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Topology of Feed Forward Model of ANN with input layer, hidden layer and output layer

Topology of Feed Forward Model of ANN with input layer, hidden layer and output layer

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Article
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Fluoride is a naturally occurring element in water systems and enters food chain mostly through drinking water. The WHO permissible limit of fluoride in water is 1.0 mg/l. At < 1.0 mg/l, it inhibits dental caries, at > 1.0 mg/l causes molting of teeth, lesion of endocrine glands, thyroid, liver and other organs. At still higher concentration (3-6 m...

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... (Nagaraj et al., 2020) Biopolymer such as raw chitosan also exhibits a low defluoridation capacity and further modifications of these biopolymer materials with metal impregnation or through composite formation have demonstrated to be effective methodologies for improving the defluoridation performance (Prabhu and Meenakshi, 2015;Ma et al., 2014;Chaudhary et al., 2019). Several natural materials like agricultural wastes Bibi et al., 2017), sawdust Singh et al., 2019), microbial biomass Annadurai et al., 2019), aquatic plants (Karmakar et al., 2018;Upendra et al., 2015) have been utilized for the removal of fluoride removal. However, their practical implementations for the removal of highly contaminated water remain unsuitable. ...
... Though the results were unsatisfactory for on-field operations, such natural sorbents open up the scope for defluoridation using the widely available natural aquatic plants. In another work, the leaves of Ocimum sp. were studied together with finger millet (ragi seed) husk for defluoridation (Upendra et al., 2015). A fluoride concentration of 10 mg/L was treated with 5.5 g/L quantity of each adsorbent (Ocimum leaves and ragi seed husk) for a contact time of 50 min. ...
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Fluoride while beneficial for human health at low concentration shows harmful impacts on skeletal fragility, kidney, nerve damage, etc., if consumed in excess. Several techniques were applied for the removal of excess fluoride from water such as adsorption, membrane separation, ion exchange, precipitation, etc. The selection of a particular technique depends on its specific advantages and disadvantages. These techniques were initially developed at a lab scale and further evolved as pilot plants. Successful pilot plant studies were subsequently developed into community-based applications for fluoride removal. Some of these processes not only removed fluoride but also other unwanted species, namely, phosphate, arsenic, bicarbonates. These plants are extremely popular in various Asian and African countries as they are useful for providing safe drinking water to underprivileged people. In such studies, adsorption was one of the popular methods that employed various adsorbents and the overall cost was about 20 USD/m³. Similarly, precipitation methods like Nalgonda technique were also successfully applied at the cost around 15 USD/m³. Electrocoagulation using aluminium electrode is also a popular method having an operational cost of about 1 USD/m³, whereas equipment cost is substantially high. On the other hand, membrane separation has the highest installation cost of about 800k USD and operational cost of about 0.2 USD/m³. This chapter is specifically discussing about the economics, cost analysis of water defluoridation, and possible applicability.
... MATLAB R2011a software is widely applied by many biotech researchers for process optimization experiments. MATLAB is a versatile programming language that supports a multi-paradigm computing environment [15]. Already, huge potential of the work in isolation, characterization of lovastatin producing fungi and optimization of the SmF processes were available in the literature. ...
Article
he preset study aimed to optimize downstream process (DSP) conditions of fungal derived secondary metabolite named lovastatin for the submerged state fermentation (SmF) cultures of strain Aspergillus terreus-11045. A five factorial central composite design methodology (CCD) of Response Surface design Methodology (RSM) employed to enhance impactful factors of fungal derived lovastatin biosynthesis, i.e Ethyl acetate (200–1000 mL) pH (2.0–10.0), Temperature (30–38oC), Agitation (120–200 rpm), Incubation Time (0.5–2.5 h). The optimized trail of RSM design was validated with artificial neural network (ANN). RSM trail of 750 mL of ethyl acetate, pH 2.0, temperature 38 oC, agitation speed-160 rpm and incubation time-2 h, has conferred higher yield (3.453 mg/g dry matter). ANN validated yield (3.447 mg/g dry mass) was in congruence with the experimental values (3.453 mg/g dry mass) and more than the predicted value-CCD-RSM (3.406 mg/g dry mass). The standardized conditions of the present study reported the lovastatin yield (3.453 mg/g dry mass) approximately by 3.5 times compared to that of (952.7?mg/L) lovastatin reported earlier, similarly the lovastatin yield is 3.5 times higher than the lovastatin yield (0.997 mg/g dry matter) of suboptimal SmF DSP of Aspergillus terreus MTCC-11045. Keyword: Aspergillus terreus; Lovastatin; Downstream process; Response Surface Methodology; Artificial Neural Network.
... The biggest challenge in the bioprocess was providing optimal fermentation conditions for the economically feasible bioprocesses (Upendra et al., 2013). Response surface methodology (RSM) is an effective and convenient method for designing experiments, building models, and screening key factors of process conditions (Kar et al., 2009;Upendra and Khandelwal, 2021;Upendra et al., 2015b). RSM employed with the hybrid artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) will be able to address the nonlinear relationship between the actual and coded factors (Upendra et al., 2014a). ...
... RSM is a pool of mathematical and modeling tools applied in building an experimental model design to analyze the response impact of multivariable process parameters on the overall process yield (Kar et al., 2009;Upendra et al., 2014bUpendra et al., , 2015b. Type of carbon source, type of nitrogen source, pH, temperatures, and agitation of the fermentation process were the most important process parameters influencing the bacteriocin yield (Gautam and Sharma, 2009;. ...
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The present study optimized the submerged fermentation conditions of Pediococcus pentosaceus Sanna 14 culture to improve bacteriocin yield by applying response surface methodology (RSM) and hybrid artificial neural networkgenetic algorithm (ANN-GA). A full factorial central composite design (CCD) of RSM was applied to assess the effect of four principle variables, i.e., pH (4.0–8.0), agitation (120–220 rpm), sucrose (20–40 g/l), and peptone (5–20 g/l), on the yield of bacteriocin. The RSM optimized the experimental results of pH (7.0), agitation (200), sucrose (40 g/l), and peptone (20 g/l), and supported a higher yield (2.4 g/l) of bacteriocin and was validated applying ANN-GA methodology. The RSM bacteriocin yield (2.4 mg/l) was found to match with the ANN-predicted yield (2.4 mg/l). GA results confirmed the genetic fitness of the culture of P. pentosaceus Sanna 14 during fermentation. The present study registered a sixfold increase in bacteriocin yield (2.4 mg/l) compared to the yield (0.4 mg/l) of the unoptimized process conditions.
... Data analysis was carried out by the standard procedure of Plackett-Burman experimental design along with the design expert software (8.0.7.1) 25, 26 . Optimization studies were carried out as a batch experiments based on CCD of RSM as shown in Table 2 within the 250 ml conical flask with the volume of 100 ml as a production media 27,28 . Downstream processing of terreic acid: At the end of fermentation process, pH of the final fermentation broth was measured and adjusted to 2.0 using dilute HCl (1N). ...
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A quinine epoxide called terreic acid a secondary metabolite produced by the fungus Aspergillus terreus, is considered to be the “next generation antibiotic” due to its broad range antibiotic specificity. The antibiotic property of terreic acid was recognized more than 60 years ago. Previously many researchers were attempted different techniques and conditions for obtaining terreic acid. Very scanty research has been carried out on the optimization of SmF process for the production of terreic acid. Mathematical designs and biostatistical tools were never been used in the process optimization studies. In the present investigation, the focus is on optimization of various nutrients factors of Aspergillus terreus MTCC-11395; SmF cultures, namely Dextrose, Sucrose, Starch, Mannitol, Yeast extract, Dried yeast, L-tyrosine, Acetic acid, Malt extract, Sodium nitrate and process parameters such as pH, Agitation (Rpm), Temperature, Inoculum volume, Fermentation time considering, Agar (dummy1), Agarose (dummy2), Mineral oil (dummy3) and Water (dummy4) as a four dummy variables, for enhanced production of terreic acid applying Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The terreic acid in the fermented broth was confirmed by bioassay and estimated through UV spectrophotometry (214nm). PBD identified Sucrose, L-tyrosine, Agitation (rpm) and Inoculum volume were the principal factor influencing the production of terreic acid (0.463 mg/ml). Further, PBD identified principle factors were optimized applying Central Composite Design (CCD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). An optimized medium containing 65 g/L of sucrose, 1 g/L of L-tyrosine, Agitation 180 RPM and 15% of inoculum volume was found to support high yield (0.620 mg/L) of terreic acid under SmF process. Keywords: Aspergillus terreus, terreic acid, Submerged fermentation process, Plackett-Burmann design, Response Surface Methodology, Bioassay
Chapter
One of the adverse environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities is the occurrence of toxic pollutants in freshwater sources. Fluoride is one such persistent pollutant causing serious hazards to living organisms, humans in particular. Ingestion of fluoride in higher concentrations over prolonged durations is said to cause possibilities of dental and skeletal fluorosis and can also lead to lesions of the organs. Unfortunately, above 200 million people worldwide are at the risk of consuming fluoride-contaminated water above the acceptable and tolerable levels. To mitigate such precarious impacts, several physical, chemical, and biological defluoridation techniques have been explored and implemented around the globe. Adsorption is one of the most steadfast techniques employed as it is simple in operation, reliable, and cost-effective. Further, this technique provides a wider choice of material sources known as adsorbents which can be rationally designed to suit the application. To this degree, nature provides a greener choice of several adsorbents which are readily available and do not require high-end synthetic requirements. These green sorbents are inclusive of natural materials, biomaterials, or biosorbents, carbonaceous materials from wastes, agricultural, and industrial by-products. These materials are cheap, eco-friendly, and do not pose secondary toxicity concerns compared to many other synthetic adsorbents. Additionally, these adsorbents can be modified with physical and chemical treatments to enhance their defluoridation performance. This chapter intends to highlight the recent progress made toward the use of naturally available green adsorbents for the adsorption of fluoride ions in an eco-friendly manner.
Article
Fluoride is recognized as one of the global environmental threats because of its non-biodegradable nature and long-term persistence in the environment. This has created the dire need to explore various defluoridation techniques (membrane process, adsorption, precipitation, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrocoagulation). Owing to their cost ineffectiveness and high operational costs, these technologies failed to find any practical utility in fluoride remediation. Comparatively, defluoridation techniques involving the use of low-cost plant-derived adsorbents and fluoride phytoremediators are considered better alternatives. Through this review, an attempt has been made to critically synthesize information about various plant-based bioadsorbents and hyperaccumulators from existing literature. Moreover, mechanisms underlying the fluoride adsorption and accumulation by plants have been thoroughly discussed that will invigorate the researchers to develop novel ideas about process/product modifications to further enhance the removal potential of the adsorbents and plants. Literature survey unravels that various low-cost plant-derived adsorbents have shown their efficacy in defluoridation, yet there is an urgent need to explore their pragmatic application on a commercial scale.
Article
The polluted water sources pose a serious issue concerning the various health hazards they bring along. Due to various uncontrolled anthropogenic and industrial activities, a great number of pollutants have gained entry into the water systems. Among all the emerging contaminants, anionic species such as fluoride cause a major role in polluting the water bodies because of its high reactivity with other elements. The need for water remediation has led the research community to come up with several physicochemical and electrochemical methods to remove fluoride contamination. Among the existing methods, biosorption using bio and modified biomaterials has been extensively studied for defluoridation, as they are cheap, easily available and effectively recyclable when compared to other methods for defluoridation. Adding on, these materials are non-toxic and are safe to use compared to many other synthetic materials that are toxic and require high-cost design requirements. This review focuses on the recent developments made in the defluoridation techniques by biosorption using bio and modified biomaterials and defines the current perspectives of fluoride removal specifically using biomaterials.