 4). ...
Context 2
... that for Zn, and 600-times that for Fe when compared with T1. The other elements increased between 265-and 413-times under T6 when compared to T1 (Figure 4). The TF was lower than 1 for Cu, Zn, Cr, and Fe metals in all treatments, but other metals showed TF values of more than 1 under some treatments (Table 3). ...

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... Soil EC and SAR increase due to continuous irrigation with brackish water, which eventually degrades soil's physical and chemical properties [36]. The increase in salinity and SAR values is the primary cause of reduced crop growth and production in brackish water [37,38]. The variation in the SAR of irrigation groundwater samples was expected to be the lowest if proper management practices were employed [39]. ...
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The agriculture sector of Pakistan mainly depends on freshwater from groundwater resources. Deterioration of these resources adversely affected crop yields due to climate change and human activities. A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate the groundwater quality of varying boring depths and the possible effects on the crop yield of cotton in Tehsil Fort Abbas, District Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 347 samples were collected from the investigated areas. Results revealed that 86% of samples were declared unfit for irrigation purposes, 6% of samples were fit, and 8% of samples were marginally fit for irrigation. The ranges for the electrical conductivity (EC), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) were 0.61-10.49 dS m −1 , 0.65 to 5.44 meq L −1 , and 0.02 to 5.44 meq L −1 , respectively. Regarding the EC of water samples, the southwestern side of the study area where the lower values were observed was in an acceptable range in terms of water quality. Differential response to metal contamination was observed in the study area. Lower contamination of metals was observed in the water samples collected from some regions on the eastern and western sides of the study area. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that by increasing the depth of the bore, the value of EC was also increased. Similarly, for the cotton lint yield maximum yield (1040 kg acre −1) was observed in the sampling point located in the southwestern part of the study area due to better quality of irrigation water, while the minimum cotton lint yield (520 kg acre −1) was noticed in sampling point located in the western side of the study area. Overall groundwater quality of Tehsil Fort Abbas was unfit for irrigation due to the high EC values and metal concentrations. The yield showed a negative correlation among all parameters of water. It was suggested that using the recommended dose of gypsum pow-der/stone and dilution of groundwater with canal water reduced the hazards of anions and cations of groundwater for the accumulation of salts in crops.
... Invasive plants can often outcompete native plant species because many invasive plants have traits contributing to invasiveness. As a result, invasive plants can be the dominant species in a diverse array of habitats [20][21][22]. As their populations occur at high densities [23], invasive plant species that produce compounds with antifungal activity are likely to be a rich source of tissue from which antifungal compounds can be extracted. ...
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The development of new, safe, and effective methods of managing fungal pathogens is required. This study was conducted to perform an initial in vitro assessment of the antifungal activity of water-based plant extracts from three plants which are invasive in Egypt: Prosopis juliflora, Ipomoea carnea, and Leucaena leucocephala. These extracts were tested against three pathogenic fungi species that cause high crop losses in Egypt: Fusarium solani, Alternaria solani, and Colletotrichum circinans. Three extract concentrations, 10%, 20%, and 30%, were tested using a completely randomized design, with three replicates per treatment. Antifungal activity was determined based on the effects of plant extracts on fungal radial growth inhibition, average daily growth of fungi, spore formation, spore germination, and total biomass. Inhibition of the growth of fungal strains increased with increasing plant extract concentration, with the highest inhibitory rate at the 30% extract concentration. In addition, spore density, spore germination, and total biomass decreased significantly with increasing extract concentration. The three fungal pathogens differed in their inhibition and their response to these plant extracts. Prosopis juliflora had the highest inhibitory effect on the three fungal pathogens, compared to the extracts from the other two invasive plants. The results of this feasibility study indicate that P. juliflora extracts have high antifungal activity and follow-up in vivo assays should be conducted to determine their efficacy in the safe and sustainable management of these and other fungal pathogens.
... The composition of the sludge is shown in Table 1. [70], 667.62 [65] 952.1 [37], 1062 [20] 165 [52] 258.0 ± 7.2 [69] Cu, mg/kg 210 ± 10 90.0 [36], 96.00 [38] 162.56 [65] 843.8 [70], 975 [42] 69 [52] 133 ± 15 [69] Pb, mg/kg Below detection limit 13.53 [38], 15.9 [70] 48.2 [20] 186 [42] 33.5 ± 1.1 [69] Depending on the reviewed literature source, the data accuracy may be not presented by the authors. For the parameters with significantly varying numbers (such as organic matter), the numbers were shown in a single row if the values were close enough. ...
... The composition of the sludge is shown in Table 1. [70], 667.62 [65] 952.1 [37], 1062 [20] 165 [52] 258.0 ± 7.2 [69] Cu, mg/kg 210 ± 10 90.0 [36], 96.00 [38] 162.56 [65] 843.8 [70], 975 [42] 69 [52] 133 ± 15 [69] Pb, mg/kg Below detection limit 13.53 [38], 15.9 [70] 48.2 [20] 186 [42] 33.5 ± 1.1 [69] Depending on the reviewed literature source, the data accuracy may be not presented by the authors. For the parameters with significantly varying numbers (such as organic matter), the numbers were shown in a single row if the values were close enough. ...
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Wastelands of the mining industry are among the largest of disturbed areas that demand revitalization. To reduce environmental impact and to better manage these geo-resources, the formation of sustainable plant and soil complexes and the restoration of self-recovery soil function are critical points. The successful return of vegetative cover at post-mining sites requires eliminating the deficiency of organic matter. For this, we assessed the usability of non-traditional ameliorants to provide a better understanding of benefits from mutual dependencies of environmental resources. To prevent losses and to close resource cycles, we studied the applicability of wastewater sludge from the pulp and paper (SPP) industry as an amendment to counteract soil degradation and rehabilitate human-disturbed lands. Waste rock limestone, beresite, and phosphogypsum substrates of post-mining sites were used in vitro for the application of sludge and peat mixture and consequent grass seeding. The formed vegetative cover was analyzed to compare the germination and biomass growth on reconstructed soils. We assessed the efficiency of ameliorant combinations by two approaches: (1) the traditional technique of cutting-off plant material to measure the obtained plant biomass, and, (2) digital image analysis for RGB-processed photographs of the vegetative cover (r2 = 0.75–0.95). The effect of SPP on plant cover biomass and grass height showed similar results: land rehabilitation with the formation of a 20 cm soil layer on mine waste dumps was environmentally suitable with an SPP:soil ratio of 1:3. However, excessive application (ratio 1:1 of SPP to the soil) negatively affected seed germination and plant vegetation.
... D.C. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae), commonly known as mesquite or velvet mesquite or Ghaf Bahri, is native to the south-west United States and north-west Mexico, and known as invasive in many tropical and subtropical regions, including North Africa and the Arab Gulf region. [18][19][20] It is a shrub or tree having 8-12 meters long. Growing to a height of up to 12 meters (39 ft.), P. juliflora has a trunk diameter of up to 1.2 meters (3.9 ft.). ...
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The phreatophytic tree; Prosopis juliflora (P. juliflora), of the Fabaceae family is a widespread invasive plant. The present study aimed to examine the characteristics of the anti-cancer effects potentially induced by P. juliflora leaves extracts, and to compare the bioactivity of its chemical composition in methanolic and butanolic solvents. MCF-7/breast, LS-174T/colorectal, and HepG2/liver, cancer cell lines were cultivated and incubated with various concentrations of the methanolic and butanolic extracts of the plant leaves, and hence the impact on cell viability, proliferation, and cell cycle stages have been investigated. Both extracts of P. juliflora leave induced concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against the previously mentioned cancer cell lines. The calculated IC50 averaged 16.7, 18.04 and, 8.10 g/ml for methanolic extract, and 12.5, 32.8 and 5.17 g/ml for butanolic extract of P. juliflora leaves on MCF-7, LS-174T and, HePG2, respectively. Detailed cellular analyses revealed that the cytotoxic action of P. juliflora extracts was mainly via apoptosis but not necrosis for MCF7 in both extracts, either. However, apoptosis and necrosis reciprocally detected for LS-174T and HePG2 in response to the methanolic and butanolic extracts, either. The DNA-flow cytometry analysis showed cells specific anti-proliferative action and cell cycle stages arrest in the tested cancer cell lines. The antiproliferative action has detected mostly at the G0/G1 rather than the S-phase of the cell cycle in both extracts. For identifying the chemical composition of the plant and evaluating the anticancer potency, both the methanolic and butanolic extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Betaine and nicotinamide were the major constituents detected for both extracts showing potential anti-cancer effects against breast, hepatic, and colorectal cancerous cells.
... The reason behind low crop growth and productivity due to brackish water is actually such increase in salinity and SAR values. These two parameters particularly cause problems such as crust development, poor drainage, low tilth (Abbas et al., 2019;Abdelhafez et al., 2020;Cerdà et al., 2020;Ullah et al., 2020). Such problems due to salinity, directly results in hazardous effects on plant physiology, biochemistry and yield (Akhter et al., 2021). ...
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The continuous use of brackish groundwater for irrigation is detrimental for soil and crop attributes. A three-year research study was designed for the wheat crop to assess the effects of brackish groundwater on crop yield and soil health under a surface irrigation system. Three sites were selected in different cropping zones of Pakistan. The treatments comprised of irrigation with moderately brackish water having 0.8, 1.3 & 2.7 dSm⁻¹ of salinity and canal water. The results indicated that EC, SAR, bicarbonates, Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ levels increased in the soil for consecutive years and this increase was more at site S3 followed by S2 and S1. As soil depth is concerned, the increase was more pronounced in upper layers of soil (0-15 cm) as compared to 15-30 cm depth. Growth and yield were also affected by the consecutive use of this water, the number of plants, plant height, the number of spikes per plant, and yield was reduced at all the three sites. However, the impact was less pronounced at the site S1 whereas S3 was the most affected one. Grain weight and dry matter weight were observed to be maximum at S1. Water productivity was also calculated for all the three sites. Maximum water productivity was observed at S1 followed by S2 & S3. It was concluded that the continuous use of brackish water would have an adverse effect on crop yield and subsequently, soil health is also affected by it significantly.
... The OTs can utilize the leftover contaminated urban land gets contaminated, and but the use of natural vegetation they can accumulate HMs. Abbas et al. (2019) conducted one such study. They reported using Prosopis glandulosa (Common name: Honey mesquite tree) to perform phytoremediation of sewage sludges and sewage-amended soils. ...
Article
Environmental matrices are polluted with the plethora of contaminants, and among these, the concerns related to heavy metals (HMs) are also included. Due to the low cost in a long-term application and environmental friendliness, the use of biological remediation has gained significant attention in recent decades. The use of ornamental plants (OPs) in the field of phytoremediation is scarcely reported, and the impacts of HMs on OPs has also not been investigated in great depth. The OPs mediated HMs remediation can simultaneously remove contaminants and bring improvement in aesthetics of the site. The biomass of OPs produced after such activities can be used and sold as pot plants, cut flowers, essential oils, perfumes, air fresheners production, metal phytomining, and feedstock in silk production. The OPs also present a lower risk of HMs bioaccumulation compared to crop plants. This review focuses on the current knowledge of HMs toxicity to OPs, their applicability advantages, methods to improve the tolerance of OPs with incremented HMs uptake, challenges in the field, and future application perspectives. The practical application of OPs case studies from China, Iran, India, Oman, Pakistan, and Turkey was also discussed. This work fetches the inter-disciplinary features and understanding for the sustainable treatment of HMs in a new novel way, to which no previous review has focused.
... The excess of Na+ concentration in irrigation water leads to an increase adsorbed exchangeable sodium, which may cause dispersion in soil aggregates, blocking pores and reducing the water infiltration [20]. Soil function is generally threatened by increased food demands, human influence, and its activities (such as the continuous irrigation with low quality water), as well as land use and climate change [97,98]. This may lead to physical and chemical degradation processes and negatively affect soil sustainability [99,100]. ...
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Water scarcity and suitable irrigation water management in arid regions represent tangible challenges for sustainable agriculture. The current study aimed to apply multivariate analysis and to develop a simplified water quality assessment using principal component analysis (PCA) and the agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) technique to assess the water quality of the Bahr Mouise canal in El-Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. The proposed methods depended on the monitored water chemical composition (e.g., pH, water electrical conductivity (ECiw), Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , HCO3 − , Cl − , and SO4 2−) during 2019. Based on the supervised classification of satellite images (Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)), the distinguished land use/land cover types around the Bahr Mouise canal were agriculture, urban, and water bodies, while the dominating land use was agriculture. The water quality of the Bahr Mouise canal was classified into two classes based on the application of the irrigation water quality index (IWQI), while the water quality was classified into three classes using the PCA and AHC methods. Temporal variations in water quality were investigated, where the water qualities in winter, autumn, and spring (January, February, March, April, November, and December) were classified as class I (no restrictions) based on IWQI application, and the water salinity, sodicity, and/or alkalinity did not represent limiting factors for irrigation water quality. On the other hand, in the summer season (May, June, July, August, and October), the irrigation water was classified as class II (low restrictions); therefore, irrigation processes during summer may lead to an increase in the alkalinity hazard. The PCA classifications were compared with the IWQI results; the PCA classifications had similar assessment results during the year, except in September, while the water quality was assigned to class II using the PCA method and class I by applying the IWQI. Furthermore, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) around the Bahr Mouise canal over eight months and climatic data assisted in explaining the fluctuations in water quality during 2019 as a result of changing the crop season and agriculture management. Assessments of water quality help to conserve soil, reduce degradation risk, and support decision makers in order to obtain sustainable agriculture, especially under water irrigation scarcity and the limited agricultural land in such an arid region.
... Phytovolatilization is the strategy in certain plant species by transporting the volatile elements (e.g., Hg and Se) to the leaves and further volatizing through stomata (Raskin et al. 1997). Plants featured in the ability to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of HMs in the medium are suitable for phytostabilization (Abbas et al. 2019). On the contrary, phytoextraction is a technology of extracting HMs pollutant from medium by the shoot or any other harvestable part in plants (Liang et al. 2009;Mahar et al. 2016;Abbas et al. 2019;Asgari Lajayer et al. 2019;Li et al. 2019;Rostami and Azhdarpoor 2019). ...
... Plants featured in the ability to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of HMs in the medium are suitable for phytostabilization (Abbas et al. 2019). On the contrary, phytoextraction is a technology of extracting HMs pollutant from medium by the shoot or any other harvestable part in plants (Liang et al. 2009;Mahar et al. 2016;Abbas et al. 2019;Asgari Lajayer et al. 2019;Li et al. 2019;Rostami and Azhdarpoor 2019). Phytoremediation research with multiple species of hyperaccumulators suggested that phytoextraction with some crops featured in low concentration of HMs but high biomass can obtain considerable remediation efficiency Kochian 1997, 1998;Vamerali et al. 2010Vamerali et al. , 2014Liu et al. 2018). ...
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Italian ryegrass (Lolium multifolorum Lam.) has a potential phytoextraction capacity for cadmium (Cd), which is considered as the most toxic heavy metal (HM) pollutant in the farmland. The promotion effect of urea application on Italian ryegrass growth has been clarified, while it is not clear whether and how urea application affects Cd accumulation in Italian ryegrass under Cd stress. A 2-year pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of urea application on Cd accumulation and related mechanisms by uptake inhibition and kinetics experiments. The results showed that both shoot biomass and Cd concentration under Cd stress were increased by up to 213.37% and 84.74% in 2016 and 38.15% and 47.11% in 2017 after urea application, respectively. The shoot Cd accumulation reached maximum value (910.23 and 630.09 μg pot−1 in 2016 and 2017, respectively) at the level of 300 kg ha−1 urea. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly increased by urea application. Compared with control group, urea application significantly improved inhibition ratio of 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP) rather than LaCl3 and Ca2+. Cadmium uptake kinetics experiment showed that urea application significantly decreased the Km value and improved the α value (P < 0.01), but no significant effect on the Vmax value (P > 0.05). In conclusion, we proposed that the higher affinity to Cd2+ of the membrane transporter after urea application promoted the active uptake of Cd, which contributed to the effective Cd accumulation capacity in Italian ryegrass.
... On the other hand, Pb is difficult to be absorbed by plants because its reaction with soil components and forming complexes or chelate and so form insoluble compounds, such as PbCO 3 , PbSO 4 , and Pb(OH) 2 . Many authors reported that Pb is low in mobility, and preferably accumulates in roots rather than the stem of plants(Abbas et al. 2019).Zhou et al. (2008) reported that 79-88% of Pb was mainly distributed in the cell walls and soluble parts of the ribosomes in the roots of Potentilla griffithii var. velutina. ...
Article
Moringa oleifera L. was grown under cadmium and lead stress conditions and the variations in its mineral content, polyphenolics, and antioxidant activities were studied and how these heavy metals affect plant growth and development. In this study, the metal translocation factor was found <1 which indicates more metal accumulation in moringa roots than stem. A significant increase in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities was observed in leaves, stem, and roots under metal stress which shows moringa can withstand under metalliferous conditions by regulating its antioxidant system. Various parts of moringa plants exhibited good nutritional quality; even significant variation was recorded in nutritional attributes. A significant variation was also noted in the expression of polyphenolics in moringa stem, roots, and leaves which are indicators of plant defense system under abiotic stress conditions. The results of the present study clearly manifest that the nutritional quality and concentration of polyphenolics in moringa plants are least affected by cadmium and lead uptake. These findings suggested the cultivation of moringa plants on cadmium and lead affected soils which cannot only remediate soil metalliferous conditions but can also provide nutritious fodder for livestock. For better understanding of the involved mechansisms, there is need to study the genes which are associated with moringa tolerance under metalliferous conditions.
... This tall plant is fast growing with shallow roots, which makes it easy to harvest [33]. Furthermore, other invasive species such as Eichhornia crassipes, Prosopis glandulosa, and Ipomoea carnea have been identified to have potential use in phytoremediation [40][41][42]. ...
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The use of phytoremediation to sustainably recover areas contaminated by toxic heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) has been made feasible since the discovery of hyperaccumulator plants. This study examines the potential of the invasive Impatiens glandulifera for phytoremediation propensity of Cd. In these experiments, the plants were exposed to and tested for Cd accumulation; the propensity to accumulate other heavy metals, such as Zinc, was not investigated. The efficacy of phytoaccumulation was assessed over two trials (Cd concentrations of 20 mg/kg to 150 mg/kg) via examination of bioconcentration factor (BCF), translocation factor (TF), and total removal (TR). Exposure to Cd levels of up to 150 mg/kg in the trials did not affect the biomass of the plants compared to the control. Impatiens glandulifera accumulated cadmium at a rate of 276 to 1562 mg/kgin stems, with BCFs, TFs, and TRs of 64.6 to 236.4, 0.2 to 1.2, and 3.6 to 29.2 mg Cd, respectively. In vitro germination revealed unprecedented germination ability, demonstrating the remarkable hypertolerance of I. glandulifera, with no significant difference in the germination of seedlings exposed to 1000 mg/kg Cd compared to the control. This study also examined the localization of Cd in plant tissues via a histochemical assay using dithizone. The results presented herein suggest that I. glandulifera can act as a hyperaccumulator of Cd for phytoremediation.