Fig 1 - uploaded by Mo Yee Lee
Content may be subject to copyright.
The yin–yang symbol (tajitu)  

The yin–yang symbol (tajitu)  

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary trends in clinical practice are moving more toward an integrative approach that views the mind, the body and the spirit as inter-connected entities. There is an increasing interest in approaches that utilize physical, cognitive, emotional and spiritual components in assessment and treatment. This paper presents an integrative body–mind...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... and stillness, are reflec- tions of two fundamental forces, the yin and the yang. The yin and the yang are neither good nor evil but reflect the intertwined duality of all things in nature. Their relation- ship is graphically represented in the yin-yang symbol, or taijitu, with the light color representing the yin and the dark the yang (see Fig. 1). The boundary between the two is depicted by a curving line which represents the moving and changing nature of the two forces. The small circles that appear in the opposite region further illustrate the dynamic interplay and intricate balance of the yin-yang pair, dem- onstrating that each contains a part of the other. Applied to the ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Interdisciplinary study in neurobiology, liberation psychology, and social work highlight the ways in which the brain is related to various cognitive, personality, and behavioral characteristics within a cultural context by blurring lines between dimensions, such as nature and nurture, person and environment, and micro and macro. This paper conside...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the author researched his clinical practice in a community mental health center with six parental couples whose latency-aged children suffered from prevalent separation anxiety disorder symptoms. Through thematic analysis of the anamnestic process recordings of 53 parent sessions, the author's speculation on the effectiveness of the...
Article
Full-text available
p>Veterans and military personnel may be at higher risk for developing addictions due to increased prevalence rates of co-occurring mental health disorders including posttraumatic stress and substance abuse disorders. However, clinicians may feel unprepared to assess and to treat these co-occurring disorders, especially when it includes a behaviora...

Citations

... As for individuals' intervention, this philosophy enlightens social workers to think from clients' perspectives, and help clients know more about themselves by analyzing their needs, capacities, characteristics, and circumstances to better locate clients' problems (Tsang, 2013). Moreover, social workers should integrate clients in the surrounding environment and further ascertain how individual problems are caused between them and their surroundings (P Leung et al., 2009). Particularly, a fusion of perspectives between social workers and clients can strengthen the hermeneutic understanding of clients' situations, as it breaks problematic positivist knowledge frameworks that overlook the value relativism in human interactions and emphasizes social workers' positive value involvement in client intervention (Y Ho and Yuen, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
How China’s social work can establish its own epistemology has remained largely unexplored. This article focuses on Confucianism, Taoism, and Chinese Buddhism to start this epistemological exploration, as they represent Chinese culture and can provide valuable epistemological elements for China’s social work. Moving beyond epistemological elements from these philosophies, how social workers in China can further develop social work research and practice based on the unique Chinese context is also discussed, specifically through the processes of indigenization and authentization of epistemology in China’s social work. Limitations and future research directions are also presented to guide future discussion.
... For instance, Zhong drew from numerous Confucian concepts, such as ren ( 仁 , benevolence) and xiao ( 孝 , filial piety), to guide social work practices. Huang (2011) and Leung et al. (2009) achieved some success in integrating Daoist concepts. For example, wuwei ( 无为 ) can be translated as the doctrine of inaction-non-intervention in the nature of things or of matters-and is also expressed in body--mind--spirit approaches that adopt holistic perspectives from Daoism to incorporate physical, cognitive, emotional and spiritual components in social work assessment and treatment. ...
Article
Recently, virtue ethics has been increasingly considered as one of the most appropriate alternative ethical frameworks for youth social work internationally and in China. Extant literature has the tendency to emphasise cultural difference and neglect the universality of (virtue) ethics; instead, this article aims to inspire a balanced theoretical conversation on similarities between western (Foucauldian) and Chinese virtue ethics (mainly classical Confucianism and Daoism) supported by examples from case studies. Three areas are addressed: (i) similarities in the interior (personal) dimension and the exterior (relational) dimension of the self; (ii) the situational and universal features of virtue ethics, and the need for a reflective approach to balance both; and (iii) ethical cultivation of the reflective approach. These key themes add to a body of knowledge for the development of a virtue ethics framework for Chinese youth social work.
... They suggested that human beings are not only biological, social, psychological beings but also spiritual beings that are intimately connected and inseparable (Leung et al., 2009). ...
Thesis
Integrating the ecological model and the wellness theory, this study investigated the relationship between depressive symptoms and personal factors (hopelessness, body image, social problem solving, emotional competence, life meaning, equanimity), peer factor (peer alienation) and family factor (childhood abuse and trauma) among college students in Hong Kong. Adopting a cross-sectional survey design, a total of 786 self-administered questionnaires based on convenience sampling (male= 67.2 %, female= 32.8%) were collected from eight youth colleges on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon and the New Territories. Among them, 352 (44.8%) respondents reported having depressive symptoms (The Beck Depression Inventory scores 14 or above). The participants, with a mean age of 19.16, were Year 1 and Year 3 diploma students in the youth colleges in Hong Kong. Analysis shows that college students with special education needs had a significantly higher level of depressive symptoms. Pearson correlation analysis shows that social problem solving and equanimity were negatively related to college student's depressive symptoms. At the same time, childhood abuse and trauma, peer alienation, and hopelessness were positively related to the student's depressive symptoms. The mediation models, sequential mediation model, and moderated mediation models were tested in the study. In the mediation models, results show that peer alienation and hopelessness mediated the relation between the experience of childhood abuse and trauma and depressive symptoms independently. In the sequential mediation model, peer alienation and hopelessness sequentially mediated the relation between the experience of childhood abuse and trauma and depressive symptoms. In the moderated mediation model, social problem solving, and i equanimity moderated the indirect relation between the experience of childhood abuse and trauma and depressive symptoms via hopelessness and the sequential mediating effect of peer alienation and hopelessness. The theoretical implications of the findings are that social problem solving, equanimity, childhood abuse and trauma, peer alienation, hopelessness can be considered as crucial building blocks in the models of college students' depressive symptoms. Practically speaking, to reduce the tendency for depressive symptoms among abused adolescents, it is important to strengthen peer relationships, reduce peer alienation, alleviate hopelessness, prevent childhood abuse and trauma, enhance social problem abilities, promote equanimity, and prevent mental health problems with reference to the integrated ecological and wellness model, which is proven to be important for reducing a tendency for depressive symptoms among abused adolescents. More longitudinal research with multiple informants, such as parents and teachers, is called for to explain how wellness factors may comprise additional moderation and mediating effects for the relationship between abused adolescents and their development.
... This integrated Eastern health practices with meaning-making and body techniques (C. L. W. ; C. L. W. Chan & Yan, 2015;Leung & Chan, 2015; M. Y. Lee et al., 2018;Leung et al., 2009) provided a set of physical exercises that lead to explicit articulation in spiritual transformation through suffering and pain under a meaningoriented framework (C. L. W. ; C. L. W. Chan & Ho, 2012;Tang et al., 2007). ...
Article
Objectives This randomized controlled trial evaluated the effects of a psychosocial intervention developed based on the Integrative Body-Mind-Spirit (IBMS) model that aimed to enhance the well-being of parents of children with eczema. Methods Ninety-one families were randomly allocated to either the six-session intervention group ( n = 48) or the wait-list control group ( n = 43) and completed the randomized trial. For both groups, a range of psychosocial outcome measures were taken before the intervention (T 0 ), postintervention (T 1 ), and 6 weeks after the intervention (T 2 ). Results Relative to the control group, the intervention group was significantly improved over time in their levels of perceived stress, depression, and a number of holistic well-being measures, including nonattachment, afflictive ideation, and general vitality. Discussion The results provided empirical support for an IBMS-informed psychosocial intervention in reducing stress and depression and enhancing well-being among parents of children with eczema.
... (Mona,female,57) Mindfulness allows a conscious observation of moment-to-moment experiences of body, mind and soul without evaluation or critique. Practicing non-judgmental awareness enhances the ability to accept how life unfolds and to free the mind from negative states to finally experience enlightenment (Leung, Chan, Ng, & Lee, 2009). Increased mindfulness and consciousness also help consumers to finally free themselves from persistent social roles as Michalea explains: ...
Article
Consumers increasingly seek out the spiritual to enlighten their inner emptiness and find their inner selves. We add a physiological, embodied perspective, which has been commonly overlooked in extant research as a valuable opportunity for individual consumer spirituality. Interpretative investigation of body-transforming consumers uncovers a powerful reincarnation process that eventually leads to the self-renewal and reunion of body and mind. We find that the consumption of body-transforming substances initiates a mindful, spiritual consumer journey allowing consumers to actively develop and experience their inner spirituality through recurring cycles of reduction, reflection and release. These findings allow us to develop implications for a broader understanding of consumer spirituality where the active consumer seeks unity in the self and beyond.
... This could be achieved by using a psychosocial training program for the parent-child dyad dealing with eczema, which is underpinned by the Integrative Body-Mind-Spirit (IBMS) model. IBMS emphasizes holistic well-being and harmony between physical health, emotion, and spirituality (Chan & Chow, 2001;Chan, Ng, Ho, & Chow, 2006;Leung, Chan, Ng, & Lee, 2009). Previous research studies suggest that IBMS can empower participants to discover their self-healing capability, increase coping flexibility, re-establish positive attitude, reduce stress and anxiety, and improve QoL especially for people with chronic disease (Chan et al., 2012;Chan & Fung, 2018;Chan et al., 2016;Chan & Yan, 2015;Chan, Yao, Fung, Ji, & Chan, 2017;Leung & Chan, 2015;Sreevani et al., 2013). ...
Article
Purpose: Eczema is a pediatric skin disease that affects the psychosocial well-being of both children and their parent caregivers. This paper outlines a protocol for an experimental study that evaluates the effectiveness of a psychosocial empowerment program for children with eczema and their parent caregivers. Method: A multi-center randomized controlled trial is proposed, where parent-child dyads are randomized into two arms: an intervention group and wait-list control group. The intervention is delivered to participants in a parallel group format based on the Integrative Body-Mind-Spirit model which focuses on holistic well-being. Quality of life is measured before and after the intervention is provided, and five weeks after the intervention has been completed. Discussion: The suggested model fills a research gap in existing interventions, and provides new knowledge by evaluating the effectiveness of a tailored psychosocial intervention, delivered in group settings, for parent-child dyads affected by eczema.
... A multicomponent holistic health group intervention, which is founded on an Eastern approach to health care, 26,27 has recently been developed to meet the special needs of Chinese people with neurocognitive disorders, 28 with the following characteristics. First, this approach emphasizes holistic care needs (ie, the biopsychosocial-spiritual health of individuals) rather than only targeting the cognitive decline. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Persons with mild cognitive impairment (PwMCI) are at a higher risk of developing dementia than those without cognitive impairment. This research study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a holistic health group intervention, which is based on the holistic brain health approach as well as an Eastern approach to health care, on improving the cognitive ability of Chinese PwMCI. Research methods In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), 38 Chinese PwMCI were randomly assigned to either a 10-session holistic health intervention group or the control group. The holistic health treatment group attempted to promote the acceptance of their illness, enhance memory and coping skills, develop a positive lifestyle, maintain positive emotions, and facilitate emotional support among participants. The 10-session holistic health group intervention was structured, with each session conducted once per week and ~90 minutes in length. Control group patients and their family caregivers received standardized basic educational materials that provided basic information on cognitive decline for them to read at home. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test was used to assess the cognitive ability of PwMCI in the pre- and posttreatment periods by a research assistant who was blind to the group assignment of the participants. Results The paired-samples t-test indicated that the treatment group (n=18) showed significant improvement in the MoCA score, whereas the control group (n=20) did not. Moreover, 2×2 (group × time) repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that the holistic health group treatment was significantly more effective than the control intervention in improving the MoCA score, with a moderate effect size, and improving the delayed recall (ie, short-term memory), with a strong effect size, after controlling for age, sex, education, and marital status. Conclusion This present RCT provides evidence to support the feasibility and effectiveness of the holistic health group intervention in improving the cognitive and short-term memory abilities of PwMCI.
... Given the influence of traditional Chinese cultural values and Chinese medicine, Chinese people generally have a holistic view towards illness whereby body, mind and spirit as forming a dynamic and inter-connected system. (Leung et al. 2009). From this perspective, Chinese people tend to be concerned about the adverse effects of mental illness on the whole person, including physical distress, difficulties and discomfort, rather than solely focusing on psychiatric symptoms. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aims to determine the reliability and validity of a 24-item Recovery Assessment Scale for Cantonese speakers (RAS-C) in the Chinese cultural context. The original English version of the RAS was translated into the RAS-C by means of forward and backward translation procedures. AThe cross-sectional research design adopted involving 295 participants randomly drawn from a population of Chinese Cantonese speaking consumers with mental illness who have been participating in community-based mental health services. The RAS-C has demonstrated high reliability with Cronbach’s alpha = .92. The RAS-C also shows significant and positive correlations with measures on the stage of recovery, self-esteem and quality of life of the service consumers. An explorative factor analysis of the RAS-C yielded five factors that were consistent with previous research results. The present study confirms the reliability and validity of the RAS-C. The RAS-C can facilitate the development of interventions that are effective in promoting the recovery of consumers in Chinese communities.
... There is an increasing interest in approaches that utilize cognitive, physical, emotional, and spiritual components in assessment and treatment [48]. A number of studies have also appeared in the professional literature advocating for the inclusion of spirituality in both social work education and practice [49,48,50]. ...
... There is an increasing interest in approaches that utilize cognitive, physical, emotional, and spiritual components in assessment and treatment [48]. A number of studies have also appeared in the professional literature advocating for the inclusion of spirituality in both social work education and practice [49,48,50]. The focus on including the teaching of spirituality and religion in the curricula is deemed as necessary, as religion plays a central part in Egyptian culture. ...
... Lee and colleagues criticize contemporary clinical social work practice as employing dualist thinking to conceptualize the person as one "who has distinctively separate and interrelated cognitive, behavioral, and affective domains, but not as a holistic and connected being" ( Lee et al., 2009: p. xxvii). In the tendency to compartmentalize the person in terms of cognition, behavior, and affect, different therapeutic interventions assume the linearity of change enabled by specific therapeutic techniques suggested by respective theories-e.g., the emphasis on intrapsychic forces in psychoanalysis, thoughts in cognitive theories, and observable behaviors in behavioral theories ( Chan et al., 2002;Lee et al., 2009;Leung et al., 2009). Informed by Eastern philosophies and postmodern thinking, alternative helping strategies are gaining momentum in the purview of clinical social work practices. ...
... Informed by Eastern philosophies and postmodern thinking, alternative helping strategies are gaining momentum in the purview of clinical social work practices. These alternative approaches view the mind, the body, and the spirit as interconnected entities, and take a holistic and preventive view of a person's problem in the project of helping ( Chan et al., 2002;Henderson, 2000;Lee et al., 2009;Leung et al., 2009;Weick, 1987). The influence of Eastern philosophies is apparent in this holistic approach to achieve harmony within the person. ...
... The influence of Eastern philosophies is apparent in this holistic approach to achieve harmony within the person. Transcending the Western body-mind duality, the yin-yang perspective in Taoism sees personal wellness as a harmonious interplay between the body-mind-spirit components of a person ( Chan et al., 2002;Lee et al., 2009;Leung et al., 2009). Believing that seemingly opposite forces are in fact complementary, the criterion for well-being is not the possession of any one attribute or characteristic, but the presence of a dynamic balance between diverse forces ( Lee et al., 2009). ...
Article
Although harmony is not a popular catchphrase in the social work literature, the philosophical tenets associated with the notion of harmony underpin the mission and vision of the social work profession. This article will identify the philosophical tenets in the notion of harmony, and the ways that the relational, personal, and ecocentric arena of harmony is manifested in social work practice.