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This schematic map of the Arikamedu archaeological site indicates where garnet beads in the form of faceted bicones, typically broken, were found. The arrow indicates the location of the site shown in Figure 6. The inset shows a sign marking the boundary of the Arikamedu site. Photo by J. Panjikar; map after Begley et al. (1996).

This schematic map of the Arikamedu archaeological site indicates where garnet beads in the form of faceted bicones, typically broken, were found. The arrow indicates the location of the site shown in Figure 6. The inset shows a sign marking the boundary of the Arikamedu site. Photo by J. Panjikar; map after Begley et al. (1996).

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The archaeological site of Arikamedu, located in Tamil Nadu State on the east coast of India, was the centre for many centuries of a significant bead-producing industry. Beads were made of both glass and stone, including garnet, but the source of the garnet rough material has not been confirmed. To probe this question, garnet beads found at Arikame...

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... a walk across the site, beginning at the 'French mission house', the guide found various beads on the surface at several places. The locations of these surface finds are shown in Figure 5. Some beads were found in the roots of fallen trees (e.g. Figure 6), while others were seen in the sand along the banks of the Ariyankuppam River. ...

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... ). Durch weitere Arbeiten konnten diese Typen den Abbauregionen Indien, Sri Lanka, Böhmen, Portugal und Schweden zugeordnet werden(z. B. Greiff 1998;Périn et al. 2007; Gilg et al. 2010;Schmetzer et al. 2017; Greiff 2018). Die Ergebnisse sind am besten in einem Ca/Mg-Diagramm darzustellen(Abb. ...
... századforduló vízválasztó időszak a provenienciakutatások számának ugrásszerű növekedése miatt. A műszeres analitikai módszerek fejlődésével és gyarapodásával egyre több külföldi és hazai régészeti gyűjtemény ékköves anyagáról készült archeometriai elemzés (a legfontosabbak : Greiff 1998;Calligaro et al. 2002;Mannerstrand & Lundqvist 2003;Gilg et al. 2010;Horváth & Bendő 2011;Schmetzer et al. 2017;Calligaro & Périn 2019;Pion et al. 2020;Then-Obłuska et al. 2021). A nemzetközi kutatás eredményei alapján az elmúlt évtizedekben folyamatosan fejlődik a régészeti korokban felhasznált gránátok geokémiai (ásványkémiai) meghatározása és osztályozása. ...
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A nagyváradi csüngő különleges tárgy, annak ellenére, hogy típusára, kialakítására nézve nem rendkívüli darab a polikróm ötvösmunkák körében. Ráadásul régészeti kontextusa is ismeretlen, mivel szórványként került elő. Ezt a gránátberakásos aranyékszert sajátos története emeli ki a többi közül, ami több szálon és több idősíkban fut. Előkerülése a régmúlt időkbe nyúlik vissza, amikor az efféle tárgyakra inkább személyes kincsként, mintsem régészeti leletként tekintettek. Ez adhat magyarázatot arra, hogy a tárgy, megtalálását követően, újra használatba került. A csüngő történetéből egy család története bontakozik ki, közel hozva a 19. századi szellemiséget. Az egykori kézműves munkájához pedig egy modern ötvös kapcsolódott, aki a régit újjal kiegészítve egyedülálló alkotást hozott létre. A nagyváradi csüngő személyes tárgy volt, és a régészeti leletek többségével szemben, előkerülése után is az maradt még egy jó ideig. Bár végül múzeumba került, viszonylag kevéssé ismert; nincs kiállítva és alig szerepel a szakirodalomban. Ami pedig korábban megjelent róla, az is átértékelésre szorul. Jelen írásunk ezen az állapoton kíván változtatni, bemutatva és értelmezve a tárgyon elvégzett szisztematikus archeometriai vizsgálat eredményeit. A komplex elemzések segítségével sikerült meghatározni a tárgy anyagi és technológiai jellemzőit: az ékkőberakások gemmológiai és ásványtani sajátosságait, a fémes alapanyag kémiai (elemi) összetételét, a készítés egyes munkafázisait. Az eredmények kiértékelésével olyan alapvető kérdésekben juthattunk előrébb, mint a gránátok eredete, kereskedelme, az arany alapanyag lehetséges előélete, a készítés infrastrukturális háttere, továbbá a tárgy keltezése és kulturális kontextusa. A csüngő azon ritka esetek közé tartozik, amikor az ékkőberakások megmunkálásának módja, technikája korjelző szerepet játszik. Ennek a felismerésnek különösen egy szórvány lelet esetében van régészeti jelentősége. A tárgy ez alapján a hun korban, az 5. század első felében készülhetett, fémes alapanyaga nem származhatott közvetlenül másodlagosan felhasznált római solidus-ból, de részben tartalmazhatott ilyen minőségű aranyat. Jelenlegi ismereteink szerint, eredeti gránátberakásai Srí Lankából, ékkőpótlása pedig a 19. századi Csehországból eredeztethető.
... Provenance studies of the tiny garnet inlays have come into focus since the end of the last century. Thousands of analyses and many field trips in present-day, or at one-time, mine districts facilitated their increasingly detailed geochemical characterisation (recently: Schmetzer et al., 2017;Calligaro and Périn, 2019;Then-Obłuska et al., 2021). The identification and comparison of (mineral and fluid) inclusions and chemical compositions (major, minor and trace elements) with similar datasets of recent geological samples has proved to be the key to the localisation of potential geological sources. ...
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The use of non-destructive and non-invasive analytical methods is widespread in the archaeometric study of metal objects, particularly in the case of precious metal artefacts, from which sampling is not, or in a limited way, allowed due to their high value. In this study, we highlight the main advantages and limitations of non-destructive analytical methods used on three polychrome animal-style silver buckles from the mid-to-late-5th-century Carpathian Basin. Optical microscopic observations, handheld XRF, SEM-EDX and μ-XRD analyses were performed to determine the chemical composition of the metals and their decoration (gilding, garnet and niello inlays), as well as the microtexture and mineralogical composition of the niello, in order to gain a better understanding of the materials used and reconstruct the manufacturing techniques in detail. The buckles were manufactured from relatively high-quality silver derived from the re-use of gilded silver scrap metal and intentionally alloyed with brass or leaded brass. The presence of mercury indicated the use of fire gilding. The niello inlays are composed of mixed silver-copper sulphides, even reaching the composition of pure copper sulphide; this is for the first time, when copper sulphide niello is observed on a silver object. The almandine garnets most probably originate from Southern India and Sri Lanka.
... In recent years, the study of garnet beads and jewellery using compositional analysis has expanded in many areas of Europe and South Asia (e.g. Quast and Schüssler 2000;Gilg et al. 2010;Carter 2016;Schmetzer et al. 2017). In contrast, the region of Northeast Africa has remained largely ignored despite its strategic ...
... The reference garnets from Wadi Abu Dom and Wadi el-Haraz (AD, EH) were analyzed with a JEOL JXA 8800L electron microprobe equipped with a wave-dispersive X-ray spectrometer at the Chair of Geodynamics and Geomaterial Research of the Julius-Maximilians-University of Würzburg (e.g., Schmetzer et al. 2017;Gilg et al. 2018). We used an accelerating voltage of 15kV, a beam current of 20nA, beam diameter of 1μm, counting times of 20 s for peak positions and 20s for the background. ...
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Outstanding garnet beads were found recently in an elite tumulus dated to the fourth century AD and located at the cemetery of Hagar el‐Beida in the Upper Nubian Nile Valley region. Whereas contacts of Northeast Africa with South Asia have just been proven through analysis of glass beads found in Nubia and dating to the time of intensive Indian Ocean trade, scientific evidence for Nubia's link with the regions to the west was lacking. Laser ablation‐inductively coupled plasma‐mass spectrometry (LA‐ICP‐MS) was used to determine the elemental composition of three garnet beads to gain information about their type and origin. Additionally, we analyzed twelve garnets from two nearby alluvial placer deposits. While the garnet beads are inclusion‐free Cr‐poor and Ti‐rich pyropes related to alkaline mafic volcanic rocks, the local garnet deposits are shown to be inclusion‐rich almandines and thus unrelated to the investigated Nubian beads. Detailed comparison of data from Merovingian cloisonné jewellery and all known sources of the Cr‐poor and Ti‐rich pyropes shows identical ranges of elemental contents. The source of raw materials for the beads found in Nubia has been not identified with certainty yet, but sources in Portugal and Nigeria are suggested and a connection is shown to similar garnets from Merovingian contexts.
... The characteristics of inclusions can be identified by Raman microspectroscopy. In garnets, solid inclusions are mostly found in almandines, pyrope-almandines and pyropes, although various inclusions or textures may be observed in other types of garnets as presented in Table 1, depending on the environment of formation and origin [30,31]. Table 1. ...
... Table 1. Commonly recognized solid inclusions in garnets [30,31]. By determining the chemical composition and, in rare cases, even the mineral inclusions of Merovingian Kingdom (mid-5th-7th century AD); gemstones from France, Belgium and South Germany; and five different types of garnets and their probable geographical-geological origin have been possible to be identified to date (e.g., [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]). Two types of almandine, group of garnets with the intermediate composition of pyrope-almandine (also in terms of gemmology-rhodolite or pyraldine, e.g., [5]) and two types of pyrope were determined. ...
... Optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy used in inclusion analysis show that mostly apatite, monazite, zircon, uraninite, xenomorphic Fe-chlorite, and rarely rutile, were present in Type I almandines. On the other hand, for type II almandines, xenomorphic quartz crystals, ilmenite, zircon, uraninite, monazite, rutile needles and sillimanite were identified [4,8,31,32]. The latter might indicate the formation in high metamorphic rocks [31,32]. ...
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Garnets (19 pieces) of Late Antique Sfibulae from the archaeological site at LajhKranj (Slovenia) were analysed with Raman microspectroscopy to obtain their mineral characteristic, including inclusion assemblage. Most garnets were determined as almandines Type I of pyralspite solid solution series; however, three garnets showed a higher Mg, Mn and Ca contents and were determined as almandines Type II. Most significant Raman bands were determined in the range of 169–173 cm−1 (T(X2+)), 346–352 cm−1 (R(SiO4)), 557–559 cm−1 (ν2), 633–637 cm−1 (ν4), 917–919 cm−1 (ν1), and 1042–1045 cm−1 (ν3). Shifting of certain Raman bands toward higher frequencies was the result of an increase of the Mg content in the garnet composition, which also indicates the presence of pyrope end member in solid garnet solutions. Inclusions of apatite, quartz, mica, magnetite, ilmenite, as well as inclusions with pleochroic or radiation halo and tension fissures (zircon), were found in most of the garnets. Rutile and sillimanite were found only in garnets with the highest pyrope content. Spherical inclusions were also observed in two garnets, which may indicate the presence of melt or gas residues. The determined inclusion assemblage indicates the formation of garnets during medium- to high-grade metamorphism of amphibolite or granulite facies. According to earlier investigations of the garnets from Late Antique jewellery, the investigated garnets are believed to originate from India.
... Garnets. In attempting to identify the origin of the garnets, the authors referred to the classification of Gilg et al. (2010) and Schmetzer et al. (2017). These authors classified ancient Greek, Roman, and Early Medieval garnet-bearing jewels according to five main type clusters, based on their chemical composition, and related to this the calculated percentages of the different pure end members of the pyralspite and ugrandite garnets as well as their chromium and yttrium content. ...
... These authors classified ancient Greek, Roman, and Early Medieval garnet-bearing jewels according to five main type clusters, based on their chemical composition, and related to this the calculated percentages of the different pure end members of the pyralspite and ugrandite garnets as well as their chromium and yttrium content. Raman peak positions and chemical signatures (a major almandine component with relatively high Y concentration) indicate that almost all of the garnets set in the talisman correspond to cluster A (historical garnets originating from southern India or Sri Lanka in the Middle Ages) as described by Gilg et al. (2010) and Schmetzer et al. (2017). We therefore assume they originated from southern India or Ceylon. ...