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Thermal conductivity values of the cotton and cotton/polyester fabrics.  

Thermal conductivity values of the cotton and cotton/polyester fabrics.  

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This study focused on assessing the thermal comfort properties of the fabrics incorporating microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) under steady-state condition. Air permeability and water vapor permeability of the fabrics were also investigated. Poly(methyl methacrylate)/n-hexadecane microcapsules were applied to the cotton and cotton...

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... Benzer şekilde, mikrokapsüllenmiş FDM uygulaması sonucunda da lifli yapıya dahil edilen mikrokapsüllerin yapısı ve aplikasyon koşullarına bağlı olarak kumaşın termofizyolojik konfor ile ilişkili su emme ve transfer özellikleri değişmektedir. Literatürde, faz değiştiren madde uygulanmış kumaşların termal özelliklerinin ve dokunsal konfor ile ilgili kumaş fiziksel ve mekanik özelliklerinin araştırılması ile ilgili çalışmalar mevcuttur [10,11,16,22,23]. Ancak, mikrokapsül uygulanmış kumaşların fonksiyonel özellikleri [24,25] ve transfer özelliklerinin araştırıldığı çalışmalar sınırlı sayıdadır [11,22,[26][27][28]. ...
... Literatürde, faz değiştiren madde uygulanmış kumaşların termal özelliklerinin ve dokunsal konfor ile ilgili kumaş fiziksel ve mekanik özelliklerinin araştırılması ile ilgili çalışmalar mevcuttur [10,11,16,22,23]. Ancak, mikrokapsül uygulanmış kumaşların fonksiyonel özellikleri [24,25] ve transfer özelliklerinin araştırıldığı çalışmalar sınırlı sayıdadır [11,22,[26][27][28]. Mikrokapsüllenmiş FDM içeren kumaşların transfer özelliklerinin araştırıldığı çalışmalarda kumaşların hava ve su buharı geçirgenliğinin azaldığı ve bunun kumaş gözeneklerinin mikrokapsül parçacıkları ile doldurulmasından kaynaklandığı belirtilmiştir. ...
... Mikrokapsüllenmiş FDM içeren kumaşların transfer özelliklerinin araştırıldığı çalışmalarda kumaşların hava ve su buharı geçirgenliğinin azaldığı ve bunun kumaş gözeneklerinin mikrokapsül parçacıkları ile doldurulmasından kaynaklandığı belirtilmiştir. Ancak kumaşların nem tutma kapasitesinin mikrokapsül duvar polimerinin ve mikrokapsül aplikasyonu sırasında kullanılan binderin hidrofilik karakteri ile ilişkili olarak artma eğilimi sergileyebileceği ortaya konulmuştur [11,22]. Mikrokapsül aplikasyonu ile kumaş fonksiyonel özelliklerinin geliştirilmesi üzerine yapılan araştırmalarda, kompleks koaservasyon metodu ile üretilen, jelatin/sodyum alginat duvarı, n-eykosan (FDM) çekirdekli, duvar yapısına nanokil takviye edilen mikrokapsüllerin duvar yapısının termal direncinin arttığı ve mikrokapsüllerin pamuklu kumaşların güç tutuşurluk özelliklerini geliştirdiği ortaya konulmuştur [24]. ...
... [1][2][3] The properties of fibers and yarns, the structure of fabrics and the finishing treatments to which they are subjected influence the measurement of the thermal and permeability properties of the materials. [3][4][5] Thermal conductivity, resistance and absorptivity are parameters that measure the thermal comfort of textiles. The concept of hot-cold sensation at first contact with the surface was first pointed by Kawabata and Akagi, 6 and, later, objectified by Hes and Dolezal,7 who introduced the quantification of this property, which they called "thermal absorptivity". ...
... The finished samples, when compared with the untreated cotton samples, presented higher conductivity and absorptivity and lower thermal resistance, modifying their properties. This type of influence had also been described by Alay et al., 5 Onofrei et al., 39 Abreu et al. 41 ...
... Yi Wang [22] had successfully prepared PMMA encapsulated eicosanoic-stearic acid (EA-SA) eutectic nanocapsules by ultraviolet photo-initiated emulsion polymerization with the average diameter of the primary particle of 46 nm and the maximum encapsulation ratio of 68.8 wt.%. Sarı [23] and Alay [24] had ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 3 separately synthesized PMMA/n-heptadecane microcapsules via an emulsion polymerization method under a stirring speed of 2000 rpm in a nitrogen atmosphere. At present, the reason for many research works focusing on PMMA as the shell [25] is due to its moderate properties, such as corrosion resistant, acceptable cost, non-toxic, hydrophilic and excellent mechanical strength. ...
Article
A simple one-step interfacial polymerization method without special requirements for fabrication of [email protected] polymethyl methacrylate ([email protected])nanocapsules is developed. Moreover, all the raw materials are cheap, innocuous and rich in resource. The influences of the mass ratio of methyl methacrylate/Paraffin (MMA/PCM)and stirring speed are studied. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC)and Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA)are employed to characterize the as-prepared [email protected] nanocapsules. Nano-encapsulated PCM could be successfully obtained under the stirring speed of 800 rpm for 2.5 h. The surface of the spherical nano-encapsulated PCMs is homogeneous, smooth and compact, and the particle size is in the range of 200–400 nm. The nano-encapsulated PCM are stable and reliable with the melting enthalpy of about 64.93 J/g and crystallization enthalpy of about 66.45 J/g. TGA results indicate that the nano-encapsulated PCM degraded in three steps and have good thermal stability with the content of the PCM about 52.95%. The [email protected] nanocapsules could be promising for thermal energy storage application.
... The more octadecane was added, the less air permeability. Thus, water vapor permeability and air permeability of fabrics were found to be lower when octadecane concentration was higher, and this result is in accordance with the previous study (Alay, Alkan, & Göde, 2012). This is because many open spaces were covered due to the microcapsules after octadecane treatment. ...
Article
This study examined how the heat storage property and the heat release property of three different PCM (Phase Change Material) treatment concentrations of combat uniform fabrics affected microclimate inside clothing after the octadecane-treated fabrics were made into garments. Three combat uniforms were constructed with fabrics treated by three different octadecane concentrations (0, 8, and 16%) at the same curing temperature of 113.6 °C. The thermal properties of the octadecane-treated fabrics were acquired by using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) analysis. Also, water vapor and air permeability were measured before the thermal comfort of the octadecane-treated combat uniforms was evaluated. And then, a thermal manikin was used to measure skin temperature, skin humidity, and microclimate temperature, while the chamber was set at various environmental temperatures (0, 0–35, 35, and 35–0 °C). And, to analyze the differences among skin temperature, skin humidity, and microclimate temperature of the garments according to the three different octadecane concentrations, ANOVA and a post hoc test were conducted. As a result, heat of fusion and heat of crystallization (ΔHf and ΔHc) were observed to increase as the octadecane concentration increased. The 8% octadecane-treated fabrics had 3.56 J/g of ΔHf, 3.80 J/g of ΔHc, and the 16% octadecane-treated fabrics had 7.46 J/g of ΔHf, 7.44 J/g of ΔHc. Also, the more octadecane was added, the less water vapor and air permeability had the fabrics because many open spaces were covered due to the microcapsules after octadecane treatment. It might influence on clothing microclimate. However, the 8% octadecane-treated garment (G1) exhibited less differential skin temperature and humidity and clothing microclimate temperature than the 16% octadecane-treated garment (G2) even though the octadecane concentration was lower. It means that the 8% octadecane-treated garment exhibited better thermal performance than the 16% octadecane-treated garment. This is because the higher octadecane concentration caused the fabric to become stiffer, thereby causing the still air layer to decrease the thermal insulation efficiency and the octadecane treatment was not affected. It differed from the result of the thermal properties (ΔHf and ΔHc) of the octadecane-treated fabrics. The reason for this result is that when the thermal manikin wore the octadecane-treated garments, various factors had effects on thermal properties such as environmental aspects, physiological aspects, and clothing aspects.
... They reported that distribution of MPCM in fibrous substrate and position of PCMs layer in garments has significant effect on thermoregulating behaviour of the garments. Alay et al [28] studied the thermal conductivity and thermal resistance of fabrics containing MPCM under steady state conditions. Yoo et al [29] developed four layered garment treated with nanosilver nonadecane PCM and studied the thermoregulating properties with the effects of number and position of fabric layers. ...
Article
Phase change materials (PCMs) provide thermal management solution to textiles for the protection of wearer from extreme weather conditions. PCMs are the substances which can store or release a large amount of energy in the form of latent heat at certain melting temperature. This research reports the heat transfer property of multifilament yarn incorporated with microencapsulated PCM (MPCM) using finite element method under ABAQUS environment. The results of simulation after post processing have been validated against experimental values which were tested through Differential Scanning Calorimetry. It shows a strong correlation between the predicted and experimental results. The time dependent thermoregulating effect of yarns containing different amount of PCMs has been predicted based on the validated finite element model.
... Several methods that are recognised as cheap and technically feasible have been used in the micro or nano encapsulation of paraffins by different polymerisation ways, such as complex coacervation (Malekipirbazari et al., 2014), in situ polymerisation (Boh et al., 2005), interfacial poly-condensation (Tseng et al., 2005) and emulsion or miniemulsion (Alay et al., 2012). Among these, emulsion method has been greatly attracted owing to its being simple, low-cost, and ecofriendly and making possible to obtain repeatable results and stable products with micro and even nano-size (Yang et al., 2003;Alay et al., 2011b) . ...
Article
In this study, PMMA/heneicosane (C21) and PMMA/octacosane (C28) micro-nano capsules were fabricated via emulsion polymerisation method. The chemical structures of the fabricated capsules were verified with the FT-IR spectroscopy analysis. The results of POM, SEM and PSD analysis indicated that most of the capsules were consisted of micro/nano-sized spheres with compact surface. The DSC measurements showed that the capsules had melting temperature in the range of about 39-60 °C and latent heat energy storage capacity in the range of about 138-152 J/g. The results of TGA showed that sublimit temperature values regarding the first degradation steps of both capsules were quite over the phase change or working temperatures of encapsulated paraffins. The thermal cycling test exhibited that the capsules had good thermal reliability and chemical stability. Additionally, the prepared capsules had reasonably high thermal conductivity.
... PCMs have been applied to the textiles in a variety of processes. Coating (Choi, Cho, Kim, & Cho, 2004;Kim & Cho, 2002;Kim & Kim, 2005;Önder, Sarıer, & Çimen, 2008;Palanikkumaran, Gupta, Agrawal, & Jassal, 2009;Sánchez, Sánchez-Fernandez, Romero, Rodríguez, & Sánchez-Silva, 2010;Zuckerman, Pushaw, Perry, & Wyner, 2001), padding (Alay, Alkan, & Göde, 2011, 2012Oliveira, Fernandes, Carneiro, & Souto, 2013;Salaün, Devaux, Bourbigot, & Rumeau, 2010;Shin, Yoo, & Son, 2005a), fiber spinning (Meng & Hu, 2008;Mengjin, Xiaoqing, Jianjun, & Guangdou, 2008;Zhang, Wang, Tao, & Yick, 2006) are some of the convenient processes to incorporate PCMs into textile structures. ...
... Statistical analysis results ( Table 2) also indicated that the effect of microcapsule and softener applications on air permeability was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Microcapsule and softener treatments fill the pores of the fabrics and hence lead to a decrease in the air permeability (Alay, Alkan, & Göde, 2012;Li, Song, Hua, Man Au, & Wong, 2013;Salaün et al., 2010;Shin, Yoo, & Son, 2005b). Untreated fabric had the highest air permeability values while Cotton4 fabric treated with highest concentration of microcapsules (150 g/L) had the lowest values. ...
Article
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In this study, it was focused on the investigation of comfort-related properties of the fabrics treated with microcapsules containing phase change materials (PCMs microcapsules). There are limited findings about the effect of prepared PCM microcapsules on fabric properties related with the tactile comfort. In this work, we applied our produced microcapsules to the cotton fabrics and researched these fabrics’ tactile comfort-related properties such as bending rigidity, drape, fabric–fabric friction, and tenacity. One of the outstanding properties of our microcapsules is reactive carboxylic acid groups on their wall. They have the ability to bind to the fabrics in terms of their reactive chemical groups. Microcapsules on the fabrics can be durable to the effects of the rubbing and repeated washings. The fabric test results indicated that air permeability, bending rigidity, tensile strength decrease with the microcapsule treatment, whereas the fabric drape and coefficient of friction of the fabrics increase depending on the amount of microcapsules added on the fabric.
... Besides, the use of EPCM helps dramatically to solve the problems mentioned above; it provides some advantages ordered as [19][20][21][22][23]: (i) lessening the reactivity of PCM with its close environment, (ii) expanding the heat transfer area, (iii) preventing the leakage problem of PCM during its phase changing from solid to liquid, and (iv) resisting against the volume change of PCM. Therefore, in recent decades, the utility of EPCMs have drawn attention in the preparation of thermal regulating fabric [24][25][26][27][28][29], foam [30,31], building [32][33][34][35] and electronic materials [36]. Recent investigations have been generally focused on the development of a cheap and technically feasible process to be used in the fabrication of organic EPCMs. ...
... Raj et al. (2009) estimated the total thermo-physiological comfort based on the fabric parameter. Alay et al. (2012) established that thermal resistance increases with the fabric thickness. Certainly the heat transfer coefficient of the fabric, especially the thermal resistance and perspiration transfer through the fabric have a strong influence on the thermo-physiological comfort of fabric. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach to evaluate the thermal comfort index of fabrics by considering four decision criteria of fabric parameters such as cover, thickness, areal density (GSM) and porosity. The weight or relative importance of each criterion is decided by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method of MCDM has been used to rank different types of cotton fabrics in terms of their thermal comfort level. The ranking of fabrics by this method yields a reasonable degree of agreement with the ranking based on thermal resistance value.
... However, not only are the characteristics of the microcapsules are important but also the way in which they are added to the fabrics is crucial. For this purpose several methods have been proposed and used, 55,56 such as integration of the capsules into a coating, 3,8,10,57 printing, 58 impregnation, padding or exhausting bath, 4,5,15,18,22,33,55 and grafting of the microcapsules to the fabrics with chemical links 25,35,36 among others. 19,[26][27][28]59 The prepared polysulfone capsules are used for providing antibacterial and aromatic properties to fabrics. ...